DSM's 3 major types of sexual disorders
1. Gender Identity Disorders
-sense of self as of the male or female sex = gender
-anatomy and gender not in concert
-sexual attraction to an unusual object or activity
3. Sexual dysfunctions
-sexual performance or arousal difficulties
Gender Identity Disorder
= a strong and persistent cross-gender identification
-not just a desire for any perceived cultural advantage of being the other sex
-not a result of an intersex condition (hermaphrodite)
-diagnosis involves 2 criteria that differ by age
A. desire to be the opposite sex
B. discomfort with his or her sex
=sexual attraction is to unusual objects or sexual activities that are unusual in nature.
Fetishism and Transvestic fetishism
Etiology of the Paraphilias
view paraphilias as defensive, guarding the ego from dealing with repressed fears and representing fixations at pregenital stages of psychosexual development.
Therapies for the Paraphilias
Involuntary commitment to mental hospitals
Court-ordered into treatment
Social skills training
Alternative behavior competition
Drugs to lower testosterone
=range of sexual problems that are considered to represent inhibitions in the normal sexual response cycle.
-persistent and recurrent, and cause marked distress or interpersonal problems
Human Sexual Response Cycle
(1) appetitive (sexual desire),
(2) excitement (sexual pleasure and accompanying physiologic changes such as tumescence),
(3) orgasm (the peak of sexual pleasure),
(4) resolution (relaxation following orgasm).
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder,
Sexual aversion disorder
Female sexual arousal disorder
Male erectile disorder.
Female orgasmic disorder (inhibited orgasm)
Male orgasmic disorder (inhibited orgasm)
General Theories of Sexual Dysfunctions
Masters and Johnson
-the adoption of a spectator role
-fears of performance
-excessive intake of alcohol,
-partner/ marital conflict
-the meaning of a sexual problem for a person (including secondary gain),
-lack of knowledge or skill,
-poor communication between partners,
-fear of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases.
Behavioral Therapies for Sexual Dysfunctions
Masters and Johnson's pioneering treatment work
- intensive two week program
-FIRST a ban on sexual activity and a discussion of the couple's sexual value system.
-SECOND sensate focus, or pleasurable touching without intercourse, begins, and couples are encouraged to communicate their desires to their partner.
-THIRD specific instructions for approaching intercourse are given, according to particular dysfunctions.
Behavioral Therapies for Sexual Dysfunctions Continued
Other techniques used by sex therapists:
(hormones, anti-anxiety, anti-depressant, implants, vacuum pump ,Viagra)