Multicultural Teaching Bibliography
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Joan Hori
Hawaiian Collection
Hamilton Library, UH Manoa

Sherie Gusukuma
Honolulu Community College Library

January 1997

Objective of Bibliography
This brief bibliography addresses the cultural values and learning styles of students of minority languages and cultures in Hawaii. This bibliography concentrates on works about Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, Filipinos, and Southeast Asians. Works about Japanese, Chinese, and Korean groups are not included since information about these ethnic groups is readily available. Some general items on multicultural education teaching techniques are also included.

Works on collaborative learning have been excluded from this bibliography. Should you want this portion of the 1992 bibliography,* please contact:

Sherie Gusukuma
Honolulu Community College Library (845-9463).

Format of Bibliography
Literature searches were conducted on the following online indexes:

UH Library Catalog
Hawaii Pacific Journal Index
Expanded Academic Index
PsycLit (Psychological Abstracts)
Sociofile (Sociological Abstracts)

Works are arranged alphabetically by the author's last name. Works without designated authors are listed alphabetically by title. Subject headings that indicate the main topic(s) of the work are listed at the end of each entry.

Most items have been reviewed and annotated. Annotations ending with database accession numbers indicate that the summaries were taken in part from annotations listed in the online databases. These works were not fully reviewed.

* "BI: Hawaiian Style: Multicultural/Collaborative Learning Bibliography"

compiled by
Lynette Furukawa, Laura Gerwitz, Sherie Gusukuma, Joan Hori, Anne McKenna, June 1992.

Author(s):      Agbayani-Siewert, Pauline (School of Social 
                 Welfare, University of Washington)
Title:          Filipino American Culture and Family: 
               guidelines for practitioners
         Journal:        Families in Society, volume no. 75, issue no. 
                 7, pages 129-138
Date:           September 1991
Abstract:       An examination of Filipino-American values 
                 about the family and the extended-family, 
                 marital relations, and child-rearing 
                 practices. Filipino family structure appears 
                 to be based on cultural values that reflect 
                 a spirit of cooperation and mutual support. 
                 Filipinos also regard confrontation and 
                 directness as impolite. Guidelines for 
                 social work with Filipino-Americans are 
                51 references listed. (Sociofile #95W21209)
                Filipinos -- cultural values
Author(s):      Anthony, Alberta Pualani (Department of Indo-
                 Pacific Languages, UH Manoa)
Title:          Hawaiian non-verbal communication: two 
               classroom applications
         Publisher:      [Honolulu]: paper presented at National 
                 Association of Asian American and Pacific 
                 Education Conference
Date:           1979
Abstract:       Describes patterns of Hawaiian non-verbal 
                 communication, common to Hawaiians in 
                 varying degrees. Covers body contact, use of 
                 personal space, orientation of individual's 
                 body in relation to others, appearance, 
                 posture, use of head, facial expressions, 
                 gestures, and eye contact. Rural children, 
                 especially those who have not assimilated to 
                 middle class, white American norms of 
                 behavior (regarded as standard in the school 
                 system), have a difficult time in school due 
                 to the failure of the school system to 
                 recognize and accept Hawaiian non-verbal 
                 behavior. Anthony feels that teachers and 
                 students need to become aware that 
                 misunderstandings may be due to divergent 
                 nonverbal behavior, rather than one-to-one 
                 conflicts between teacher and student.
                Hawaiians -- education
                Hawaiians -- nonverbal communication
Author(s):      Boggs, Stephen T. (Professor Emeritus of 
                 Anthropology, UH Manoa)
Title:          Speaking, relating, and learning: a 
               study of Hawaiian children at home 
               and at school
         Publisher:      Horwood, NJ: Albex Publishing Corporation
Date:           1985
Abstract:       Case study report on the use of culturally 
                 compatible teaching strategies with part-
                 Hawaiian children in the classroom, as a 
                 method to develop reading skills. Features 
                 teaching methods developed by the Kamehameha 
                 Early Education Project (KEEP). Shows how 
                 literacy skills are developed within a 
                 social context. An example of this is the 
                 joint development and recapitulation of a 
                 story in a book that motivates and enables 
                 students to participate; this is consistent 
                 with "talk story" in Hawaii, in which one or 
                 more speakers, with the aid of the audience, 
                 jointly develop a storyline over a series of 
                Hawaiians -- cultural values
                Hawaiians -- learning styles
                Kamehameha Early Education Project (KEEP)
Author(s):      Brislin, Richard, editor (Research Associate, 
                 Institute of Culture and Communication, 
                 East-West Center; Affiliated Graduate 
                 Faculty, Department of Psychology, UH Manoa)
Title:          Applied cross-cultural psychology
         Publisher:      Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications (Cross-
                 Cultural Research and Methodology Series 14)
Date:           1990
Abstract:       Collection of readings that offers a 
                 psychological perspective on intercultural 
                 communication and education. Authors believe 
                 that practitioners and trainees should be 
                 aware of cross-cultural research to interact 
                 successfully with multicultural clientele. 
                 Of interest are chapers on: 1) cross-
                 cultural psychology and the formal 
                 classroom; 2) international students--cross-
                 cultural psychological perspectives; 3) 
                 psychology of acculturation--understanding 
                 individuals moving between cultures; 4) 
                 cross-cultural orientation programs. 
                 Extensive references.
                cross-cultural -- communication
                multicultural education
Author(s):      Chattergy, Virgie (Interim Director of the 
                 Center for Studies of Multicultural Higher 
                 Education and Associate Professor of 
                 Education, UH Manoa)
Title:          Bridging two worlds: the teacher and
               the immigrant Filipino student
         Journal:        Kamehameha Journal of Education, volume no. 
                 3, pages 23-28
Date:           Fall 1992
Abstract:       Discusses the relationship between culture 
                 and learning styles of Filipino students and 
                 the instructional decisions of teachers in 
                 Hawaii. Stresses the need for teachers to 
                 understand how Filipino students have been 
                 taught to learn. Recommends that teachers 
                 working with minority students: 1) make 
                 explicit rules of the classroom; 2) know 
                 there will be differences in perceptions and 
                 interpretations of behavior between teacher 
                 and minority students because of cultural 
                 assumptions on both sides; 3) not equate 
                 silence or difficulty with the use of 
                 standard English with the inability to 
                 think; 4) seek information about culturally 
                 different students and develop knowledge 
                 upon which to make instructional decisions; 
                 and 5) believe that these students have the 
                 will to learn but need your trust and 
                 confidence to do so.
                Filipinos -- learning styles
                Multicultural education -- teaching styles
Author(s):      Chattergy, Virgie; Ongteco, Belen C. (Interim 
                 Director of the Center for Studies of 
                 Multicultural Higher Education and Associate 
                 Professor of Education, UH Manoa; 
                 Educational Specialist, Hawaii State 
                 Department of Education)
Title:          Education needs of Filipino immigrant 
         Journal:        Social Process in Hawaii, volume no. 33, 
                 pages 142-152
Date:           1991
Abstract:       Presents difficulties that Filipino immigrant 
                 students experience in Hawaii public schools 
                 which are related to cultural clashes 
                 between the schools' cultural norms and 
                 conventions and the Filipino's natal 
                 culture. Focus is on elementary and 
                 secondary levels. A table listing areas of 
                 adjustment problems for Filipino immigrant 
                 students compares and contrasts the home 
                 culture and the expectations of Hawaii's 
                 Department of Education.
                Filipinos -- cultural values
                Filipinos -- education
Author(s):      D'Amato, John; Tharp, Roland (Center for 
                 Studies of Multicultural Higher Education, 
                 UH Manoa)
Title:          Ethnic variablity in achievement in 
               formal educational settings: a review 
               of research and theoretical issues
         Publisher:      Unpublished paper available at the Center, UH 
                 Manoa (Occasional Paper #1)
Date:           1988
Abstract:       Concise overview of education models that 
                 researchers developed to explain variations 
                 among minorities in academic achievement. 
                 Tharp, a psychologist, and D'Amato, an 
                 anthropologist, have worked in this field 
                 for many years and were major members that 
                 developed the curriculum of the Kamehameha 
                 Early Education Project (KEEP). Developed 
                 four basic models of causation: 1) 
                 individual attributes; 2) social effects 
                 (social structure of society); 3) 
                 instructional effects; 4) cultural 
                 differences. Authors subscribe to cultural 
                 differences model and relate achievement to 
                 culturally compatible teaching strategies 
                 designed for particular cultures.
                Multicultural education
                Kamehameha Early Education Project
Author(s):      Fong, Rowena; Mokuau, Noreen (School of 
                 Social Work, UH Manoa)
Title:          Not simply "Asian Americans":
               periodical literature review on Asians 
                and Pacific Islanders
         Journal:        Social Work, volume no. 39, issue no. 3, 
                 pages 298-305
Date:           1994
Abstract:       Surveys literature in four major social work 
                 journals on direct practice with Asian 
                 American and Pacific Islander populations 
                 who constitute the fastest-growing minority 
                 groups in the U.S. Highlights: 1) 
                 differences between two groups; 2) 
                 separating the Asian Americans into 
                 different ethnic groups; 3) distinguishing 
                 between immigrants and refugees; 4) 
                 differences in age; 5) strengthening focus 
                 on communities; 6) focusing more on gender 
                (Sociofile #95W21222)
                Asian Americans -- cultural values
                Pacific Islanders -- cultural values
Author(s);      Gochenour, Theodore (Educator and consultant; 
                 former Vice President of the Experiment in 
                 International Living; former Director of 
                 Southeast Asian Refugee Center, Bataan, 
Title:          Considering Filipinos
         Publisher:      Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press
Date:           1990
Abstract:       An introduction to Philippine-American 
                 intercultural relationships that examines 
                 cultural traits of Filipinos and Americans 
                 which influence their personal interactions. 
                 Describes values and beliefs of Filipinos 
                 (group identity, reliance on authority, 
                 emphasis on harmonious relationships, 
                 attention to reciprocal obligations, and 
                 respect for tradition and status) and 
                 compares these with American traits (e.g. 
                 Filipino group versus American personal 
                 independence). Aimed at the American 
                 businessman, this book offers suggestions 
                 for harmonious working relationships. In a 
                 superior-subordinate relationship, the 
                 superior should establish a friendly 
                 atmosphere, show personal concern and 
                 interest in subordinate, adopt a non-
                 threatening and relaxed posture, and use a 
                 quiet conversational style. Other Filipino 
                 traits are sensitivity to nonverbal 
                 communication and preference for explicit 
                cross-cultural -- communication
                Filipinos -- cultural values 
Author(s):      Gollnick, Donna; Chinn, Philip (National 
                 Council for Accreditation of Teacher 
                 Education; California State University at 
                 Los Angeles)
Title:          Multicultural education in a 
               pluralistic society
         Publisher:      Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing Company
Date:           1990
Abstract:       Represents trend to include gender, age, 
                 socio-economic class, language, religion, 
                 and exceptionality (as well as ethnicity) in 
                 its definition of multicultural education. 
                 Describes microcultures within the America 
                 macroculture and explains how membership in 
                 these subcultures influences people's 
                 behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, and 
                 educational implications. Summarizes types 
                 of teaching strategies that have proven 
                 successful in meeting different learning 
                 needs of diverse student population. Written 
                 for pre-service and in-services teachers. 
                 Includes references and suggested readings.
                multicultural education
                multicultural education -- teaching styles
Author(s):      Gonzales, Miriam R.
Title:          Multicultural education in practice: 
               teachers' social constructions and 
               classroom enactments.
         Publisher:      San Francisco: paper presented at Annual 
                 Meeting of the American Educational Research 
Date:           April 18-22, 1995
Abstract:       Explored how and why organizational, 
                 individual-teacher, and student factors 
                 interact to shape ways multicultural 
                 curriculum is constructed and practiced by 
                 classroom teachers. Major themes found were 
                 that most teachers: 1) address content and 
                 process to make education multicultural; 2) 
                 may combine teacher-centered and student-
                 centered approaches; 3) consider language 
                 diversity and bilingual programs as part of 
                 multicultural education; 4) are influenced 
                 by school leadership, collaborative school 
                 structures, and school-wide programs and 
                 resources in their development of a 
                 multicultural curricula.
                multicultural education
                multicultural education -- teaching styles 
Author(s):      Gudykunst, William B. (Speech Communication, 
                 California State University at Fullerton)
Title:          Bridging differences: effective 
               intergroup communication
         Publisher:      Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications
Date:           1991
Abstract:       Overview of communication process which 
                 includes information and skills to 
                 communicate more effectively in the context 
                 of cultural diversity. Examines sources of 
                 diversity that affect our communication, 
                 including differences between 
                 individualistic and collectivistic 
                 societies. Considers factors that require 
                 special attention when communicating with 
                 strangers, such as expectations and 
                 attitudes. Provides information on how we 
                 can make sense of strangers' behaviors. 
                 Includes questionnaires to assess one's own 
                 tendencies (collectivist/individualist), 
                 cultural and ethnic identities, attitudes 
                 (toward ethnocentricism, prejudices, 
                 stereotypes), and orientations (empathy, 
                 flexibility, uncertainty, etc.). Extensive 
                cross-cultural -- communication
Author(s):      Gueulette, David G. 
Title:          International Training Research Project 
         Publisher:      New Orleans: presented at the 15th Annual 
                 Convention of the Association for 
                 Educational Communications and Technology
Date:           January 13-17, 1993
Abstract:       Researchers at Northern Illinois University 
                 have compiled findings from a study 
                 investigating the most critical audience 
                 factors impacting the design and delivery of 
                 instruction for international learners in 
                 higher education settings in the U.S. 
                 Findings are incorporated into small 
                 bulletins, "Culturefaxes" that highlight 
                 cultural facts that may help instructors to 
                 become more culturally sensitive and more 
                 effective in multicultural classrooms. Key 
                 theoretical considerations of the research 
                 are reviewed. A sample of a "Culturefax" on 
                 Filipinos is included. 
                (ERIC ED362166)
                Filipinos -- cultural values
                Multicultural education -- values
Author(s):      Haas, Michael (Co-director of the Center for 
                 Research on Ethnic Relations, Social Science 
                 Research Institute, UH Manoa and Professor, 
                 Department of Political Science, UH Manoa)
Title:          The Hawaiian multicultural ethos: what 
               is it and how did it develop?
         Publisher:      Paper presented at the American Sociological 
Date:           1994
Abstract:       Re-examines Hawaii model of ethnic relations 
                 that cannot be explained in terms of number 
                 and size of ethnic groups, political and 
                 labor history, interracial marriages, 
                 statehood. Concludes that the new ethos is 
                 defined and traced to interaction among 
                 successive waves of migrants. The contents 
                 of the ethos is identified as: aloha, 
                 inclusiveness, charismatic humility, the "no 
                 talk stink" norm, ethnic humor, "talk story" 
                 conflict mediation, nonexploitative 
                 relations, incrementalism rather than 
                 universalistic problem solving, search for 
                 unique solutions, and boundary maintenance 
                 norms. (Sociofile #94S30403)
                multicultural values -- Hawaii
Author(s):      Hao, Ramona Newton and others
Title:          Methods: an integrated interdisciplinary 
         Journal:        Kamehameha Journal of Education, volume no. 
                 4, pages 39-88
Date:           Fall 1993
Abstract:       Several articles explain the integrated 
                 interdisciplinary approach used in Hawaii's 
                 PETOM (Preservice Education for Teachers of 
                 Minorities) program, which prepares 
                 educators to teach students from culturally 
                 diverse backgrounds. After an overview of 
                 PETOM, the articles look at the mathematics, 
                 science, art, and social sciences modules. 
                 (ERIC EF497026)
                Multicultural education -- teaching styles
                Preservice Education for Teachers of 
Author(s):      Howard, Alan (Professor of Anthropology, UH 
Title:          Ain't no big thing: coping strategies 
               in a Hawaiian-American community
         Publisher:      Honolulu: University of Hawaii 
Date:           1974
Abstract:       Considered a classic analysis of a Hawaiian-
                 American community on Oahu based on three 
                 years of anthropological field work. Goal of 
                 study was to "generate a theory of Hawaiian 
                 behavior patterns." Found that Hawaiians 
                 emphasized affiliation and maintenance of 
                 interpersonal harmony over individual 
                 achievement, which is in sharp contrast to 
                 mainstream American society. This 
                 fundamental clash between socialization 
                 patterns of Hawaiian and western society has 
                 important implications for educational 
                 practices. Howard stresses need to 
                 restructure the schools to meet the cultural 
                 learning styles of diverse populations of 
                 students. Benchmark study offers insights 
                 not only to Native Hawaiian culture, but 
                 also to the dominant Asian and Caucasian 
                 cultures of Hawaii. Includes appendices and 
                Hawaiians -- cultural values
                Hawaiians -- education
Author(s):      Huynh, Dinh Te
Title:          Vietnamese cultural patterns and values 
               as expressed in proverbs (microfilm)
Publisher:      New York: Columbia University (Thesis - 
Date:           1962
Location:       Hamilton Library: ASIA Microfilm S00088 item 
                proverbs, Vietnamese
                Vietnamese -- cultural values
Author(s):      Irujo, Suzanne
Title:          An introduction to intercultural
               differences and similarities in 
               nonverbal communication in Wurzel, Jaime, 
               ed. Toward multiculturalism: a reader 
               in multi cultural education
         Publisher:      Yarmouth, MN: Intercultural Press
Date:           1988
Abstract:       Communication also includes subtle forms of 
                 nonverbal gestures, tone of voice, and 
                 postures. Author provides an introduction to 
                 research on cultural variations in nonverbal 
                 forms of communication. Topics include: 1) 
                 facial expressions; 2) eye contact; 3) 
                 kinesics (body movements); 4) posture; 5) 
                 haptics (touching); 6) proxemics (personal 
                 space); 7) paralinguistics (vocal 
                 qualities). Knowledge of these variations is 
                 important when working with members of 
                 different cultures or subcultures to prevent 
                 misunderstandings. For example, research 
                 shows that differences in eye contact and 
                 hand gesture behaviors cause the most 
                 problems in intercultural communication, 
                 while facial expressions tend to express 
                 similar emotions across cultures.
                cross-cultural -- nonverbal communication
Author(s):      Jordan, Cathie (Anthropologist, Kamehameha 
                 Center for the Development of Early 
Title:          Translating culture: from ethnographic 
               information to educational program
         Journal:        Anthropology and Education Quarterly, volume 
                 no. 16, pages 107-123
Date:           1985
Abstract:       Describes how the research and development 
                 team translated anthropological knowledge 
                 into effective educational practices and 
                 programs at the Kamehameha Schools. Provides 
                 brief descriptions on the background and 
                 history of the project, the project's goals, 
                 the research team, and the culturally 
                 compatible curriculum (in language arts) 
                 that was eventually developed. The project 
                 team of teachers, anthropologists, and 
                 psychologists tried to follow the principle 
                 of "least change" and drew upon accepted 
                 educational practices that were appropriate 
                 to the culture of Hawaiian children. They 
                 did not want to reproduce the culture of the 
                 home or the community in the classroom, but 
                 rather tried to create a culturally 
                 compatible environment within the school 
                 culture. Jordan emphasizes the 
                 multidisciplinary, collaborative efforts 
                 between the researchers and the teachers and 
                 between ethnography (cultural description), 
                 educational design, implementation, and 
                 evaluation. Includes references.
                Hawaiians -- education
                Hawaiians -- learning styles
                multicultural education -- curriculum design 
                Kamehameha Early Education Project (KEEP)
Author(s):      Kawakami, Alice (Ph.D.)
Title:          Culture and learning at home and school 
               in primary grades: a study in Kosrae 
         Publisher:      Honolulu: Pacific Region Educational 
Date:           1995
Abstract:       A preliminary investigation of learning 
                 styles of children in the primary grades in 
                 home and school environments in Kosrae State 
                 (Federated States of Micronesia). Presents 
                 preliminary recommendations for integrating 
                 home and community learning styles in the 
                 schools. Found significant differences 
                 between home and school learning contexts, 
                 with home learning occurring in group 
                 contexts, being child-initiated, and 
                 focusing on functional activities. School 
                 learning tended to be in less flexible 
                 groups, teacher-directed, and required 
                 language-based responses. A classroom 
                 implementation phase integrated some of the 
                 home learning features into the classroom.
                Micronesians -- education
                Micronesians -- learning styles
Author(s):      Levin, Paula E. (University of California at 
                 San Diego)
Title:          Culturally contextualized apprenticeship: 
               teaching and learning through helping 
               in Hawaiian families
         Journal:        Quarterly Newsletter of the Laboratory of 
                 Comparative Human Cognition, volume no. 12, 
                issue no. 2, pages 80-86
Date:           April 1990
Abstract:       Examines children's learning of home chores 
                 and school work in contemporary Native 
                 Hawaiian families, drawing on interview data 
                 of 102 parents of 4-year-olds. Hawaiian 
                 parents perform household chores with 
                 expertise and since these skills fit into a 
                 helping framework and play a part in 
                 defining a valued Hawaiian family and 
                 community member, the model of 
                 apprenticeship learning fits acquisition of 
                 household chores well. In contrast, Hawaiian 
                 parents express less confidence in the 
                 domain of literacy skills, which, by 
                 benefiting the individual over the group, 
                 does not fit into a helping framework. These 
                 two factors make parent-child interactions 
                 in the teaching of literacy skills brief and 
                 unresponsive, thus disrupting the social 
                 transfer of learning. (Sociofile #91S25192)
                Hawaiians -- cultural values
                Hawaiians -- learning styles
Author(s):      Lynch, Eleanor W.; Hanson, Marci J., eds.
Title:          Developing cross-cultural competence: 
               a guide for working with young children 
               and their families
         Publisher:      Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing 
Date:           1992
Abstract:       Aims to develop cross-cultural skills. 
                 Organized into three sections: 1) deals with 
                 issues surrounding working with families 
                 from diverse backgrounds; 2) introduces 
                 major U.S. cultural and ethnic groups; 3) 
                 recommends sensitivity and awareness methods 
                 to work with cultural differences. Major 
                 ethnic groups reviewed were Anglo European, 
                 Native American, African American, Latino, 
                 Asian American, Pilipino, Native Hawaiian 
                 and Pacific Islanders, and Middle 
                 Easterners. (ERIC ED346190)
                Filipinos -- cultural values
                Hawaiians -- cultural values
                Pacific Islanders -- cultural values
Author(s):      Martini, Mary
Title:          Encountering problems at home and at 
               school: language and cognition in two 
         Publisher:      Honolulu: paper presented at 3rd Annual 
                 International Conference on Thinking
Date:           1994
Abstract:       Discusses cognitive communicative training of 
                 a 5-month study of 11 Hawaiian preschoolers 
                 that examined how children interacted with 
                 each other, used language, manipulated 
                 objects, and solved problems at home and at 
                 school. It did not find the expected split 
                 between adult and child realms in Hawaiian 
                 households. It did find that children tended 
                 to use objects in complex, goal-directed 
                 ways more frequently at home than at school, 
                 and tended to encounter and solve more 
                 problems by themselves at home than at 
                 school. Study found that children grew up in 
                 widely diverse family settings, with no 
                 evidence for a prototypical Hawaiian family 
                 type or environment. (ERIC ED382314)
                Hawaiians -- learning styles
Author(s):      Mau, Rosalind Y.
Title:          Cultural conflict and gender socialization 
               as obstacles to high school graduation:
               some insights from Samoan adolescent
               women in Demos, Vasilike and Segal, 
               Marcia Texler, eds. Ethnic women: 
               multiple status reality
         Publisher:      Dix Hills, NY: General Hall, Inc.
Date:           1991
Abstract:       Cultural and gender socialization factors 
                 contribute to the poor academic performance 
                 of 12 adolescent Samoan females attending 
                 Hawaii public high schools. Samoan parents 
                 had high educational expectations for their 
                 children and high regard for education's 
                 value as a vehicle for occupational and 
                 social advancement. However, Samoans' 
                 cultural practices -- ranging from disdain 
                 for showing off and competition to the 
                 emphasis of learning by rote and 
                 experiential learning -- conflicted with the 
                 behaviors needed to succeed in school. 
                 Likewise, gender socialization of female 
                 Samoans, especially their responsibilities 
                 in caring for younger children, undermined 
                 opportunities to succeed. Samoan females 
                 tried to cope with the conflict between 
                 school and culture and the Samoan avoidance 
                 of confrontation by running away from school 
                 or home, by using drugs or alcohol, and by 
                 participating in sexual activities. 
                 (Sociofile #96c02527)
                Samoans -- adolescent females
                Samoans -- cultural values
Author(s):      Menton, Linda K.
Title:          The use of simulation as a teaching
               strategy for civic understanding and 
         Journal:        Teaching History: A Journal of Methods, 
                 volume no. 19, issue no. 1, pages 3-18
Date:           Spring 1994
Abstract:       Asserts that simulations are considered a 
                 highly effective pedgogical tool because 
                 they involve students in problem-solving and 
                 inquiry-based activities. Presents a model 
                 simulation designed to prepare secondary or 
                 college students for civic discourse about 
                 reparations as an important public policy 
                 issue. (ERIC EJ49042)
                multicultural education -- teaching styles
Author(s):      Nash, Jesse William
Title:          Vietnamese values: Confucian, Catholic, 
         Publisher:      Tulane University (Ph.D.)
Date:           1987
Location:       Hamilton Library ASIA Microfiche S30258
                Vietnamese -- cultural values
Title:          Native Hawaiian Education Summit, April
                 24-25, 1993
Publisher:      [Honolulu]: The Summit
Date:           1993
Abstract:       Issue papers on the condition of education of 
                 Native Hawaiians presented at hearings 
                 before the U.S. Senate Committee on Indian 
                 Affairs that was presided over by Senator 
                 Daniel Inouye. Papers include enrollment and 
                 persistence statistics of Hawaiian students, 
                 educational assessments of Native Hawaiians, 
                 rates of Native Hawaiians in special 
                 education classes, list of learning styles 
                 more compatible with Native Hawaiians.
Location:       Hamilton Library: HAWN LC3501.H3 N369 1993
                Hawaiians -- education
                Hawaiians -- learning styles
Title:          Native Hawaiian Educational Assessment 
               Project, 1993
         Publisher:      Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Bernice Pauahi 
                 Bishop Estate
Date:           1993
Abstract:       Update of 1983 Assessment Project that is 
                 used to plan and support various educational 
                 programs, including the Native Hawaiian 
                 Education Act (P.L. 100-297, 1988). It looks 
                 at different aspects of the socio-economic 
                 status of Native Hawaiians tracing their 
                 educational changes since the 1983 report. 
                 Book is structured around six goals for 
                 Native Hawaiian students. Each chapter is 
                 supported by research reports and 
                 statistical data. Of particular interest is 
                 chapter six on cultural understanding. 
                 Impacts on the use and integration of the 
                 Hawaiian language, Hawaiian games, music, 
                 Hawaiian navigational skills in the 
                 education of Native Hawaiians are 
                Hawaiians -- education -- curriculum design
                Hawaiians -- education -- programs
                Hawaiians -- education -- statistics
Title:          Native Hawaiian educational assessment 
               project: final report July 1983
         Publisher:      Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools and Bernice 
                 Pauahi Bishop Estate
Date:           1983
Abstract:       Major study, funded by the Kamemeha Schools 
                 and Bishop Estate, had two major goals: 1) 
                 to identify the unique educational needs of 
                 Native Hawaiians; and 2) to identify 
                 effective Native American and local programs 
                 that could meet the unique educational needs 
                 of Native Hawaiians, ages 0-18 years. The 
                 researchers studied not only academic 
                 achievement, learning styles, etc., but also 
                 other major areas of influence on children's 
                 lives (socio-economic status, physical 
                 health, mental health, school system 
                 barriers, physical environment, childrearing 
                 patterns, cultural practices and cultural 
                 identity. Major findings were: 1) Native 
                 Hawaiians score the lowest of the four major 
                 ethnic groups in Hawaii's schools; 2) 
                 educational needs are inextricably 
                 interwoven with other social and physical 
                 needs; 3) Hawaiians have unique educational 
                 needs and different learning styles; 
                 4) Hawaiians tend to have low self images 
                 (but the renaissance in Hawaiian culture is 
                 developing a strong sense of pride in 
                 Hawaiians); 5) the curriculum in the public 
                 schools is not culturally relevant to 
                 Hawaiians; and 6) the existing programs 
                 developed for Native Americans do not fit 
                 the needs of Native Hawaiians. Major 
                 recommendations included: 1) the development 
                 of interagency programs to address the total 
                 needs of children; 2) support for 
                 Hawaiian/multicultural studies programs; 3) 
                 emphasis on basic skills with dissemination 
                 of culturally compatible skills curricula. 
                 Includes comprehensive bibliography.
                Hawaiians -- education
                Hawaiians -- learning styles
                multicultural education
Author(s):      Ogbu, John U. (University of California at 
Title:          Adaption to minority status and impact
               on school success
         Journal:        Theory into Practice, volume no. 31, issue 
                 no. 4, pages 287-295
Date:           Autumn 1992
Abstract:       Alternative framework to understand problems 
                 in school adjustment and academic 
                 performance of minority groups. Community 
                 forces create options that allow choices of 
                 actions that lead to outcomes of individual 
                 differences in schooling. Most explanations 
                 of relatively low school performance have 
                 limited their focus on school, family, or 
                 the individual and cannot explain 
                 differences among minority groups 
                 themselves. Voluntary minorities (Chinese, 
                 Punjabi, & South American) respond 
                 differently than involuntary minorities that 
                 are part of the U.S. because of slavery, 
                 conquest, or colonization (African 
                 Americans, Mexican Americans, Native 
                 Americans, Native Hawaiians). The voluntary 
                 minorities endorse academic success as a 
                 path to get ahead in the U.S. while the 
                 involuntary minorities are skeptical of 
                 achievement through mainstream belief and 
                 strategies, attributing their difficulties 
                 to institutionalized discrimination and 
                 maintaining group identity and separateness. 
                 (Sociofile #9306100)
                minorities -- cultural values
                minorities -- education
Author(s):      Okamura, Jonathan (Research Associate, Center 
                 for Studies of Multicultural Higher 
                 Education and Office of Minority Student 
                 Programs, UH Manoa)
Title:          Filipino cultural norms and values and
               higher education
         Journal:        Teaching and Learning at the University of 
                 Hawaii, volume no. 5, issue no. 3, pages 6-7
Date:           March 1991
Abstract:       Focuses on Filipino values and norms that are 
                 relevant to the education of Filipino 
                 American students. Two values that pertain 
                 to interpersonal relations and influence 
                 Filipino learning styles are respect for 
                 authority and pakikipagkapwa-tao, or concern 
                 for others. The value placed on concern for 
                 others is related to Filipinos' sensitivity 
                 to interpersonal relationships. In the 
                 college situation, interpersonal 
                 relationships with instructors and fellow 
                 students are of great concern to Filipino 
                 American students. The cultural norm of 
                 respect of authority figures discourages 
                 disagreement with or excessive familiarity 
                 with authority figures, such as professors. 
                 Recommendations are made for adjustments in 
                 teaching strategies that are culturally 
                 sensitive to Filipino learning styles.
                Filipinos -- cultural values
                Filipinos -- learning styles
Author(s):      Ponce, Danilo E.; Forman, Sheila (Associate 
                 Professor of Psychiatry, John A. Burns 
                 School of Medicine, UH Manoa; Program 
                 Director of Community Resource Development, 
                 Mental Health Association, Honolulu)
Title:          The Filipinos in Tseng, Wen-Shing Jr.; 
               McDermott, John F.; Maretzki, Thomas W., 
               eds. People and cultures in Hawaii: an 
               introduction for mental health workers
         Publisher:      Honolulu: John A. Burns School of Medicine, 
                 UH Manoa
Date:           1974
Abstract:       Introduces important characteristics of the 
                 Filipino culture, including the concept of 
                 the extended family, the hierarchical nature 
                 of relationships, and the conflicting and 
                 contradictory Malay, Spanish, and American 
                 influences upon the Filipino culture and 
                 character. Explains five distinctive 
                 characteristics of Filipinos: 1) amor 
                 proprio, self-esteem; 2) hiya, shame/ 
                 embarrassment; 3) utang ng loob, the debt of 
                 gratitude; 4) pakikisam, getting along 
                 harmoniously; 5) bahala na, leaving things 
                 to fate. Describes the Filipino experience 
                 in Hawaii and the life and goals of the 
                 people during the three distinct periods of 
                Filipinos -- cultural values
Author(s):      Pukui, Mary; Haertig, E.W.; Lee, Catherine A.
Title:          Nana I Ke Kumu (look to the source) volume II
Publisher:      Honolulu: Hui Hanai
Date:           1972
Abstract:       Work funded by the Queen Lili'uokalani 
                 Children's Center staff to understand the 
                 Hawaiian cultural heritage and to help 
                 health and social service professionals 
                 improve their services to Hawaiians. Essays 
                 are based on Mary Kawena Pukui's 
                 explanantion of traditional beliefs, 
                 concepts, and practices. Contains sections 
                 on how children learn and on qualities of 
                 aggression (including competition).
                Hawaiians -- cultural values
                Hawaiians -- learning styles
Author(s):      Sing, David K. (Director, Center for Gifted 
                 and Talented Native Hawaiian Children, UH Hilo)
Title:          Success models for gifted Native students
         Publisher:      Mobile, AL: paper presented at the 25th 
                 Annual Convention of the National Indian 
                 Education Association
Date:           1993
Abstract:       Overview of the Center for Gifted and 
                 Talented Native Hawaiian Children at UH Hilo 
                 that develops culturally-appropriate gifted 
                 and talented programs for Native Hawaiian 
                 children. Programs include: 1) super 
                 enrichment Saturday (open-enrollment, theme-
                 oriented enrichment programs for K-9 
                 children; 2) 3-week interdisciplinary, 
                 culturally-oriented program for K-5 gifted 
                 students identified in Super Saturday 
                 events; 3) 2-week residential summer 
                 institutes for grades 6-11 gifted students; 
                 4) Kamalani children's chorus for talented 
                 singers and dancers for grades 4-6; 5) 
                 individualized courses for underachieving 
                 gifted high school students to develop self-
                 esteem and study habits; 6) advanced 
                 programs for high school students who have 
                 completed summer institutes. Also includes 
                 worksheets for observational assessment of 
                 giftedness, activities planning, and sample 
                 problem on a student application. (ERIC 
                Hawaiians -- education
                Hawaiians -- learning styles
                Center for Gifted and Talented Native 
                 Hawaiian Childrent, UH Hilo
Author(s):      Suleman, Mahmoud F.; Moore, Rock
Title:          Teaching math and science to language 
               minority children: implications for 
         Publisher:      Hays, KS: paper presented at the Annual 
                 Meeting of the Kansas Association of 
                 Teachers of Mathematics
Date:           October 1995
Abstract:       Factors influencing the learning of 
                 mathematics in the linguistically diverse 
                 classroom are examined. Teachers are 
                 encouraged to be aware that several 
                 linguistic, cultural, and cognitive factors 
                 affect the learner's academic performance, 
                 and to use linguistically and culturally 
                 sensitive instructional methods to ensure 
                 success. Classroom activities recommended 
                 are word problems that encourage repetitive 
                 language use, concrete and sensory 
                 experiences, cooperative activities that 
                 encourage interpersonal contact and problem-
                 solving, writing and rewriting math 
                 problems, songs, and rhymes. (ERIC ED391390)
                multicultural education -- teaching styles
                multicultural education -- mathematics
                multicultural education -- science
Author(s):      Tharp, Roland G. (Department of Psychology, 
                 UH Manoa)
Title:          Psychocultural variables and constants: 
               effects on teaching and learning in 
         Journal:        American Psychologist, volume no. 44, pages 
Date:           February 1, 1989
Abstract:       Conclusions of the Kamehameha Early Education 
                 Project (KEEP), developed by 
                 anthropologists, psychologists, and 
                 educators for Native Hawaiian children. 
                 After careful study of the learning and 
                 social interaction patterns in Hawaiian 
                 homes, the researchers designed a culturally 
                 compatible language arts program for K-3 
                 children at the Kamehameha Schools. The 
                 program was highly successful in raising 
                 students' tests scores and in raising levels 
                 of participation in class. When the program 
                 was tried in a Navajo classroom in Arizona, 
                 however, it failed. Only after the 
                 researchers redesigned it to integrate 
                 Navajo cultural practices did the program 
                 enjoy acceptance and success. Author 
                 believes that certain educational practices 
                 need to be culturally specific (the 
                 variables) and some should be used with all 
                 children (constants).
                Hawaiians -- cultural values
                Hawaiians -- learning styles
                multicultural education -- curriculum design
                Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) 
Author(s):      Timm, Joan Thrower (College of Education and 
                 Human Services, University of Wisconsin)
Title:          Hmong values and American education
         Journal:        Equity and Excellence in Education, volume 
                 no. 27, issue no. 2, pages 36-44
Date:           September 1994
Abstract:       Interviews 23 Hmong males and females on 
                 childrearing practices, social customs, 
                 educational values, and family 
                 communication. Also interviewed 100+ 
                 educators. Project showed that the Hmong 
                 sort into three cultural groups: the older 
                 Hmong focus on Laotian traditions, the young 
                 adults trying to integrate the two cultures, 
                 and the children with no experience with the 
                 Laotian culture. The primary ideological 
                 conflict between Hmong and U.S. cultures is 
                 the emphasis on the family/clan versus 
                 individual freedom. In addition, the Hmong 
                 have more clearly defined gender-role 
                 expectations than found in the U.S. Hmong 
                 parents and U.S. educators differ on the 
                 value of parent-teacher conferences, the use 
                 of corporal punishment, rote versus 
                 discovery learning, and homework. (Sociofile 
                Hmong (Laos) -- cultural values
                Hmong (Laos) -- education 
Author(s):      Tsuchida, John Nobuya (Director of the Office 
                 for Minority and Special Student Affairs and 
                 Adjunct Professor of East Asian Studies and 
                 American Studies, University of Minnesota)
Title:          Filipino Americans in A guide on Asian
               and Pacific Islander American students
         Publisher:      Washington, D.C.: National Education 
                 Association of the United States
Date:           1991
Abstract:       Chapter describes key educational issues of 
                 Filipino Americans as: 1) many post-1965 
                 immigrants have high levels of formal 
                 education in the Philippines, but their 
                 children have academic and social adjustment 
                 problems in American schools because of high 
                 parental expectations, stereotyping of high-
                 achieving Asian American students, gang 
                 activity, and lack of parenting skills of 
                 immigrant parents in relation to their 
                 Americanized children; 2) students' lack of 
                 English proficiency; 3) Filipino immigrant 
                 students do not maintain eye contact with 
                 persons of authority; 4) Filipino American 
                 students are not aggressive or quick to 
                 seize recognition in the classroom; 5) 
                 Filipino immigrant students are not used to 
                 or good at taking standardized tests; 6) 
                 immigrant students from the Philippines are 
                 very different from 3rd generation Filipino 
                Filipinos -- cultural values
                Filipinos -- education
Producers:      Waianae Women's Support Group (WWSG) and 
                 Hawaii State Teachers Association
Title:          He makana no na kumu kula: the gift for
               the school teachers.
         Production:     Honolulu: Alpha Media and Na Maka O Ka Aina
Abstract:       30-minute videotape developed and produced by 
                 the WWSG examines old Hawaiian teaching 
                 strategies and techniques that have been 
                 effective in teaching Hawaiian students. 
                 Video was undertaken by WSSG to determine 
                 why their children had the lowest test 
                 scores in Hawaii in a 1983 DOE survey. The 
                 WWSG found that in the same year of the 
                 survey, 60% of Waianae's teachers were of 
                 Japanese ancestry who were often new 
                 graduates, who were not usually prepared to 
                 teach Native Hawaiian children, and who were 
                 not familiar with non-traditional, 
                 nonWestern teaching methods which have 
                 proven to be effective with Hawaiian 
                 children. Hawaiian teaching methods reviewed 
                 were: 1) providing the answer before posing 
                 the question to avoid putting the child on 
                 the spot; 2) utilizing hands-on learning 
                 techniques; 3) the sharing of food; 4) 
                 highlighting performance to inspire and 
                 create pride; 5) visits by role models for 
                 students to create success options for 
                Hawaiians -- cultural values
                Hawaiians -- education
                Hawaiians -- learning styles
Author(s):      Young, Benjamin B.C. (Associate Dean of 
                 Student Affairs and Assistant Professor of 
                 Psychiatry John A. Burns School of Medicine, 
                 UH Manoa)
Title:          The Hawaiians in McDermott, John F.;
               Tseng, Wen-Sheng Jr.; Martezki, Thomas
               W. eds. Peoples and cultures of Hawaii:
               a psychological profile 
         Publisher:      Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii
Date:           1980
Abstract:       Describes coping mechanisms that are unique 
                 to 20th century Hawaiians. With an 
                 increasing ethnically intermixed population, 
                 the Hawaiian cultural system and lifestyle 
                 can still be considered in the context of 
                 the ohana (extended family), which 
                 emphasizes the importance of relationships 
                 and group orientation. The importance of 
                 relationships is illustrated by the Hawaiian 
                 love of children, constant human physical 
                 contact, and the need to keep relationships 
                 free of conflicts. Examples of methods to 
                 avoid conflicts are: 1) not asking questions 
                 which might embarrass someone; 2) not 
                 running out of refreshments at parties; 3) 
                 avoidance of individual success and 
                 competition (although performance to benefit 
                 the group is acceptable). The author also 
                 points out the importance of dreams to 
                 Hawaiians and the process of ho'oponopono in 
                 coping with problems. Historically, a 
                 process of therapy for the immediate or 
                 extended family, it involves prayer, problem 
                 definition, solution, the necessity for 
                 truthfulness and sincerity, the need for a 
                 leader to direct the session, restitution, 
                 and forgiveness. Avoidance and denial of 
                 problems and avoidance of intimate 
                 invovlement with outsiders are other coping 
                Hawaiians -- cultural values
                Hawaiians -- learning styles 




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