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Sabini, J., Cosmas, K., Siepmann, M., & Stein, J. (1999). Underestimates and truly false consensus effects in estimates of embarrassment and other emotions. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21, 223-241.

Sabini, J., Garvey, B., & Hall, A. L. (2001). Shame and Embarrassment Revisited. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 104-117. doi:10.1177/0146167201271009

Sabini, J., Siepmann, M., & Stein, J. (2001). The really fundamental attribution error in social psychological research. Psychological Inquiry, 12, 1-15

Sabini, J., Siepmann, M., & Stein, J. (2001). Authors' response to commentaries .Psychological Inquiry, 12, 41-49.

Sabini, J., Siepmann, M., Stein, J., & Meyerowitz, M. (2000). Who is embarrassed by what? Cognition and Emotion, 14, 213-240.

Sabini, J. & Silver, M. (1977). Moral reproach, gossip, and embarrassment. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Society for Cross-Cultural Research.

Sabini, J. & Silver, M. (1997). In defense of shame: Shame in the context of guilt and embarrassment. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour. 27, 1-15.

Sagar, S. S., & Stoeber, J. (2009). Perfectionism, fear of failure, and affective responses to success and failure: the central role of fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31, 602-627.

Sanchez, T. et al. (1978). Napahiya Ka Ano? [Embarrassing Situations]. In M. T. Crisanto (Ed.), University of the Philippines – Manual of Experimental Psychology. Manila: United Publishing.

Sandlund, E. (2004). Feeling by doing: The social organization of everyday emotions in academic talk-in-interaction (chapter 6: Negotiating Embarrassment: Sequential Environment, displays and management, pp. 160-225). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Karlstad University, Sweden.

Santor, D. A., & Sega, Z. V. (1996). Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride - Tangney, J. P., & Fischer, K. W. [Review of the book Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride]. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry - Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie, 41, 310-311.

Sargin, N. (2009). A study into depression along with feelings of guiltiness and embarrassment among adolescents. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, 1414-14-18. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.249

Sarnoff, I., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1961). Anxiety, fear and social affiliation. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, 356-363.

Sasaki, J., Sugawara, K., & Tanno, Y. (2005). Why is the diverse U letter relationship between embarrassment and psychological distance observed?: In view of Schlenker and Leary(1982)'s self-presentation model of social anxiety. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 76, 445-452.

Sattler, J. M. (1959). A study of embarrassment. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas, KS.

Sattler, J. M. (1963). The relative meaning of embarrassment. Psychological Reports, 12, 263-269.

Sattler, J. M. (1965). A theoretical, developmental, and clinical investigation of embarrassment. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 71, 19-59.

Sattler, J. M. (1966). Embarrassment and blushing: A theoretical review. Journal of Social Psychology, 69, 117-133.

Saul, L. J. (1966). Embarrassment dreams of nakedness. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 47, 552-558.

Savasir, I. & Sahin, N. H. (1997). Bilissel-Davranisci Terapilerde Degerlendime: Sik Kullanilan Olcekler [Cognitive-behavioral therapy assessment: Frequently used scales]. Ankara: Turk Psikologlar Dernegi Yayinlari. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.249

Savitsky, K, Epley, N, & Gilovich, T. (2001). Do others judge us as harshly as we think? Overestimating the impact of our failures, shortcomings, and mishaps. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 81, 44-56.

Scheff, T. J. (1995). Shame and related emotions, an interdisciplinary approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Scheff, T. J. (in press). "Embarrassment" as the master emotion of everyday life. In C. Leach & L. Tiedens (Eds.), Relational approaches to emotions. New York: Klewer/Plenum.

Scheff, T. J., & Retzinger, S. M. (2000, October). Shame as the master emotion of everyday life. Journal of Mundane Behavior, 1. Retrieved October 11, 2001, from http://www.mundanebehavior.org/index.htm

Schelling, C. M., Kelly, K. M., Spears, L. L., & Lawler, K. A. (1999, April). Hypertension risk factors, gender, and cardiovascular reactivity during embarrassment recall. Paper presented at the 71st Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, IL.

Schlenker, B. R., & Darby, B. W. (1981). The use of apologies in social predicaments. Social Psychology Quarterly, 44, 271-278.

Schneier, F. R. (1991). Social phobia. Psychiatric Annals, 21, 349-353.

Schneier, F. R., & Liebowitz, M. R. (1990). Social phobia in adulthood. In M. Hersen & C. G. Last (Eds). (1990). Handbook of child and adult psychopathology: A longitudinal perspective. Pergamon general psychology series, 161 (pp. 169-180). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.

Schudson, M. (1984). Embarrassment and Erving Goffman's idea of human nature. Theory and Society: Renewal and Critiques in Social Theory, 13, 633-648.

Seamark, C., & Blake, S. (2005). Concerning women: questionnaire survey of consultations, embarrassment, and views on confidentiality in general practice among women in their teens, thirties and fifties. Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care, 31, 31-33.

Seidner, L. B., Stipek, D. J., & Feshbach, N. D. (1988). A developmental analysis of elementary school-aged children's concept of pride and embarrassment. Child Development, 59, 236-377.

Semin, G. R., & Manstead, A. S. R. (1981). The beholder beheld: A study of social emotionality. European Journal of Social Psychology, 11, 253-265.

Semin, G. R., & Manstead, A. S. R. (1982). The social implications of embarrassment displays and restitution behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology, 12, 367-377.

Semin, G. R., & Thomas, M. R. (1982). The social function and significance of embarrassment displays. Gruppendynamik-zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Sozialpsychologie, 13, 259-273.

Sera, K. (2004). A cross-cultural comparison between American embarrassment and shame and Japanese haji. (Unpublished master's thesis). Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC.

Seymour, W. (1998). Remaking the body: Rehabilitation and change (Chapter 6. Coping with embarrassment: Bodily continence). London, England: Routledge.

Shahidi, S., & Baluch, B. (1991). False heart-rate feedback, social anxiety and self-attribution of embarrassment. Psychological Reports, 69, 1024-1026.

Shapiro, E. G. (1983). Embarrassment and help-seeking. In B. M. DePaulo, A. Nadler, & J. D. Fisher (Eds.), New directions in helping: Vol. 2. Help-seeking (pp.143-163). New York: Academic Press.

Sharkey, W. F. (1988, April). The effects of embarrassment upon interpersonal communication: A social exchange perspective. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Communication Research Conference, Athens, OH.

Sharkey, W. F. (1988, May/June). Embarrassment: A review of literature. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans, LA.

Sharkey, W. F. (1990). Intentional embarrassment: Goals, tactics, responses and consequences. Dissertation Abstracts International, 51 (7), 2199A.

Sharkey, W. F. (1991). Intentional embarrassment: Goals, tactics and consequences. In W. R. Cupach & S. Metts (Eds.), Advances in interpersonal communication research 1991: Proceedings of the annual conference of the Western States Communication Association (pp. 105-128). Normal, IL: Personal Relationships Research Group.

Sharkey, W. F. (1992, February). Sex differences in responding to intentional embarrassment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western States Communication Association, Boise, ID.

Sharkey, W. F. (1992). The use and response to intentional embarrassment. Communication Studies, 44, 257-275.

Sharkey, W. F. (1993). Who embarrasses whom?: Relational and sex differences in the use of intentional embarrassment. In P. Kalbfleisch (Ed.), Interpersonal communication: Evolving interpersonal relationships (pp. 147-168). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Sharkey, W. F. (1995, February). Intentional embarrassment: The issue of "Trust." Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Western States Communication Association, Portland, OR.

Sharkey, W. F. (1997). Why would anyone what to intentionally embarrass me? In R. Kowalski (Ed.), Aversive interpersonal behaviors (pp. 57-90). New York: Plenum.

Sharkey, W. F., Diggs, R., & Kim, M. S. (1993, May). Why did you deliberately embarrass me? The effects of attribution. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the International Communication Association, Washington, DC.

Sharkey, W. F., & Hamilton, M. A. (2009, November). The proclivity to intentionally embarrass scale (PIE-Scale): An initial validation and causal model. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Chicago, IL.

Sharkey, W. F., & Hamilton, M. A. (2011, February). Proclivity to intentionally embarrass scales: PIE-self and PIE-other. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western States Communication Association, Monterey, CA.

Sharkey, W. F., & Kim, M. S. (2000). The effect of embarrassability on perceived importance of conversational constraints during bind interactions. Human Communication, 3, 29-40.

Sharkey, W. F., Kim, M. S., & Diggs, R. (2001). Intentional embarrassment: A look at embarrassors' and targets' perspectives. Personality & Individual Differences, 31, 1261-1272. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00214-2

Sharkey, W. F., Kim, R. K., & Park, H. S. (2000, November). Why would I ever want to intentionally embarrass myself? Poster presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Seattle, WA.

Sharkey, W. F., Kim, R. K., & Weitz, B. D. (2007, May). Self-construal, embarrassability, & communication apprehension: The test of a model. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, San Francisco, CA.

Sharkey, W. F., & Koo, M. (2012, February). The proclivity to intentionally embarrass others and self: A validation of the PIE scales. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western States Communication Association, Albuquerque, NM. [new] [added February 14, 2012]

Sharkey, W. F., Kulp, C., Carpenter, B. M., Lee, C., & Rodillas, U. (1997). Embarrassment: The effects of embarrassor and target perceptions. Communication Research Reports, 14, 460-469.

Sharkey, W. F., Nussbaum, R., & Asamoto, P. (2002, March). Intentional embarrassment: A cultural perspective. Paper presented at the meeting of the Western Speech Communication Association, Long Beach, CA.

Sharkey, W. F., Park, H. S., & Kim, R. K. (2001, November). Strategic use of self-embarrassment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Atlanta, GA.

Sharkey, W. F., Park, H. S., & Kim, R. K. (2004). Intentional self-embarrassment. Communication Studies,55, 379-399.

Sharkey, W. F., & Singelis, T. M. (1993, June). Embarrassability and relational orientation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Network on Personal Relationships, Milwaukee, WI.

Sharkey, W. F., & Singelis, T. M. (1995). Embarrassability and self-construal: A theoretical integration. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 919-926. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(95)00125-5

Sharkey, W. F., & Stafford, L. (1988, November). I've never been so embarrassed: Degree of embarrassment and its effect upon communicative responses. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, New Orleans, LA.

Sharkey, W. F., & Stafford, L. (1989, May). "So, how embarrassing was it?...whadja do?": The relationship between the situation, the degree of perceived embarrassment and responses to embarrassment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, San Francisco, CA.

Sharkey, W. F., & Stafford, L. (1990). Responses to embarrassment. Human Communication Research, 17, 315-342. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.1990.tb00235.x

Sharkey, W. F., & Waldron, V. R. (1990, November). The intentional embarrassment of subordinates in the work place. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Speech Communication Association, Chicago, IL.

Shearn, D., Spellman, L., Meirick, J., & Stryker, K. (1999). Empathic blushing in friends and strangers. Motivation & Emotion, 23, 307-316.

Sheley, K. A. (1978). Losing face: The psychological stress of embarrassment. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (10), 5153-5154B.

Shields, S. A., Mallory, M. E., & Simon, A. (1990). The experience and symptoms of blushing as a function of age and reported frequency of blushing. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 14, 171-187.

Shudson, M. (1984). Embarrassment and Erving Goffman's idea of human nature. Theory and Society, 13, 633-648.

Silver, M. (1994). Il carattere: Colpa, vergogna e un po' di imbarazzo (Character: Guilt, shame, and a touch of embarrassment) (Translated by Isabella Poggi). In C. Castelfranchi, R. D'Amico, & I. Poggi (Eds.) Sensi di colpa: Aspetti cognitivi, affettivi e relazionali (pp. ). Rome: Giunti.

Silver, M., & Sabini, J. (1990, November) Character: Guilt, Shame, and a bit of embarrassment. Paper presented at the Institute of Psychology of CNR (National Research Center), Rome, Italy.

Silver, M., Sabini, J., & Parrott, W. G. (1987). Embarrassment: A dramaturgic account. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 17, 47-61.

Singelis, T. M., Bond, M. H., Lai, S. Y, & Sharkey, W. F. (1997, August). Self, self-esteem, and embarrassability in three cultures. Paper presented at the annual conference of the European Congress of Psychology, Athens, Greece.

Singelis, T. M., Bond, M. H., Sharkey, W. F., & Lai, S. Y. (1999). Unpackaging culture's influence on self-esteem and embarrassability: The role of self-construals. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30, 315-341.

Singelis, T. M., & Dawdle, M. A. (1997, April). Distinct types of embarrassability and their relationship to self-construal. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Western Psychological Association, Seattle, WA.

Singelis, T. M., & Sharkey, W. F. (1994, July). An ethno-cultural perspective on embarrassability. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sydney, Australia.

Singelis, T. M., & Sharkey, W. F. (1995). Culture, self-construal, and embarrassability. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26, 622-644.

Sipna, K. (2010). Comfort and embarrassment in condom use in short, medium and long-term relationships. (Unpublished master's thesis). Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA.

Smith, H. W. (1980). A modest test of cross-cultural differences in sexual modesty, embarrassment and self-disclosure. Qualitative Sociology, 3, 223-241.

Smith, S. S. (1992). Humiliation, degradation and the criminal justice system. Journal of Primary Prevention, 12, 209.

Smith, V. E. (2005). Embarrassment deficits in frontotemporal lobar dementia patients. (Unpublished master's thesis). University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Snider, E. (1990). Strategic embarrassment. Unpublished manuscript, Arizona State University.

Snider, E. (1992). Strategic embarrassment and face saving strategies. Unpublished master's thesis, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

Snider, E. (1993). The influence of gender on face saving in strategic embarrassment situations. Paper presented at the meeting of the Speech Communication Association, Miami, FL.

Snider, E. (1993, February). Strategic embarrassment I: The influence of situational constraints on the use of remedial strategies. Paper presented at the meeting of the Western States Communication Association, Albuquerque, NM.

Snider, E. (1993, May). Strategic embarrassment II: The influence of time on the employment of face saving strategies. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Communication Association, Washington, DC.

Somerville, L. H., Jones, R. M., Ruberry, E. J., Dyke, J. P., Glover, G., & Casey, B. J. (2013). The medial prefrontal cortex and the emergence of self-conscious emotion in adolescence. Psychological Science, 24, 1554-1562. doi:10.1177/0956797613475633 [new] [added September 18, 2014]

Spenger, J. (2009). Die grenzen der peinlichkeit im österreichischen Fernsehen [The limits of embarrassment on Austrian television]. (Unpublished master's thesis). Retrieved from Universitats Bibliothek. (AC Number: AC07709425)

Statman, D. (2000). Humiliation, dignity and self-respect. Philosophical Psychology, 13, 523-540.

Stavitsky, K., Epley, N., & Gilovich, T. (2001). Do others judge us as harshly as we think? Overestimating the impact of our failures, shortcomings, and mishaps. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 81, 44-56.

Stegmann, K. (1990): Scham und Peinlichkeit. Eine Wissenschaftskontroverse zwischen historischer und anthropologischer Betrachtung von Gefühlen [Unterricht Sekundarstufe II] [Shame and embarrassment. A scientific controversy between historical and anthropological consideration of feelings [secondary education]]. Geschichte lernen Heft, 15, 59-63.

Stein, M. B. (1997). Phenomenology and epidemiology of social phobia. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 12, S23-S26.

Stipek, D. (1995). The development of pride and shame in toddlers. In J. P. Tangney & K. W. Fischer (Eds.), Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride (pp. 237-252). NY: Guilford.

Stocks, E. L., Lishner, D. A., Waits, B. L., & Downum, E. M. (2011). I'm embarrassed for you: The effect of valuing and perspective taking on empathic embarrassment and empathic concern. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41, 1-26. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2010.00699.x

Stoeber, J., Kobori, O., & Yoshihiko, T. (2013). Perfectionism and self-conscious emotions in British and Japanese students: Predicting pride and embarrassment after success and failure. European Journal of Personality, 27, 59-70. doi:10.1002/per.1858 [new] [added March 25, 2013]

Stonehouse, C. M., & Miller, R. S. (1994, July). Embarrassing circumstances, week by week. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Society, Washington, DC.

Strong, J. M. (1998). Parental use of intentional embarrassment. Unpublished master's thesis, Boise State University, Boise, ID.

Strike, C., & Rufo, C. (2010). Embarrassing, degrading, or beneficial: Patient and staff perspectives on urine drug testing in methadone maintenance treatment. Journal of Substance Use, 15, 303-312. doi:10.3109/14659890903431603 [new] [added February 14, 2012]

Strum, V. E., Ascher, E. W., Miller, B. L., & Levenson, R. W. (2008). Diminished self-conscious emotional responding in frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients. Emotion, 8, 861-869.

Sturm, V. E., Rosen, H. J., Allison, S., Miller, B. L., & Levenson, R. W. (2006). Self-conscious emotion deficits in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Brain, 129, 2508-2516. doi:10.1093/brain/awl145

Subedi, J. J., Brown, J. S., Subedi, S., Basnyat, K., Tausig, M., & Santangelo, S. (2008). A linking mechanism between disability and depression: Embarrassment over one's health problems [Abstract]. Gerontologist, 48, 132-132.

Subedi, J. J., Brown, J. S., Subedi, S., Basnyat, K., Tausig, M., & Santangelo, S. (2008, November). A linking mechanism between disability and depression: Embarrassment over one’s health problems. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, National Harbor, MD.

Sueda, K. (1990). A cross-cultural study of embarrassment: The U. S. culture and the Japanese culture. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). California State University, Fullerton, CA.

Sueda, K., & Wiseman, R. (1992). Embarrassment remediation in Japan and the United States. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16, 159-173.

Sugawara, K. (1992). A study on embarrassment in new role situation: Using
the data from university students at their probation in nursery school for the first time. Communication and Society (Bulletin of Edogawa University), 2, 31-39.

Sugawara, K. (1992). A typology of social anxiety. Research in Social Psychology, 7.

Sugawara, K. (1998). Why do people feel embarrassment. The social psychology of embarrassment and self-image. Tokyo: Saiensu-sha.

Sugawara, K. (2001). The social psychology of embarrassment and shame. (http://www5b.biglobe.ne.jp/~sken/top.htm)

Sullivan, M. W. (1991). Changes in embarrassment as a function of age, sex, and situation. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 485.

Suzuki, F. (2001, April). Embarrassability in cultural context: Difference between U. S. and Japan. Paper presented at the Minnesota State University Moorhead Student Academic Conference, Moorhead, MN.

Swoboda, H., Demal, U., Krautgartner, M., & Amering, M. (2003). Heightened embarrassability discriminates between panic disorder patients with and without agoraphobia. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 34, 195-204.

Szabados, B. (1990). Embarrassment and self-esteem. Journal of Philosophical Research, 15, 341-349.

Szopski, M. (2001). Politics of Embarrassment: Orange Alternative versus Party-State. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61, 3793A.


 
 

Last updated on September 2, 2014

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