Landweer, H. (1999). Scham und Macht. Phänomenologische Untersuchungen zur Sozialität eines Gefühls [Shame and power. Phenomenological investigations of the sociality of a feeling]. Philosophische Untersuchungen Bd. 7. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

Lankenau, S. E. (1999). Stronger than dirt: Public humiliation and status enhancement among panhandlers. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 28, 288-318.

Lau, I. Y., Chiu, C. Y., & Ho, D. Y. F. (1997, August). Distinguishing between embarrassment and losing face: The role of agency. Paper presented at the Second Conference of the Asian Association of Social Psychology, Kyoto, Japan.

Lau-Gesk, L., & Drolet, A. L. (2004). Public self-consciousness and purchase intentions for embarrassing products (Working Papers, #392). Los Angeles, CA: UCLA, Anderson School of Management.

Lau-Gesk, L., & Drolet, A. L. (2008). The publicly self-consciousness consumer: Prepared to be embarrassed. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 18, 127-136.

Lavee, A. (1967). A facet analysis of embarrassment. (Unpublished master's thesis). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Lawler, J. (1991). Behind the screens: Nursing, somology and the problem of the body (Chapter 6. Embarrassment, social rules and the context of body care). Melbourne, Australia: Churchill Livingstone.

Lawler, J. (2004). Embarrassment, social rules and the context of body care. In S. Barrett, C. Komaromy, M. Robb, & A. Rogers (Eds.), Communication, relationships and care: A reader (pp. 157-166).

Le Compte, E. (1990). The relationships of contraceptive behavior and contraceptive embarrassment to identity, career maturity, and vocational identity. Dissertation Abstracts International, 52, 1266A.

Leary, M. R. (1990, October). Embarrassment, appeasement, and blushing. In M. Leary (Chair), Protecting the public self. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Society for Experimental Social Psychology, Buffalo, NY.

Leary, M. R. (2001). Living in the minds of others without knowing it. Psychological Inquiry, 12, 28-30.

Leary, M. R., Britt, T. W., Cutlip, W. D., II, & Templeton, J. L. (1992). Social blushing. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 446-460.

Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (1995). Emotions and social behavior. New York: Guilford.

Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (1997). Social Anxiety. Guilford Press.

Leary, M. R., Landel, J. L., & Patton, K. M. (1996). The motivated expression of embarrassment following a self-presentational predicament. Journal of Personality, 64, 619-636.

Leary, M. R., & Meadows, S. (1991). Predictors, elicitors, and concomitants of social blushing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 254-262.

Leary, M. R., Rejeski, W. J., & Britt, T. W. (1990, June). Distinguishing embarrassment from social anxiety. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Society, Dallas, TX.

Lebra, T. S. (1987). The cultural significance of silence in Japanese communication. Multilingua, 6, 343-357.

Lee, J. (2009). Escaping embarrassment: Face-work in the rap cipher. Social Psychology Quarterly, 72, 306-324.

Lee, S. (1993). Self-reported embarrassment between Chinese, Chinese American, and Caucasian American college students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55 (4), 869A.

Leitenberg, H. (1990). Handbook of social and evaluation anxiety. Plenum.

Lenga, M. R., & Kleinke, C. L. (1974). Modeling, anonymity, and performance of an undesirable act. Psychological Reports, 34, 501-502.

Levin, J., & Arluke, A. (1982). Embarrassment and helping behavior. Psychological Reports, 51, 999-1002.

Levin, J., & Ranelli, C. J. (1977). Observer visibility and comfort in a surveillance situation. Sociometry, 40, 343-350.

Lewis, M. (1991). The origins of shame, guilt, pride, and embarrassment. Brown University Child Behavior & Development Letter, 7, 3.

Lewis, M. (1992). Shame: The exposed self. New York: Free Press.

Lewis, M. (1993). Self-conscious emotions: Embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 353-364). New York: Guilford.

Lewis, M. (1995). Embarrassment: The emotion of self-exposure and evaluation. In J. P. Tangney & K. W. Fischer (Eds.), Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride (pp. 198-218). NY: Guilford.

Lewis, M. (2000). Self-conscious emotions: Embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (2nd ed., pp. 623-636). New York: Guilford Press.

Lewis, M. (2001). Self-conscious emotions. In Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology (2nd ed.). Gale Group. Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/g2699/0006/2699000612/p1/article.jhtml

Lewis, M. (2001). The origins of the self-conscious child. In R. Crozier & L. E. Alden (Eds.), International handbook of social anxiety: Concepts, research, and interventions relating to the self and shyness. (pp. 101-118). Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons.

Lewis, M. (2003). The development of self-consciousness. In J. Roessler & N. Eilan (Eds.), Agency and self-awareness (pp. 275-295). England: Oxford University Press.

Lewis, M. & Ramsay, D. (2002). Cortisol response to embarrassment and shame. Child Development, 73, 1034-1045.

Lewis, M., Stanger, C., Sullivan, M. W., & Barone, P. (1991). Changes in embarrassment as a function of age, sex and situation. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 485-492.

Lewis, M., Sullivan, M. W., Stanger, C., & Weiss, M. (1989). Self development and self-conscious emotions. Child Development, 60, 146-156.

Lewis, M., Sullivan, M. W., Stanger, C., & Weiss, M. (1991). Self development and self-conscious emotions (Reprinted from Child Development, 1989, Vol. 60, 146-156). In S. Chess & M. E. Hertzig (Eds.), Annual progress in child psychiatry and child development (pp. 34-51). Brunner/Mazel, Inc, New York.

Li, J., Wang, L., & Fischer, K. (2004). The organisation of Chinese shame concepts? Cognition and Emotion, 18, 767-797.

Lifka, A. M., Kelly, K. M., & Ryan, R. L. (1998, November). Embarrassment in the interpersonal circle. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Southeastern Social Psychologists, Athens, GA.

Lighty, G. A. (1990). Dimensions of shame: The construction and validation of a measurement of shame (guilt, depression, embarrassment). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno, CA.

Lim, T. S. (1994). Facework and interpersonal relationships. In S. Ting-Toomey (Ed.), The challenge of facework: Cross-cultural and interpersonal issues (pp. 209-229). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Lim, T. S., & Bowers, J. W. (1991). Facework: Solidarity, approbation, and tact. Human Communication Research, 17, 415-450.

Lindquist, J. (2004). Veils and ecstasy: Negotiating shame in the Indonesian borderlands. Ethnos, 69, 487-508.

Lizardo, O., & Collett, J. L. (2013). Embarrassment and social organization: A multiple identities model. Social Forces, 92(1), 353-375. doi: 10.1093/sf/sot078 [new] [added September 18, 2014]

Lodge, N., Mallett, J., Blake, P., & Fryatt, I. (1997). A study to ascertain gynecological patients' perceived levels of embarrassment with physical and psychological care given by female and male nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25, 893-907.

Louis, E. D., & Rios, E. (2009). Embarrassment in essential tremor: Prevalence, clinical correlates and therapeutic implications. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 15, 535-538.

Lyddy, F. (1999). Embarrassment in the classroom. Psychologist, 12, 190.


Last updated on September 18, 2014

Send additional references,
updates, and corrections to
William F. Sharkey

Copyright 2001-2014 William F. Sharkey

Search the
Bibliography of Embarrassment Research