Cahill, S. E. (1991). Embarrassment, embarrassability, and public order. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Cincinnati, OH.
Cahill, S. E. (1992). Embarrassability and public civility. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Sociological Society, Kansas City, MO.
Cahill, S. E. (1995). Embarrassability and public civility: Another view of a much maligned emotion. In M. Flaherty & C. Ellis (Eds.), Social perspectives on emotion (Vol. 3, pp. 253-271). Stamford, CT: JAI Press.
Calkin, C. A. (1987). Education by embarrassment and mortification: Character development in Pride and Prejudice, Emma, and Persuasion. Ottawa, Canada: National Library of Canada.
Cann, A., & Blackwelder, J. G. (1984). Compliance and mood: A field investigation of the impact of embarrassment. Journal of Psychology, 117, 221-226.
Caplan, S. E., & Samter, W. (1999). The role of facework in younger and older adults' evaluations of social support messages. Communication Quarterly, 47, 245-264.
Carpenter, J. D., Dowdle, M. A., Cardona, B. K., & Singelis, T. M. (1997, April). Distinctions of embarrassment and their relationship to self-construal. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Western Psychological Association, Seattle.
Carson, C. L., & Cupach, W. R. (2000). Facing corrections in the workplace: The influence of perceived face threat on the consequences of managerial reproaches. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 28, pp. 215-234.
Cason, W. B. (1992). Shame and the church dropout: The effect of embarrassment, humiliation, and shame on church attendance in small rural churches. (Unpublished master's thesis). Asbury Theololgical Seminary, Wilmore, KY.
Castelfranchi, C., & Poggi, I. (1990). Blushing as a discourse: Was Darwin wrong? In W. R. Crozier (ed.), Shyness and embarrassment: Perspectives from social psychology (pp. 230-251). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Castledine, G. (2002). Nurse who caused an elderly patient stress and embarrassment. British Journal of Nursing, 11, 731-734.
Chang, H., & Holt, G. R. (1994). A Chinese perspective on face as inter-relational concern. In S. Ting-Toomey (Ed.), The challenge of facework: Cross-cultural and interpersonal issues (pp. 95-132). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Chang, W.-L. M., & Haugh, M. (2011). Strategic embarrassment and face threatening in business interactions. Journal of Pragmatics, 43, 2948-2963. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2011.05.009 [added February 14, 2012]
Chapman, D. E. (1993). An examination of intentional embarrassment tactics: Perceived appropriateness and effectiveness by self-monitoring social actors. Unpublished master's thesis, San Diego State University, CA.
Cho, E. J., Chung, B. Y. (2002). A descriptive survey on women's embarrassability and embarrassment during cervical screening. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 32, 832-843. Also found in Education & Counceling, 18, 149-163.
Christensen, B. J., Danko, G. P., & Johnson, R. C. (1993). Neuroticism and the belief that one is being scrutinized and evaluated by others. Personality & Individual Differences, 15, 349-350.
Clark, S. J., & Desharnais, R. A. (1998). Honest answers to embarrassing questions: Detecting cheating in the randomized response model. Psychological Methods, 3, 160-168.
Cochran, J. K., Chamlin, M. B., Wood, P. B., & Sellers, C. S. (1999). Shame, embarrassment, and formal sanction threats: Extending the deterrence/rational choice model to academic dishonesty. Sociological Inquiry, 69, 91-105.
Cocroft, B. K., & Ting-Toomey, S. (1994). Facework in Japan and the United States. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 18, 469-506.
Coffaro, F. (2011). The effects of embarrassment on cognition and behavior. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California, San Diego, CA.
Cohen, A. E., & Varela, F. J. (2000). Facing up to the embarrassment: The practice of subjectivity in neuroscientific and psychoanalytic experience. Journal of European Psychoanalysis, 10-11, 41-53.
Collier, G. (1985). Emotional expression. Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.
Colonnesi, C., Engelhard, I. M., & Bogels, S. M. (2010). Development in children's attribution of embarrassment and the relationship with theory of mind and shyness. Cognition & Emotion, 24, 514-521. doi: 10.1080/02699930902847151
Combs, D. J. Y., Campbel, G., Jackso, M., & Smith, R. H. (2010). Exploring the consequences of humiliating a moral transgressor. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 32, 128-143 doi:10.1080/01973531003738379 [added February 14, 2012]
Conroy, D. E. (2001). Progress in teh development of a multidimensional measure of fear of failure: The performance failure appraisal inventory (PFAI). Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 14, 431- 452.
Conroy D. E., Willow J. P., Metzler J. N. (2002). Multidimensional fear of failure measurement: The performance failure appraisal inventory. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 76-90.
Consedine, N. S., Krivoshekova, Y. S., & Harris, C. R. (2007). Bodily embarrassment and judgment concern as separable factors in the measurement of medical embarrassment: Psychometric development and links to treatment-seeking outcomes. British Journal of Health Psychology, 12, 439-462.
Consedine, N., Lagwig, I., Reddig, M. K., & Broadbent, E. A. (2010). The many faeces of colorectal cancer screening embarrassment: Preliminary psychometric development and links to screening outcome. British Journal of Health Psychology. Advance online publication.
Consedine, N. S., Ladwig, I., Reddig, M. K., & Broadbent, E. A. (2011). The many faces of colorectal cancer screening embarrassment: Preliminary psychometric development and links to screening outcome. British Journal of Health Psychology, 16, 559-579. doi:10.1348/135910710X530942 [added February 14, 2012]
Contarello, A., Zammuner, V. L., Edelmann, R. J., Asendorpf, J., Georgas, J., & Villanueva, C. (1990). Aspetti transculturali dell 'imbarazzo: Una ricerca Europea (Cross-cultural aspects of embarrassment: European research). Archivio di Psicologia, Neurologia e Psichiatria, 51, 50-74.
Cosmas, K. A. (1992). Self-esteem, social esteem, and interaction in embarrassment. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (11), 6036B.
Costa, M., Dinsbach, W., Manstead, A. S. R., Bitti, P. E. R. (2001). Social presence, embarrassment, and nonverbal behavior. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 25, 225-241.
Cotton, T. J. (1974). The development of a methodology to examine the experience of embarrassment during experiential confrontation in the psychotherapueutic session. Dissertation Abstracts International, 35 (10), 5103B.
Cox, J. A., Read, R. L., Van Auken, P. M. (1990). Male-female differences in communicating job-related humor: An exploratory study. Humor, 3, 287-295.
Crawford, L. A., & Novak, K. B. (1998, February). Role-taking, embarrassability, and undergraduate drinking: Some unanticipated findings. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Sociological Society, Kansas City, MO.
Crawford, L. A., & Novak, K. B. (2000). The effects of role-taking and embarrassability on undergraduate drinking: Some unanticipated findings. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 269-296.
Crawford, L. A., & Novak, K. B. (2012). The effects of public self-consciousness and embarrassability on college student drinking: Evidence in support of a protective self-presentational model. Journal of Social Psychology, 153, 109-122. doi:10.1080/00224545.2012.711381 [added January 17, 2013]
Cristal, R. M. (1964). Induced embarrassment as a tool in social interaction. (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Missoui, Kansas City, MO.
Crozier, W. R. (1989). The psychology of embarrassment: Edelmann, R. J. [Review of the book The psychology of embarrassment]. Current Psychology Research & Reviews, 8, 73-74.
Crozier, W. R. (1990). Introduction. W. R. Crozier (ed.), Shyness and embarrassment: Perspectives from social psychology (pp. 1-15). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Crozier, W. R. (1990). Social psychological perspectives on shyness, embarrassment, and shame. W. R. Crozier (ed.), Shyness and embarrassment: Perspectives from social psychology (pp. 19-58). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Crozier, W. R. (1998). The psychology of embarrassment. [Book review of the book Embarrassment: Poise and peril in everyday life]. Cognition Emotion, 12, 715-721.
Crozier, W. R. (2000). Blushing, social anxiety and exposure. In W. R. Crozier (Ed.), Shyness: Development, consolidation and change (pp. 154-170). New York: Routledge.
Crozier, W. R. (2004). Self-consciousness, exposure, and the blush. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 34, 1-17.
Crozier, W. R., & Russell, D. (1992). Blushing, embarrassability and self-consciousness. British Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 343-349.
Crum, J. L. (1998). The relationship between empathy, self-construal, and embarrassability. Dissertation, California State University, Chico.
Crystal, D. S., Watanabe, H., & Chen, R. (1999). Children's reactions to physical disability: A cross-national and developmental study. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23, 91-111.
Cupach, W. R. (1994). Social predicaments. In W. Cupach & B. Spitzberg (Eds.), The dark side of communication (pp. 159-180). Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.
Cupach, W. R., Huggins, J., Long, L. W., & Metts, S. (2002, March). Perceptions of social impropriety: The role of embarrassability and perceiver sex. Paper presented at the meeting of the Western Speech Communication Association, Long Beach, CA.
Cupach, W. R., & Imahori, T. T. (1993). Managing social predicaments created by others: A comparison of Japanese and American facework. Western Journal of Communication, 57, 431-444
Cupach, W. R., & Metts, S. (1990). Remedial processes in embarrassing predicaments. In J. A. Anderson (Ed.), Communication yearbook (Vol. 13, pp. 323-352). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Cupach, W. R., & Metts, S. (1992). The effects of type of predicament and embarrassability on remedial responses to embarrassing situations. Communication Quarterly, 40, 149-161.
Cupach, W. R., & Metts, S. (1994). Facework. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Cupach, W. R., Metts, S., & Hazleton, Jr., V. (1986a, November). Remedial strategies in embarrassing predicaments: Perceived utility and patterns of use. Paper presented at the seventy-second meeting of the Speech Communication Association, Chicago, Ill.
Cupach, W. R., Metts, S., & Hazleton, Jr., V. (1986b). Coping with embarrassing predicaments: Remedial strategies and their perceived utility. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 5, 181-200.
Curcio, A. A. (1999). Rule-412 laid bare: A procedural rule that cannot adequately protect sexual harassment plaintiffs from embarrassing exposure. University of Cincinnati Law Review, 67, 125-183.
Curi, M., Singer, J. M., & Andrade, D. F. (2011). A model for psychiatric questionnaires with embarrassing items. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 20, 451-470. doi:10.1177/0962280210369424 [added February 14, 2012]
Cutlip, W. E., II, & Leary, M. R. (1993). Anatomic and physiological bases of social blushing: Speculations from neurology and psychology. Behavioral Neurology, 6, 181-185.
Last updated on March 25, 2013
Copyright © 2001-2013 William F. Sharkey