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Magalhães, W.F. & Bailey-Brock, J.H. A new species of Protocirrineris (Polychaeta: Cirratulidae) from Hawaii including a redescription of the New Zealand Protocirrineris nuchalis. New Zealand Journal of Zoology in press. 

   Protocirrineris mascaratus sp. nov., is described from intertidal reef flats in Oahu, Hawaii. It is unique among its congeners by the segmental origin of the feeding tentacles and branchiae in addition to the very distinct methyl green staining pattern on the anterior end. A redescription of Protocirrineris nuchalis based on syntypes and a comparative table of all valid species within Protocirrineris are also presented.  

Magalhães, W.F. & Bailey-Brock, J.H. 2013. Bitentaculate Cirratulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the northwestern Pacific Islands with description of nine new species. Zootaxa 3630(1):80–116.  

    Thirteen cirratulid species from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall Islands are described. Nine species are new to science: Aphelochaeta arizonae sp. nov., Aphelochaeta honouliuli sp. nov., Caulleriella cordiformia sp. nov., Chaetozone michellae sp. nov., Chaetozone ronaldi sp. nov., Monticellina anterobranchiata sp. nov., Monticellina hanaumaensis sp. nov., and Tharyx tumulosa sp. nov., from Oahu, Hawaii and Aphelochaeta saipanensis sp. nov., from Saipan in the Mariana Islands. Dodecaceria fewkesi and Monticellina nr. cryptica are newly recorded from the Hawaiian Islands. Dodecaceria laddi is widely distributed in the western Pacific and material collected from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall islands is described. We provide SEM photographs for all species in addition to line drawings and methyl green staining pattern photographs for the new species.  

Bailey-Brock, J.H. & Magalhães, W.F. 2013. New records of Hydroides (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from Guam, Mariana Islands. Marine Biodiversity Records 6(e39):1–7. click for PDF

    Three species of the serpulid genus Hydroides are described and illustrated herein. Hydroides bannerorum and H. albiceps are newly recorded to Guam in the Mariana Islands. Hydroides perezi is also described and illustrated from specimens collected in Pago Bay. We provide notes on the opercular ontogenetic variation of H. albiceps to help clarify possible confusions with opercula of similar taxa.  

Magalhães, W.F. & Bailey-Brock, J.H. 2012. Capitellidae Grube, 1862 (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Hawaiian Islands with description of two new species. Zootaxa 3581:1–52.  

    A survey of the capitellids from the Hawaiian Islands has yielded 16 species in seven genera, most represent new records and two species are newly described, Notodasus dasybranchoides sp. nov. and Scyphoproctus edmondsoni sp. nov. The species Capitella minima, Capitellethus cinctus and Scyphoproctus pullielloides are the most common and widely distributed capitellids in Hawaii, present in subtidal sediments surrounding outfall diffusers and also at reference locations. The species Mediomastus californiensis and Capitella giardi may have been introduced to Oahu from different sources, the former is abundant in soft sediments of Honolulu and Pearl Harbors and the latter is found associated with commercial oysters in muddy ponds. The genera Branchiocapitella and Pulliella are considered herein as synonyms of Capitella and Scyphoproctus, respectively. This paper is the first comprehensive study of the Hawaiian capitellids and all species are described and illustrated with line drawings, color and SEM photographs. A key to all 16 capitellid species found in shallow waters from the main Hawaiian islands is provided.  

Magalhães, W.F., Bailey-Brock, J.H. & Rizzo, A.E. 2012. Lacydonia quadrioculata, a new lacydoniid (Polychaeta: Phyllodocida) from Oahu, Hawaii. Zootaxa 3589:65–76.  

    A new species of the genus Lacydonia is described from shallow waters off Oahu, Hawaii. This species is unique among its congeners by the presence of two pairs of small eyes; other lacydoniids may have either one pair of large or small eyes or no eyes at all. The description of Lacydonia quadrioculata sp. nov., brings the number of valid species within Lacydonia to 10 but the taxonomy of this genus is still confusing as most species are very similar morphologically and the majority of the descriptions are based merely on the single type or very few specimens. We discuss the relevance of some taxonomic characters used in species-level descriptions and provide a comparative table with selected characters of all valid species.

Magalhães, W.F. & Rizzo, A.E. 2012. Glyceridae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Guam, Mariana Islands with description of a new species of Glycera Savigny in Lamarck, 1818. Zootaxa 3338:60–68.

    Glycera juliae sp. nov., is described from shallow water sediments within Apra Harbor, Guam, Mariana Islands. This species is characterized by the presence of ailerons with rounded triangular base; proboscideal papillae of type 1 mainly digitiform with straight, median, longitudinal ridge and type 2 shorter and broader, oval to globular, without ridges; two slender triangular to digitiform prechaetal lobes, notopodial lobe slightly shorter than neuropodial lobe, two short postchaetal lobes, rounded anteriorly with posterior notopodial lobe becoming sub-triangular and longer than rounded neuropodial lobe; branchiae present, retractile, simple digitiform attached medially on anterior side of parapodia and a dark brown pigmentation forming transverse bands on prostomium and body segments. It is most similar to Glycera nicobarica and G. macintoshi by the shape of parapodial structures but also shares similarities with Glycera sphyrabrancha, G. branchiopoda, G. guatemalensis, G. semibranchiopoda and G. southeastatlantica by the shape and types of proboscidial papillae, differing on the shape of the ailerons, parapodial lobes and presence of branchiae. The occurrence of Glycera tesselata is confirmed for Guam and specimens are described and illustrated with SEM photographs.

Bailey-Brock, J.H. & Magalhães, W.F. 2012. A new species and record of Serpulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Cross Seamount in the Hawaiian Chain. Zootaxa 3192:49–58.

    A new species of the serpulid genus Metavermilia Bush, 1905 and a new record of the genus Omphalopomopsis Saint-Joseph, 1894 are described from deep-sea lava rocks collected from 2,013 m at Cross Seamount, southwest of the Hawaii archipelago. Metavermilia zibrowii sp. nov., differs from its congeners mostly by the presence of a simple and concave operculum, extent of the thoracic membrane and tube morphology. Omphalopomopsis langerhansii (Marenzeller, 1885) is the type species of the genus and it is only known through its type specimen. This species is characterized by a simple operculum with a shallow convex calcareous endplate, cylindrical peduncle, presence of Apomatus chaetae and high number of teeth in the thoracic uncini. This is the first record of this species outside the type locality and both genera are newly recorded for the Hawaiian Islands. 

Magalhães, W.F. & Bailey-Brock, J.H. 2012. A new species of Acrocirrus Grube, 1872 (Polychaeta: Acrocirridae) from Coconut Island, Oahu, Hawaii. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 92(5):1019–1022.

    A new species of Acrocirrus is described from shallow waters of Coconut Island in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Acrocirrus bansei sp. nov. is an Acrocirrus whose segment 13 (chaetiger 11) is modified and equipped with a heavy neuropodial acicular hook. This new species is most similar to A. frontifilis based on the presence of notopodial cirri, which have been, up to now, a unique feature of A. frontifilis. The species differ most notably by the absence of the notopodial cirri on the posterior chaetigers. A key to all recognized species of Acrocirrus is presented.

Bailey-Brock, J.H., Magalhães, W.F. & Brock, R.E. 2012. Coral reef inhabiting tubeworms (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from Enewetak, Kwajalein, Rongelap and Utirik Atolls, Marshall Islands. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 92(5):967–988.

    The coral reef inhabiting tubeworms from the Marshall Islands have been studied by few authors mainly by samplings in Enewetak Atoll. We report several new records of serpuline and spirorbine tubeworms from Enewetak Atoll as well as from Kwajalein, Utirik and Rongelap Atolls. Twenty-one species of Serpulinae and seven species of Spirorbinae are described and illustrated with line drawings, colour and/or scanning electron microscopy photographs. Neodexiospira turrita nom. nov. is proposed to replace Neodexiospira preacuta. Enewetak Atoll still represents the most species-rich atoll in the Marshall Islands but this is most likely the result of a greater sampling effort in this atoll for the last few decades.

Kupriyanova, E. K., Bailey-Brock, J.H. & Nishi, E. 2011. New records of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) collected by R/V “Vityaz” from bathyal and abyssal depths of the Pacific Ocean. Zootaxa 2871:43–60. 

    The diversity of bathyal and abyssal marine organisms is still poorly known and this is especially true for tubicolous polychaetes of the family Serpulidae, the common inhabitants of subtidal and shelf locations. We report herein new records of poorly known deep-sea (mostly below 2000 m) serpulids collected in the Pacific Ocean by early Soviet Oceanographic expeditions onboard R/V “Vityaz”. The following species were found: Bathyditrupa hovei, Bathyvermilia challengeri, Beliasoni, B. zibrowiusi, Filogranula stellata, Hyalopomatus jirkovi, and H. sikorski at the depths of 1600–6330 m. Many samples collected by R/V “Vityaz” and other Russian research vessels are still unstudied and apparently many bathyal and abyssal serpulid species new to science remain undescribed. The diversity of abyssal marine organisms remains poorly known not only because of the obvious logistical difficulties in collecting at abyssal localities, but also in part due to the lack of taxonomic effort directed towards existing research collections.

Magalhães, W.F., Bailey-Brock, J.H. & Barrett, B.M. 2011. A new species of Sphaerephesia (Polychaeta: Sphaerodoridae) from Mamala Bay, south shore of Oahu, Hawaii. Zootaxa 2903:39–47.

    A new species of Sphaerephesia is described from Mamala Bay, south shore of Oahu, Hawaii. Sphaerephesia mamalaensis sp. nov., differs from its congeners by the absence of microtubercles and number and arrangement of body and parapodial papillae. This species is commonly found in low abundance in shallow (20 m) and deep–waters (500 m) adjacent to ocean outfall diffusers or dredge dump sites and has been resilient to the waste water treatment plume of the outfalls for the last 25 years. A comparative table with morphological characteristics of all seven recognized species of Sphaerephesia is provided.

Magalhães, W.F., Bailey-Brock, J.H. & Davenport, J. 2011. On the genus Raphidrilus Monticelli, 1910 (Polychaeta: Ctenodrilidae) with description of two new species. Zootaxa 2804:1–14.

    Raphidrilus harperi sp. nov., is described from the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) in Venice, Florida from sediments consisting of coarse sands and shell hash. Raphidrilus hawaiiensis sp. nov., is described from Oahu’s shallow waters and inhabits a successful invasive alga in Waikiki and sandy sediments adjacent to ocean outfalls in Barbers Point and Sand Island, off Honolulu. The genus Raphidrilus is emended, the distinctness between the genera Raricirrus and Raphidrilus is confirmed and keys to all recognized genera of Ctenodrilidae and species of Raphidrilus are given.

Nishi, E., Bailey-Brock, J.H., dos Santos, A.S., Tachikawa, H., Kupriyanova, E. 2010. Sabellaria isumiensis n. sp. (Annelida: Polychaeta: Sabellariidae) from shallow water off Onjuko, Boso Peninsula, Japan, and re-description of three Indo-West Pacific sabellariid species. Zootaxa 2680:1–25.

    A new species of the genus Sabellaria Lamarck, 1812, is described from shallow waters off Onjuku, the Pacific side of Boso Peninsula, Chiba, Japan. Sabellaria isumiensis n. sp. is a gregarious species building colonies of tubes made of sand and shell debris over 2 m wide in the intertidal to subtidal zone of the rocky shores. The new species is distinguished by the character combination of having 1 or 2 pairs of nuchal spines, median teeth of outer paleae with 3–5 lateral spines, two kinds (long and short) of opercular paleae in the middle row of the crown, with slender blades of long ones curved outward. Morphological features of the species are described in detail s and compared to those of congeners from Japan and world-wide. We re-describe three poorly known sabellariid species, Sabellaria javanica Augener, 1934 from Java, Indonesia, S. chandraae de Silva, 1961 from Galle Force, Sri Lanka, and Neosabellaria uschakovi Kirtley, 1994 from the Far Eastern Seas of Russia. The descriptions are based on the type specimens, and we particularly emphasize the head morphology and paleal characters. We provide a summary of diagnostic characters in the genus Sabellaria and propose new morphological groupings that later will be tested in the framework of a formal phylogenetic analysis.

Magalhães, W.F., Bailey-Brock, J.H. 2010. Redescription of Cirriformia crassicollis (Kinberg, 1866) and Timarete hawaiensis (Hartman, 1956) new combination, (Polychaeta: Cirratulidae), endemic polychaetes to the Hawaiian Islands. Zootaxa 2625:53–62.

Bailey-Brock, J.H., Magalhães, W.F. 2010. Udotea argentea (Bryopsidales: Udoteacea), a new record for the Hawaiian Islands. Marine Biodiversity Records 3(e63):1–4.

    Udotea argentea, a broadly distributed Indo-Pacific seaweed, has been collected for the first time on the south coast of Oahu, Hawaii. The habit and anatomical features are illustrated and the possible ecological impact to the native benthic community is discussed.

Bailey-Brock J.H., Jouin-Toulmond, C., Brock, R.E. 2010. Protodrilidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Hawaiian Islands and comparison with specimens from French Polynesia. Pacific Science 64:463–472.

    Three species of Protodrilidae were collected from the islands of O'ahu and Ni'ihau in the Hawaiian chain, including specimens closely resembling Parenterodrilus taenioides (Jouin, 1979), described from Mo‘orea (French Polynesia). Others are probably an undescribed species of Parenterodrilus that was found in fine sand substrate collected off Wai‘anae, O‘ahu. A third species, Protodrilus albicans Jouin, 1970, described from Banyuls-sur-Mer (Mediterranean Sea) and recorded from Mo'orea and Tahiti as well, was also collected from O'ahu. Depths and habitat characteristics are given for these new records to the Hawaiian fauna. It is suggested that the wide geographical distribution of the different “cosmopolitan species” of Protodrilidae is related both to the dispersal by free-swimming larvae and to the ancient origin of this interstitial fauna.

Nishi, E., Hickman Jr., C. P., Bailey-Brock, J.H. 2009. Chaetopterus and Mesochaetopterus (Polychaeta: Chaetopteridae) from the Galapagos Islands, with descriptions of four new species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 158:239–259.  

    We provide descriptions of five species of Chaetopterus and two species of Mesochaetopterus (Annelida: Polychaeta: Chaetopteridae) based on collections during 2001–2007 and observations from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Chaetopterus galapagensis sp. nov. is a large (ca. 18 cm long) worm that inhabits a U-shaped tube in soft sand substrates. It is characterized by 12–14 chaetigers in the anterior region and 7–8 teeth on uncini of region A neuropodia. Chaetopterus charlesdarwinii sp. nov. is of intermediate size (2 – 4.5 cm long) with 9 anterior region chaetigers and a characteristic brown band on the lateral side of the ventral shield and posterior side of anterior region notopodia. It inhabits irregularly curved tubes cemented to the underside of rocks. Worms may occur singly or aggregated, with up to 10 worms in a cluster. Chaetopterus aduncus sp. nov. is 8–10 cm in length, and is characterized by 10 – 11 anterior region chaetigers, characteristic J-shaped tube with one blind end, and prominent dorsal bulbous inflations in anterior region chaetigers. Chaetopterus longipes Crossland, 1904 is highly gregarious, frequently forming aggregations of hundreds of worms. It is especially common at the northern islands of Darwin and Wolf. Chaetopterus macropus Schmarda, 1861 is solitary, lives in a U-shaped tube on a sandy bottom, has 9 anterior region chaetigers and no brown bands in region-A. We compared the five Galapagos Chaetopterus species to other Pacific (Japanese and Australian) species of the genus in detail. We confirm the presence of Mesochaetopterus minutus Potts, 1914 in Galapagos, the only chaetopterid previously recorded from the archipelago. Mesochaetopterus ecuadorica sp. nov. is a large (12 – 20 cm long) solitary species with 2 middle region chaetigers, that inhabits a long, nearly straight tube with small perforations at the blind end.

Lin, D.T., Bailey-Brock, J.H. 2008. Partial recovery of infaunal communities during a fallow period at an open-ocean aquaculture operation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 371:65–72. click for PDF

    Open-ocean or offshore aquaculture has attracted recent controversy for its potential environmental impacts and proposed expansion in the USA. Organic enrichment of benthic marine communities has been documented extensively under nearshore fish farms - primarily from fish feces and feed pellets - but relatively few studies have examined the effects of deeper, offshore operations. In this study, we investigate the effects of a 6 mo non-operational fallow period on benthic invertebrate communities surrounding a commercial offshore fish farm. Polychaete species diversity and community structure were analyzed at distant reference sites and farm-adjacent affected sites before, during and after the fallow period. The relative abundances of 3 polychaete indicator species for organic enrichment were also analyzed. During the fallow period, community structure at affected sites became more similar to communities at distant reference sites. Additionally, the sudden disappearance of enrichment indicator species at previously affected sites during the fallow period further suggests the beginnings of a recovery. However, species diversity did not increase significantly during the fallow period, indicating that the affected communities had not been fully restored to pre-culture or distant reference conditions. This study demonstrates the potential environmental benefits of scheduled fallow periods or crop rotations in offshore aquaculture.

Bailey-Brock, J.H., Krause, E.R. 2008. Grey's Beach infauna study of source dredge sand off Waikiki. WRRC University of Hawaii at Manoa. 2009–1.


Fukunaga, A., Bailey-Brock, J.H. 2008. Benthic infaunal communities around two artificial reefs in Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Marine Environmental Research 65:250–263. click for PDF

    Non-fishery use of artificial reefs has been given attention in recent years. The primary concern associated with non-fishery artificial reefs is their effects to the surrounding ecosystems. This study examined the infaunal communities around two non-fishery artificial reefs (the sunken vessels YO257 and Sea Tiger) in Mamala Bay, Hawaii. Infaunal community structures at these artificial reefs were relatively similar to one at a nearly natural patch reef. A large amount of basalt gravel around YO257 associated with its deployment operation possibly had an effect on the surrounding community by increasing pore space. Polychaete assemblages were compared with existing data throughout the bay, and this revealed that the variation in sediment grain sizes and depths seemed to play some role in structuring the polychaete communities. Nevertheless, the infaunal communities around the artificial reefs were typical and within the range of natural variation in Mamala Bay, supporting their beneficial uses in ecotourism.

Bailey-Brock, J.H., Brock, R., Kam, A., Fukunaga, A. & Akiyama, H. 2007. Anthropogenic disturbance on shallow cryptofaunal communities in a Marine Life Conservation District on Oahu, Hawai‘i. International Review of Hydrobiology 92(3):291–300. click for PDF

    Cryptic invertebrate communities in coral rubble and sand from Hanauma Bay, a Marine Life Conservation District, were analyzed. Substratum samples were collected from the shallow bench and sand channels next to the beach and the cryptofauna were examined. Sand from the shallows (0.6 m deep) is frequently trampled by beach users and has a depauperate community dominated by a polychaete (Saccocirrus alanhongi) and a variety of nematodes (mean no. taxa = 12, mean no. individuals = 1,143 (0.1 m-²), but sand collected 25 m seaward from below trampling depths (3 m), showed significantly greater diversity (mean no. taxa = 46, mean no. individuals = 6,448 (0.1m-²). Coralline rubble from 0.5 m depth was acid-dissolved to extract the cryptofauna that was trapped on 0.5 and 0.25 sieves. In total, 102 taxa and 10,673 individual invertebrates (0.1m-²) were found. Rubble collected from areas used by waders had a greater diversity than sand habitats. This substratum provides a greater variety of microhabitats and protection from trampling for endolithic fauna than sand. Waders may actively avoid rubble because of the discomfort from walking on this hard, uneven substratum. We found that despite enforced protective measures, i.e., stopping fishing and collection of marine life, banning fish feeding, and limiting the number of visitors, disturbance by human trampling on shallow sands still reduces the species richness in these areas. Cryptic biota below wading depth, and from adjacent coral rubble on sand, are not similarly affected. These results are similar to those from another heavily used beach on Oahu and cryptofauna ecology may be useful to adopt as a management option for Marine Preserves in other locations.


Bailey-Brock, J.H., Krause, E.R. 2007. Benthic infaunal communities adjacent to the sewage outfalls at Agana and Northern District, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, 2005–2007. 73 pp. WRRC-2007-01

Bailey-Brock, J.H., Kirtey, D.W., Nishi, E. & Pohler, S. M.J. 2007. Neosabellaria vitiensis, n. sp. (Annelida: Polychaeta: Sabellariiae), from Shallow Water of Suva Harbor, Fiji. Pacific Science 61(3):399–406. 

    A new species of the genus Neosabellaria Kirtley, 1994, is described from shallow-water locations of Suva Harbor, Fiji. Neosabellaria vitensis Bailey-Brock, Kirtley, Nishi, & Pohler, n. sp., is a gregarious sabellariid; its tubes are constructed of sand and shell debris and form small "reefs" exposed during low tides. The new species is distinguished by the structure of opercular paleae in the middle row, which are shoe-shaped with circular tips, and paleae in the outer row, which have distal lateral teeth and denticulate median plum. Detailed morphological features of the new species are described and compared with other Pacific sabellariid species, particularly with most closely related N. clandestina (Menon & Sareen, 1966). Neosabellaria vitiensis is endemic to the Fiji Islands.

Salazar-Vallejo, S.I., Bailey-Brock, J.H. & Dreyer, J.C. 2007. Revision of Pseudexogone Augener, 1922 (Annelida, Polychaeta, Syllidae), and its transfer to Pilargidae. Zoosystema 29(3):1–19.

    Pseudexogone Augener, 1922, with P. backstromi Augener, 1922 as the type and only species, has been regarded as a member of the family Syllidae. It was questionably placed in the Syllidae in the description and apparently some morphological features were confused. The type material is lost. In this contribution: 1) Pseudexogone is redefined with the apparent autapomorphy of having curved, bidentate notospines; 2) Pseudexogone is transferred to the Pilargidae, closely allied to Synelmis Chamberlin, 1919; 3) those species described identified as Synlemis dineti Katzmann, Laubier & Ramos, 1974, are regarded as members of Pseudexogone; and 4) additional species from several localities are described. Specimens were studies by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Besides the type species, four other species are distinguished by using the presence of eyes and type of furcated chaetae: P. dineti n. comb., from the Mediterranean and northeastern Atlantic Ocean; P. helmuti n. sp. From the southern Indian Ocean; P. imaginai n. sp., from the western pacific Ocean; and P. williamsae n. sp., from the eastern Pacific Ocean. A key is included to identify all species in the genus.


Bybee, D.R., Bailey-Brock, J.H., & Tamaru, C. 2006. Larval development of Sabellastarte spectabilis (Grube, 1878) (Polychaeta: Sabellidae) in Hawaiian waters. Scientia Marina 2006:279–286. 

    The sabellid polychaete Sabellastarte spectabilis is common in bays and harbors throughout Hawaii. It has become one of the most harvested marine ornamental species in the State. Collection can be difficult and potentially damaging to the reef community. Understanding the reproduction and life history of this polychaete will benefit the marine ornamental trade by facilitating aquaculture of the species and coral reef conservation by decreasing destructive collecting practices. There is very little known about the biology of this species. Experiments were conducted at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology in induce and document spawning and larval development. Oocytes range between 150-200 µm in diameter and sperm have spherical heads. Cell division in fertilized eggs begins approximately twenty minutes after spawning. Developmental stages were documented using light and scanning electron microscopy. Swimming larvae are first seen 7-8 h after spawning. Larvae have a well-developed prototroch and a less conspicuous neurotroch and metatroch. Two chaetigers develop sequentially on days 6-8. This is the first reported induction of spawning and description of larval development from fertilized egg to settlement and metamorphosis from this species.

Bybee, D.R., Bailey-Brock, J.H., & Tamaru, C. 2006. Evidence for sequential hermaphroditism in Sabellastarte spectabliis (Polychaeta: Sabellidae) in Hawai‘i. Pacific Science 60(4):541–547.

    Understanding the reproductive characteristics of Sabellastarte spectabilis (Grube, 1878), an economically important polychaete worm collected for the aquarium trade, is essential to the development of artificial propagation and conservation of coral reefs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether S. spectabilis is hermaphroditic. Using histological techniques, 180 individuals were examined for gametes. Gametes were present only in abdominal segments. Primary oocytes were 7-8 u in diameter in histologically prepared slides. Sperm appeared as round black dots about 2 u in diameter on histologically prepared slides. Most individuals sampled had only one type of gamete in the coelom, but both eggs and sperm were seen in the coelom of 15% of individuals, demonstrating the occurrence of hermaphrodism in Hawaiian populations of S. spectabilis. The sex ratio of male to females was skewed significantly toward males in both the small (6-8 mm diameter) and medium (9-10 mm diameter) sized worms. Among the largest worms (11-13 mm diameter), the sex ratio did not diverge significantly from 1:1. There was a significantly higher proportion of hermaphrodites (30%) in the large size class. Worms of unknown gender, although present in all size classes examined, were most frequent (33%) in the medium size class. These patterns are consistent with sequential (protandrous) hermaphrodism.


Bybee, D.R., Bailey-Brock, J.H., & Tamaru, C. 2006. Gametogenesis and spawning periodicity in the fan worm Sabellastarte spectabilis (Polychaeta: Sabellidae). Marine Biology 151(2):639–648.

    The sabellid polychaete Sabellastarte spectabilis (Grube 1878) was collected at approximately monthly intervals from January 2002 to December 2003 from intertidal and subtidal reefs near the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology in Kane'ohe Bay, Hawaii, USA (21°N, 157°W). Gametogenesis and spawning periodicity were investigated using histological techniques and induction of spawning trials. Worms were characterized into four discrete reproductive stages based on histological evidence: (1) No evidence of reproductive activity in the coelom (sex cannot be determined), (2) Only coelomocytes present in the coelom (sex cannot be determined), (3) Some gametes present in the coelom (sex can be determined) and (4) Coelom densely packed with gametes (sex can be determined). The small hermaphroditic portion of the population was not used in the study. Stage 4 worms were present over an extended period of time (females, March-December and males, March-November) indicating a potentially broad reproductive season. No correlation between day length and maturation stages in S. spectabliis was detected. However, the statistical model Y= ([394.26 × X] - [7.793 × X²]) - 4960.781 where Y the % frequency of Stage 4 worms and X the mean monthly water temperature explained 44% of the variation between water temperature and % frequency of Stage 4 worms. Maturation appeared to coincide with water temperatures of 24-25°C (March–September) after which there is a reduction in the % frequency of stage 4 individuals. Induction of spawning trials conducted between May and January showed the month of October with a significantly higher percent success than any other month investigated. According to all available information (e.g., natural spawning in water tables, histological data, induction of spawning trials, correlation of maturation stages with observed changes in average monthly water temperature.), there is an apparent peak in reproductive activity (spawning) within a broad maturational season, which may be influenced by water temperature.

Lee, H. W., J. H. Bailey-Brock & M. M. McGurr. 2006. Temporal changes in the polychaete infaunal community surrounding a Hawaiian mariculture operation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 307:175–185. click for PDF

    Benthic monitoring efforts in the vicinity of a Pacific Threadfin, Polydactylis sexfilis, mariculture venture have allowed us to examine eutrophic effects on the infaunal community. Polychaete infaunal communities from two sites near the point source were compared to two Control stations beyond the range of fish feed and wastes. Regression analysis indicated significant decreases in Shannon-Weiner diversity over time and near the effluent source. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) showed a progression of species succession and turnover at Impacted sites but relatively unchanging polychaete communities at Control sites. An analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) indicated significant differences between community structures at Impacted and Control sites but less obvious differences over time. An abundant and regionally widespread polychaete Pionosyllis heterocirrata had disappeared from Impacted sites. Increasing abundances of two opportunistic polychaetes, Capitella capitata (complex) and Ophryotrocha adherens resulted in decreasing Shannon-Weiner diversity values (H′) at Impacted stations. Expanding populations of C. capitata and O. adherens seem to be preceded by high densities of Myriochele oculata. These three species may represent an order of succession due to attrition by anoxia in Hawaiian waters. Deviation of the infaunal polychaete community at Impacted sites resulting from the appearance of polychaete pollution indicators, low species richness resulting from the disappearance of ambient polychaete species and depressed community abundance reflect the effects of fish mariculture on the benthic community. Such effects may be diluted by the open ocean location on the south shore of O‘ahu, Hawai‘i.

Tamaru, C., Bybee, D.R., Bailey-Brock, J.H., Ziemann, D., Ogawa, T. 2006. Developing techniques for the artificial propagation of the feather-duster worm (Sabellastarte spectabilis) in Hawaii. Aqua Tips 17:4–6. 

Barrett, B. M. & J. H. Bailey-Brock. 2005. Progoniada oahuensis, a new species from Oahu, Hawaii (Annelida: Polychaeata: Goniadidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 118:251–258.

    A new species of Progoniada is described. This is the third species in the genus and the first known from the Hawaiian Islands. It differs from the two previously known species in having two compound falcigerous chaetae, jaws with 5 teeth in the ventral arc, proboscis papillae of two types, and compound falcigers with blades less than half the length of the spiniger blades. Distribution in Hawaiian waters is from 34 and 70 meters at sewage outfalls and at disposal dump sites off Oahu at 397 and 502 meter depths.

Erseus, C., O. Giere, J. Dreyer & J. H. Bailey-Brock. 2005. A new marine species of Tubificoides (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) from Hawaii, U.S.A. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 118:264–269. 

    Tubificoides calvescentis is described from subtidal sediments near a sewage outfall at Sand Island, off Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii. It is characterized by hair chaetae being restricted to reclitellar segments, small atria and spermathecae, and smooth, cylindrical, cuticular penis sheaths. Tubificoides bakeri Brinkhurst, 1985, known from the West coast of North America, appears to be closely related to the new species; its male genitalia are virtually identical to those of T. calvescentis. However, T. bakeri does not possess distinct cuticular papillae, which are evident in T. calvescnetis, and it has more numerous chaetae and more slender spermatozeugmata than those of the new species. The paper also provides a nomenclaturally updated list of all marine oliogochaetes reported from Hawaii.

Dreyer, J., J. H. Bailey-Brock & S. A. McCarthy. 2005. The immediate effects of Hurricane Iniki on intertidal fauna on the south shore of O'ahu. Marine Environmental Research 59: 367–380. 

    When Hurricane Iniki struck the Hawaiian Islands in September 1992, it provided a rare opportunity to examine the immediate effects of a hurricane on two intertidal benthic communities off the reefs of O‘ahu, Hawai‘i. The Niu Beach site contained large, obvious aggregations of the tube building polychaete Diopatra dexiognatha, and the Wailupe Beach site was without obvious tubiculous fauna at the surface. Ten replicate sediment cores were taken before and after the hurricane with a 7.6 cm PVC corer and organisms were identified to family and enumerated. There were no substantial depletions or loss of taxa after the hurricane. Oligochaetes were the most dominant taxa pre-and post-hurricane. The abundance of all dominant polychaete families increased post-hurricane. The three most abundant polychaetes were capitellids and D. dexiognatha (Onuphidae) at Niu Beach and Pygospio muscularis (Spionidae) at Wailupe Beach. We suggest that D. dexiognatha and P. muscularis help stabilize the sediments since they both form dense tube mats while capitellids and oligochaetes are considered highly adaptive surface burrowers that can take advantage of newly disturbed sediments. Overall, there was no substantial effect observed on the intertidal fauna exposed to this severe disturbance. It is suggested here that invertebrate communities in this area are adapted to survive and thrive in high-energy environments and possibly benefit from dense aggregations of tube building polychaetes.


Bybee, D. R., J. H. Bailey-Brock & C. S. Tamaru. 2004. Larval Development of Sabellastrate spectabilis in Kaneohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i, USA. Eighth International Polychaete Conference.

Lee, H. W., J. H. Bailey-Brock & M. M. McGurr. 2004. Population dynamics of two opportunistic polychaetes at organic effluent sources in Hawai'i. Eighth International Polychaete Conference.

Keating, B., Whelan, F., Bailey-Brock, J.H. 2004. Tsunami deposits at Queen’s Beach, Oahu, Hawaii-initial results and wave modeling. Science of Tsunami Hazards. 22 (1): 23-43 

Bailey-Brock, J. H., M. M. McGurr, D. R. Bybee & H. W. Lee. 2003. Impacts of Open Ocean Mariculture of Pacific Threadfin, (Polydactylus sexfilis, moi) on the Benthos off O'ahu, Hawai'i. World Aquaculture Conference, Brazil.

Bybee, D.R. & J. H. Bailey-Brock. 2003. Effects of a Hawaiian Open Ocean fish Culture System on the Benthic Community. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States.

    Experimental rearing of Pacific Threadfin or moi (Polydactylus sexfilis) in an open ocean cage off O'ahu, Hawai'i, required benthic community studies for state water quality permits. Sediment samples were collected and processed using EPA approved methods to extract the infauna, and taxa were identified and enumerated. The experiment comprised two studies, Phase I with 70,000 fish and Phase II with 130,000 fish. Phase I showed no significant difference in any of the taxonomic groups except for an increase in two polychaetes, Ophrytrocha adherens (Dorvilleidae) and Capitella capitata (Capitellidae) in the sand under the fish cage. Phase II results were very similar to Phase I results. Peaks in the abundance of O. adherens and C. capitata in Phase II occurred much later in the experiment and (for O. adherens) at lower levels despite the fact that fish density and feed amounts had nearly doubled. It was concluded that less feed waste reached the bottom due to improvements in both feeding regimes and apparatus (feed-catch tray) unique to Phase II. After fish were harvested from the cage, both O. adherens and C. capitata populations returned to previous numeric levels. Because of their sensitivity to environmental conditions and an opportunistic lifestyle, O. adherens and C. capitata are possible indicator species of organic enrichment which, in this case, appears to be favorable to both species. Conclusions are that the benthic invertebrate community was not negatively affected as shown by the lack of consistently significant change in abundance among non-polychaetes, comparable polychaete species richness at both sites, and the return of O. adherens and C. capitata to pre-culture levels in less than two months after feeding was terminated.

Bailey-Brock, J. H., J. Dreyer & R. E. Brock. 2003. Three New Species of Saccocirrus (Polychaeta: Saccocirridae) from Hawai'i. Pacific Science 57(4):463–47.

    Three new species of saccocirrids from interstitial sand habitats off O'ahu, Hawai'i, are described. Two are from subtidal depths, 9-33 m, and the third is from the intertidal to 3.5 m deep on a fringing reef and at Hanauma Bay, the Marine Life Conservation District and public park. The two deeper-water species, Saccocirrus oahuensis, n. sp. and S. waianaensis, n. sp., have 76-119 and 157-210 segments, respectively; they also have bilateral gonads but lack a pharyngeal pad. The third, S. alanhongi, n. sp., has 35-47 segments, unilateral gonads, and a muscular pharyngeal pad. These species are distinguished from 18 known Saccocirrus spp. by their unique chaetation, number of segments, presence or absence of ventral cilia, and pygidial adhesive structures. Saccocirrus oahuensis consumes foraminiferans, and S. alanhongi contained diatoms, unicellular algae, and ostracods. These species add to the interstitial fauna of O'ahu and co-occur with polychaetes Nerilla antennata (Nerillidae) and protodrilids (Protodrilidae), and Kinorhyncha. Saccocirrus alanhongi withstands almost daily disturbance by 600-1200 bathers per day entering the sandy swimming holes in the reef at Hanauma Bay.

Bailey-Brock, J. H. 2003. Coral reef polychaetes of Guam and Saipan, Mariana Islands. Micronesica (35)36:200–217. 

    Polychaetes are important food resources of reef fishes and invertebrates. Some are indictors of environmental perturbation and reef condition. Species inventory recognizing native and alien species is important to regulatory agencies. Polychaetes collected from coastal habitats of Guam and Saipan, with published records, raise the known number of species from Guam to 104 and from Saipan to 51. The number from Saipan is an underestimate based on collections in many shallow reef habitats identified by Hartman, two shorts visits by the author and a few specimens sent by a resident. Infaunal polychaetes in sand, rock crevices, and those removed from the digestive tracts of gastropods (Conus spp.), belong to 30 families, 25 known from Guam, 20 from Saipan with five of these only recorded from Saipan. Polychaetes are listed by family with collection site(s). Authors of published records are given for each species. Comparisons of community structure based on species richness, common taxa, and trophic guilds with those of West Pacific, Hawaiian, and East Indian Ocean locations are made. Using published records and quantitative data available only for some islands, reef polychaete communities of Guam are similar to those of Hawai'i, Enewetak, and Indonesia in species composition and density. More collections and taxonomic studies would add more species to presently under-represented families in Guam e.g. the Spionidae, Serpulidae and Spirorbidae. Recently introduced polychaetes include Oenone fulgida, Timarete caribous, Thelepus setosus, and Sabellastarte spectabilis collected form the floating drydock facility, Machinist, one week after arriving in Apra Harbor from Hawai'i. The serpulid, Salmacina dysteri, was also on the dry dock, but had been recorded earlier from Guam. This species most likely reached Guam on the hull of a vessel in transit across the Pacific Ocean.

Bailey-Brock, J. H., B. Paavo, B. M. Barrett & J. Dreyer. 2002. Polychaetes Associated with a Tropical Ocean Outfall; Synthesis of a Biomonitoring Program off O'ahu, Hawai'i. Pacific Science (56)4:459–479. Click for pdf

    A comparison of benthic polychaete communities off the Sand Island Ocean Outfall was undertaken to recognize organic enrichment indicator species for Hawaiian waters. Primary treatment sewage is discharged off the south shore of O'ahu at 70m depth. A historical data set spanning nine years for seven sites at 70m and two recent studies at 20, 50, and 100m depths were analyzed. Geochemical data did not support the assumption that the outfall is a significant source of organic enrichment in nutrient poor sandy sediments within oligotrophic tropical waters. Five polychaete species, however, appeared particularly sensitive, positively or negatively, to environmental conditions near the outfall. Neanthes arenaceodentata (Nereididae) and Ophryotrocha adherens (Dorvilleidae) have been dominant at sites within the outfall's zone of initial dilution (ZID). Since 1993, N. arenaceodentata has virtually disappeared while O. adherens concurrently became abundant and continued to flourish at ZID sites. Well-known indicators within the Capitella capitata complex (Capitellidae) were present at ZID and control (far field) sites though their ZID abundance was greater. Two sabellids, Euchone sp. B and Augeneriella dubia were inversely distributed, the smaller Euchone sp. B at far field sites and larger A. dubia within ZID stations. The former was most likely restricted to a greater proportion of fine sediment particles at two far field sites. The most abundant and widespread polychaete off O'ahu's south shore was Pionosyllis heterocirrata (Syllidae), which does not seem to represent a sensitive indicator species. Ophryotrocha adherens was the most abundant indicator species within the ZID; P. heterocirrata was the most ubiquitous species at all sites and should always be expected in these sediments. Traditional measurements of numerical abundance, species richness, and diversity (H') have not shown a clear distinction between ZID and far field sites in annual analyses. An examination of composited data over an eleven-year period does support such a distinction. MDS analyses clearly delineate different assemblages. We suggest that MDS analyses are sensitive to the community differences present near the outfall. The ZID community is clearly contained within the EPA-approved ZID boundary. Since each ZID and far field site supports a diverse and coarsely similar polychaete fauna, no pollution level effects seem to be present.


Glasby, C. J. & J. H. Bailey-Brock. 2001. Bait-taking fireworms (Amphinomidae: Polychaeta) and other polychaetes. The Beagle, Records of the Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory 17:37-41.


Bailey-Brock, J. H., B. Paavo, B. M. Barrett & J. Dreyer. 2001. Changes in Pollution Indicators at the Sand Island Sewage Outfall. OCEANS 2001 MTS/IEEE Proceedings pp. 1401-1407. 

    Comparison of benthic communities off the Sand Island Ocean Outfall was undertaken to recognize pollution indicator species for Hawaiian waters. The primary treatment sewage is discharged off the south shore of O'ahu at 70m depth. An historical data set spanning 15 years for seven sites at 70m (4 ZID and 3 far field) and two recent studies at 20, 50, and 100m were compared. Polychaetes collected with a 7.6cm diameter sediment core were sorted and five indicator species tentatively identified. Neanthes arenaceodentata (Nereididae) and Ophryotrocha adherens (Dorvilleidae) have been dominant at ZID stations. Since 1993, N. arenaceodentata has virtually disappeared from the ZID while O. adherens became abundant and continues to flourish there. The well known indicators within the Capitella capitata complex (Capitelllidae) are present at ZID and far field sites. Two sabellids, Euchone sp. B and Augeneriella dubia are inversely distributed, the smaller Euchone sp. B at the far field stations and larger A. dubia at the ZID. The former is most likely restricted to the greater proportion of fine sediment particles at two far field sites. Pionosyllis heterocirrata (Syllidae) is the most abundant and widespread polychaete off O'ahu's south shore. These indicator species share life history and feeding traits that lead to rapid growth and onset of reproduction, and produce benthic juvenile that recruit to the parent population leading to high levels of abundance. The success of indicator species is due to rapid use of available food resources and resulting increase in abundance. O. adherens is the most abundant indicator species at the ZID, P. heterocirrata is the most ubiquitous species at all sites and should always be present in these sediments. No pollution level effects on the benthic assemblages seem to be present, but fluctuations in indicator abundances may indicate a response to organic materials such as sewage outfalls. future changes in benthic assemblages on O'ahu's south shore need to consider all possible organic sources including sewage effluent, fish farm wastes, land run off, canal and harbor drainage and the effects of beach nourishment projects.

R. C. Swartz, J. H. Bailey-Brock, W. J. Cooke & E. A. Kay. 2001. Macrobenthos Monitoring Near the Sand Island and Barbers Point Ocean Outfalls, O'ahu, Hawai'i. OCEANS 2001 MTS/IEEE Proceedings pp. 1408-1416.

    The Sand Island and Barbers Point treatment plants discharge wastewaters into Mamala Bay through ocean outfalls located off the southern coast off O'ahu, Hawai'i, at a water depth of approximately 60 m. The macrobenthos in the vicinity of these outfalls has been monitored since1986. Replicate grabs at multiple stations located along transects and depth contours have been collected to provide biological samples for quantitative analyses. Samples for analyses of sediment grain size and parameters of sediment organic enrichment have also been collected. Benthic conditions at sites near the outfall have been compared with reference conditions at sites 3to 6 km from the outfalls to assess biological changes that might be related to the wastewater discharge. The structure of mollusk, nonmollusk (all macrobenthos excluding mollusks), and crustacean assemblages has been analyzed separately. Parameters of biological conditions include number of individuals, number of species, diversity (H'), evenness (J'), faunal similarity (Bray-Curtis index), indicator species, and dominant species composition. Conditions have been compared in space (among stations from a single survey) and in time (among samples from different surveys; usually conducted near each outfall on an annual basis). Sediments, which were composed primarily of fine to coarse sands, showed no evidence of organic enrichment at any station. A diverse and abundant macrobenthos has been sampled near the two outfalls. Samples from each survey typically contained hundreds of benthic taxa and more than 10,000 individuals. Analyses of the abundance, taxa richness and diversity of mollusks and nonmollusks almost always showed no statistically significant reductions at sites near the outfalls relative to the reference sites. The abundance and taxa richness of crustaceans have often been less, but usually not significantly less, at some stations near the outfalls. The collection of a variety of pollution-sensitive amphipods near the outfall indicates that the diminished crustacean fauna may be due to a noncontaminant factor. Separate cluster analyses of mollusk and nonmollusks indicate that factors associated with water depth are more closely related to faunal similarity than proximity to the outfalls. Long-term temporal trends show increased macrobenthic abundance. In summary, the weight if evidence indicates the Sand Island and Barbers Point discharges have not caused substantial changes in the macrobenthos.


Bailey-Brock, J. H. 2000. A new record of the polychaete Boccardia proboscidea (Family Spionidae), imported to Hawaii with oysters. Pacific Science 54(1):27-30. 

    The spionid polychaete Boccardia proboscidea Hartman,1940 was introduced to an oyster culture farm at Keahole, Hawai'i, with a shipment of Ostrea edulis from Maine. Oysters were heavily infested with adult worms, and burrows contained egg capsules with late-stage larvae. Diagnostic morphological features match the species description based on California material, except that the Hawai'i specimens are smaller. This genus differs from other oyster-associated spionids, Polydora nuchalis and P. websteri, in having blunt, bristle-tip setae on the fifth setiger. Boccardia proboscidea forms shallow burrows nestled under shell lamina and so differs from P. websteri, a truecarbonate borer, and P. nuchalis, which builds tubes of sediment in ponds and ditches used for penaeid shrimp culture. Boccardia proboscidea has a pan-Pacific distribution including the west coast of North America, Japan, and southeastern Australia. This distribution is attributed in part to the production of early and late larval stages that are widely dispersed by ocean currents.


Bailey-Brock, J. H. & C. C. Emig, 2000. Hawaiian Phoronida (Lophophorata) and their distribution in the Pacific Region. Pacific Science 54(2):119–126.

    Five Phoronis species are found in Hawaiian waters. Three were recorded previously, and two others, P. muelleri and P. pallida, are added here. Phoronis ovalis (the smallest) and P. hippocrepia are perforant species forming burrows in coral rock, shells, and barnacle encrustations, and P. psammophila, P. muelleri, and P. pallida are sand-dwellers. Species diagnosis in phoronids requires sectioning to estimate muscle formulas and arrangement of other internal organs. Included are a key to Hawaiian species based on visible external features (so not entirely accurate), description of each, and distribution in Hawaiian waters and the Pacific Ocean.

McCarthy, S. A., E. A. Laws, W. A. Estabrooks, J. H. Bailey-Brock & E. A. Kay. 2000. Intra-annual variability in Hawaiian shallow-water, soft-bottom macrobenthic communities adjacent to a eutrophic estuary. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science. 50(2):245–258.

    Temporal variability in shallow-water (10 m), soft-bottom macrobenthic communities was examined over a period of 25 months (November 1992-November 1994) off-shore of the Ala Wai canal, a tropical eutrophic estuary on the south shore of O'ahu, Hawaii. Despite significant temporal variations in the density of major taxonomic groups at the four stations examined, there was no evidence of a regular seasonal signal in the density fluctuations. Although all stations showed a steady decline in mean density during the unusually dry period in the spring of 1993, there was no evidence that observed macrofaunal density fluctuations (maximum and minimum) were associated with periods of increased runoff. Intensive macrobenthic sampling after a large runoff event showed no evidence that the event influenced the density or community composition of the benthos over a two month period. Total macrofaunal density ranged from 491 to 4743 ind. 0.1 m-2 with total macrofaunal biomass ranging from 4.7 to 109 mg AFDW 0.1 m-2 (AFDW-ash free dry weight), values consistent with those of other tropical and subtropical studies. A significant between-year difference in the density of total macrofauna was observed, perhaps associated with the 1991-1994 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event and the corresponding decreased rainfall in Hawaii.

Paavo, B.L., J.H. Bailey-Brock & B. Åkesson. 2000. Morphology and life history of Ophryotrocha adherens sp. n. (Polychaeta, Dorvilleidae). Sarsia 85:251–264. 

    An undescribed dorvilleid belonging to the genus Ophryotrocha, Claparede & Mecznikov, has been collected in the harbor of Kyrenia, Cyprus, the harbor of Las Palmas, the Canary Islands, and has recently been reported from the Sand Island and Barber's Point sewage outfalls (Oahu, Hawaii) during an ongoing benthic bio-monitoring program. Previous investigations of possible indicator species suggest it may be an outfall associated species. The species has been continuously cultured since 1971 in Sweden, and in Hawaii since 1993. It has been documented by previous authors under the name Ophryotrocha adherens. These laboratory cultures have produced a profile of the species' life history. The basic reproductive pattern, which includes a short-term free swimming larva and brood protection within a flexible mucous cocoon, was revealed in a life table study. A full description of O. adherens morphology is presented here including results of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of parapodia, setae, cilia and dentition. Recent community studies have shown that O. adherens abundances decrease with increasing distance from primary treatment sewage outfalls over the past eight years. Rapid reproductive response to organic enrichment makes O. adherens a candidate for marine sediment bioassays. 

Bailey-Brock, J.H. 1999. Ecology and biodiversity of coral reef polychaetes of Guam and Saipan, Mariana Islands. International Review of Hydrobiology 84(2):181–196.

Bailey-Brock, J.H. 1999. Nerillidae of Hawaii: two new records of interstitial polychaetes. Pacific Science 53(3):299–304. Click for pdf

    Two species of the polychaete family Nerillidae are reported from sand collected from the south shore of O'ahu, Hawai'i. Nerilla antennata O. Schmidt was collected from a shallow fringing reef, and Mesonerilla fagei Swedmark with coarse sand from Honolulu Harbor. Both are less than 0.5 mm in length and occupy an interstitial habitat. Nerilla antennata has a broad geographic distribution including Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and M. fagei is known from the North Atlantic. The morphology of Hawaiian specimens is described and reproductive stages of M. fagei are illustrated. 

Bailey-Brock, J.H., V.R. Brock & R.E. Brock. 1999. Intrusion of anchialine species in the marine environment: the appearance of an endemic Hawaiian shrimp, Halocaridina rubra on the south shore of O'ahu (Hawaiian Islands). Pacific Science. 53 (4): 367-369.  

    A single specimen of the endemic anchialine shrimp Halocaridina rubra Holthuis was collected on the reef under a brick in a freshwater extrusion in the lower intertidal at Kawaiku'i Beach Park, Niu Valley, O'ahu, Hawai'i, on 25 December 1998. Repeated collecting efforts at low tides failed to produce more shrimp. The associated fauna includes an anadromous eleotridfish, Eleotris sandwicensis (the 'o'opu 'akupa), isopods Apanthurainornata and Talitroides sp., alpheid shrimp (Alpheuscrassimanus), an oligochaete, and gobioid fish (Bathygobius fuscus). Fresh water seeping out across the sand and visible in the area at low tides may have been the source of the specimen. This find may represent a rare occurrence of H. rubra in the reef flat habitat or the intrusion of anchialine species may occur with some frequency after heavy rains when the groundwater flow increases.


Brock, R.E. & J.H. Bailey-Brock. 1999. A case study of the efficacy of freshwater immersion in controlling the introduction of alien marine fouling communities: The USS Missouri. Pacific Science 53(3):223–231. 

    The historically significant battleship USS Missouri was recently decommissioned and moved from Bremerton, Washington, to Hawai'i to become a memorial museum at Pearl Harbor, O'ahu, Hawai'i. Dry-docking was completed in January 1993, and since that time the vessel has been part of the inactive fleet. In this 5-yr period, a dense growth of fouling organisms had developed on the outer surfaces of the hull. Out of concern that the fouled hull could become a source for the introduction of alien aquatic nuisance species to Hawaiian waters, an evaluation of the fouling community was conducted. In this study we found 116 taxa among 12 phyla in 10 samples scraped from the vessel's hull. Seventy-six species were identified: 11 known from Hawaiian waters, 17 with known temperate-boreal distributions, and the remaining 48 known only from the Pacific Northwest. Forty percent of the taxa in this fouling community were not identified to species, so there remained some potential for alien species introduction. As a precaution to prevent accidental introductions, the ship was moved from Bremerton to the Columbia River in Oregon for a 9-day sojourn in freshwater before its transoceanic crossing to Pearl Harbor. Inspection of the vessel's hull upon arrival in Pearl Harbor revealed more than 90% of the hull to be completely clear of any fouling organisms. Only 11 species were found to be alive: 3 species probably recruited to the hull on the transoceanic crossing that may routinely arrive in Hawaiian waters, 4 species already present in Hawai'i, 3 Pacific Northwest species that appeared to be close to death on their arrival in Hawai'i, and 2 euryhaline amphipod species probably recruited to the hull while in the Columbia River. The amphipods were not reproductive and brooding young, suggesting that these species would not be successful colonists. A final inspection and sampling of the hull 83 days after arriving at Pearl Harbor failed to find live or dead Columbia River amphipods nor were the three Pacific Northwest species alive. Freshwater exposure for 9 days coupled with increased water temperatures during the journey to Hawai'i appear to be an extremely effective means of eliminating the temperate marine fouling community. This action substantially reduced the probability that an alien species would be introduced with the arrival of this historic vessel in Hawai'i.

Brock, R.E. & J.H. Bailey-Brock. 1998. An unique anchialine pool in the Hawaiian Islands. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 83:65–75.

    The Sailor's Hat crater was artificially formed on the south coast of Kaho'olawe Island in 1965 with explosives. The explosion formeda crater about 50 m from the shoreline, which penetrates the water table to a 5 m depth. The pool at the bottom of the crater meets the criteria of ananchialine pond because it shows tidal fluctuation, has measurable salinity, and lacks surface connections to the sea. The water chemistry of this pool is similar to the ocean except silica is elevated and salinity is slightly depressed suggesting a small groundwater influence. The fauna is dominated by water boatmen, an endemic shrimp and tubeworm, polychaetes. amphipods, an ostracod. gastropod, solitary ectoproct, anemone, flatworm and sponge. The atyid shrimp, Halocaridina rubra, is a characteristic species of Hawaiian anchialine systems and probably colonized this 32-year old pool by active migration via the water table. Colonization by the remaining fauna may have occurred by storm surf (for marine species) or with the wind. Most predators are unable to inhabit anchialine ponds because of difficult access due to physical barriers, or to unsuitable ecological conditions. The anchialine habitat and life history strategy of the atyid shrimp have probably been important influences on the adaptive success of H. rubra in the Hawaiian Islands, and may be important characteristics of hypogealanchialine species elsewhere.

McCarthy, S.A., J.H. Bailey-Brock & W.A. Estabrooks. 1998. Benthic communities associated with carbonate rubble and adjacent soft sediments in a shallow coastal area of O'ahu, Hawai'i. Pacific Science 52:141–150. 

Bailey-Brock, J.H. 1996. Definition of indicator species for pollution monitoring in Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Project MB-9. Mamala Bay Commission 85 pp.

    Although the shallow, wave-swept sedimentary environment of the near-shore subtidal region of Hawai'i would be expected to be characterized by a relatively homogenous community associated with shifting sediments, small-scale variability in the macrofauna exists. Benthic communities associated with rubble are distinct from nearby sand areas. Higher densities, taxonomic richness, and benthic biomass are characteristic of sediments containing carbonate rubble fragments (ranging from 2 to 64 mm in size). Rubble communities are dominated by annelids and a variety of crustaceans (primarily amphipods, isopods, and tanaids); sand communities are dominated by nematodes. The unconsolidated carbonate rubble community displays an undisturbed Abundance Biomass Comparison (ABC) pattern; the sand community displays a disturbed pattern. The divergent ABC patterns may reflect differences in substrate stability.

Bailey-Brock, J.H., E.A. Kay & W.J. Cooke. 1996. Benthic community structure investigation of deep ocean dredged material disposal sites in Mamala Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i. Final Report, Army Corps of Engineers, Pacific Ocean Division. October, 1996. 185 pp.


Bailey-Brock, J.H. 1995. Polychaetes of Western Pacific Islands: A review of their systematics and ecology. Chapter 7 in Marine and Coastal Biodiversity in the the Tropical Island Pacific Region. Vol.1. East-West Center and Pacific Science Association, pp. 121–134.

Nelson, W.G., Bailey-Brock, J.H., Cooke, W.J., Kay, E.A. 1995. Assessment of effects of deep-water, sewage effluent discharge on a near shore, tropical benthic community, Honolulu, Hawaii. Oceans 1995:907–917

Brock, R.E., Brock, J.H. 1995. Anchialine resources of Kaho’olawe, Hawaii. Ch. 5 in An evaluation of the Nearshore Coral reef resources of Kaho’olawe, Hawaii. 22 pp. Cramp. Hawaii

Bailey-Brock, J. H. & R. E. Brock. 1993. Feeding, reproduction, and sense organs of the Hawaiian anchialine shrimp Halocaridinarubra (Atyidae). Pacific Science 47(4):338–355

Click for pdf

    The Hawaiian endemic shrimp Halocaridina rubra Holthuis currently inhabits anchialine pools on Maui, Kaho'olawe, O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Hawai'i islands. Information is presented on the feeding, reproductive, and sensory biology of these shrimp. Feeding cheliped setae are of two types, serrated setae that scrape the substrate surface and filamentous setae that collect the loosened food materials or act as filters. The shrimp are primarily microphagous grazers that scrape the surface of the algal-cyanobacterial cruston pool substrates. This grazing activity is essential in maintaining the integrity of the crust, an actively growing matrix of plants, bacteria, diatoms, protozoans, and underlying siliceous and carbonate materials. Filter feeding is only observed in pools with dense phytoplankton blooms. The first and second pleopods of male and female shrimp are illustrated, and reproduction in captive populations from Hawai'i and O'ahu locations is described. Sense organs examined include the eye, aesthetasc hairs, campaniform sensilla, ringedsetae, and abdominal pits with flared setae. The anchialine shrimp H. rubra appears to be a generalist, feeds as a microphagous grazeror filter feeder, is well adapted to the epigeal-hypogeal habitat in the pools, reproduces in the subterranean portion of the habitat, and is equipped with sensory structures that detect motion and chemical changes in the environment. Survival of this endemic species is dependent upon the continued integrity of its habitat, which is unique and sparsely represented on five of the eight high Hawaiian Islands.

Bailey-Brock J.H., Moss, S. 1992. Penaeid taxonomy. Marine Shrimp Culture: Principles and Practices. Chapter 2. pp 9-27. Elsevier. Eds. A. Fast and L. James Lester.

Bailey-Brock, J. H. 1991. Tubeworms (Serpulidae: Polychaeta) collected from a sewage outfall, and coral reefs of the Hawaiian Islands, including a new Hydroides species. Bull. Mar. Sci. 48 (2): 198-207. Click for pdf

Bailey-Brock, J.H. 1990. Polydora nuchalis (Polychaeta : Spionidae), a new Hawaiian record from aquaculture ponds. Pacific Science. 44: 81-87 

Fitzhardinge, R. & J. H. Bailey-Brock. 1989. Colonization of artificial reef materials by corals and other sessile invertebrates. Bull. Mar. Sci. 44(2): 567-579

Bailey-Brock, J. H. 1989. Fouling community development on an artificial reef in Hawaiian waters. Bull. Mar. Sci. 44(2): 580-591 


Bailey-Brock, J.H. 1987. The Polychaetes of Fanga’uta lagoon and coral reefs of Tongatapu, Tonga, with discussion of the Serpulidae and Spirorbidae. Biol. Soc. Wash. Bull. 7:280-294

Bailey-Brock, J. H. 1987. II. Phylum Annelida. In "Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii," B. P. Bishop Museum Spec. Publ. 64 (2 and 3):213-453.

Emig, C. and Bailey-Brock, J. H. 1987. Phoronida. In "Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii," B. P. Bishop Museum Spec. Publ. 64 (2 and 3):171-181


Bailey-Brock, J.H. 1985. Polychaetes from Fijian coral reefs. Pacific Science 39: 195-220 


Bailey-Brock, J. H. 1984. Ecology of the tube dwelling polychaete Diopetra leuckarti Kinberg, 1865 (Onuphidae) in Hawaii: community structure, and sediment stabilizing properties. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 80:191-199.

Bailey-Brock, J. H., J. K. White & L. A. Ward. 1980. Effects of algal turf and depressions as refuges on polychaete assemblages of a windward reef bench at Enewetak Atoll. Micronesica 16(1):43-58 


Brock, R. E. & J. H. Brock. 1977. A method for a quantitatively assessing the infaunal community in coral rock. Limnology & Oceanography 22(5):948-951 Click for pdf