Babcock, M. K. (1989). Embarrassment: The personal account. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (1), 370B.
Babcock, M. K. (1988). Embarrassment: A window on the self. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 18, 459,483.
Babcock, M. K., & Sabini, J. (1990). On differentiating embarrassment from shame. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 151-169.
Bailey, P. E., Henry, J. D., & Reed, E. J. (2009). Schizophrenia and the display of embarrassment. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 31, 545-552. doi: 10.1080/13803390802348018
Bakken, A. D. (2011). Active duty female military's experience of fear, embarrassment, and distress during pelvic examinations. (Unpublished master's thesis). Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA.
Bandera, B. R., & Cupach, W. R. (1986). Perceived competence of face saving strategies in embarrassing situations. Paper presented at the International Communication Association convention, Chicago, IL.
Banerjee, J., & Carrell, P. L. (1988). Tuck in your shirt, you squid: Suggestions in ESL. Language Learning, 38, 313-364.
Banerjee, R. (2002). Childrens understanding of self-presentational behaviour: Links with mental-state reasoning and the attribution of embarrassment. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 48, 378-404.
Barbalet, J. M. (1991). Shyness and embarrassment: Perspectives from social psychology -- Cosier, WR [Review of the book Shyness and embarrassment - Perspectives from social-psychology]. Contemporary Sociology, 20, 945-947.
Bardsley, A. (2001). Embarrassing but potentially curable. Practice Nursing, 12, 274-277.
Barecki, D. (1980). Patients' expressions of embarrassment when spouses or nurses assist with physical care. (Unpublished master's thesis). DePaul University, Chicago, IL.
Barnes, J. E. (1997). Distinguishing among shame, guilt, and embarrassment. Dissertation Abstracts International, 58(4), 2168B.
Barrett, K. C. (2005). The origins of social emotions and self-regulation in toddlerhood: New evidence. Cognition and Emotion, 19, 953-979.
Bastine, R. (1988). Psychotherapeutische prozesse--von der Verlegenheit, psychotherapeutische Veraenderungen zu erklaeren (Psychotherapeutic processes: Regarding psychotherapists' embarrassment in trying to explain them). Zeitschrift fuer Klinische Psychologie, Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 36, 296-307.
Beck, S., Clabaugh, S. E., Clark, R.A., Kosovski, M. C., Daar, R., Hefner, V., Kmet, T., McDaniel, S., Miller, L., Moriart, C., Qian, Z., Raja, S., Rame, M., & Suri, R. (2007). Teasing among college men and women. Communication Studies, 58, 157 – 172.
Beer, J. S., Heerey, E. H., Keltner, D., Scabini, D. & Knight, R. T. (2003). The regulatory function of self-conscious emotion: Insights from patients with orbitofrontal damage. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 594–604.
Beer, J. S., & Keltner, D. (2004). What is unique about self-conscious emotions? Psychological Inquiry, 15, 126-129.
Bell, J. (2009). Why embarrassment inhibits the acquisition and use of condoms: A qualitative approach to understanding risky sexual behaviour. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 379-391. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.01.002
Beloff, H. (1988). The psychology of embarrassment -- Edelmann, R J [Review of the book The psychology of embarrassment]. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 26, 194-195.
Belsey, J. (2001, September 1). Dealing with embarrassment: Pharmacists have to put embarrassed customers at case and cope with their own embarrassment at the same time. The Chemist and Druggist, 256 , pp. 27-33.
Bennett, M. (1989). Children's self-attribution of embarrassment. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 7, 207-217.
Bennett, M., & Cormack, C. (1996) Age and embarrassment at others' gaffes. Journal of Social Psychology, 136, 113-115.
Bennett, M., & Dewbery, C. (1989). Embarrassment at others' failures: A test of the Semin and Manstead model. Journal of Social Psychology, 129, 557-559.
Bennett,M., & Gillingham, K. (1991) The role of self-focused attention in children's attributions of social emotions to the self. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 123, 303-309.
Bennett, M., Yuill, N., & Banerjee, R. (1997, July). 'She's not with ME!' Children's understanding of being embarrassed by others' actions. Paper presented at the annual International Conference on Self consciousness and Shyness, University of Wales at Cardiff, Wales.
Bennett, M., Yuill, N., Banerjee, R., & Thomson, S. (1998). Children's understanding of extended identity. Developmental Psychology, 34, 322-331.
Bennett, S., & Dodge, T. (2007). Ethnic-racial differences in feelings of embarrassment associated with binge eating and fear of losing control. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40, 454-459.
Berthoz, S., Armony, J. L., Blair, R. J R., & Dolan, R. J. (2002). An fMRI study of intentional and unintentional (embarrassing) violations of social norms. Brain, 125,1696-1708.
Berkavitch, J. (2011, June 2). The power of being embarrassed [TEDxUBUD online Video]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQdKKltS9bE [added February 14, 2012]
Berkman, C. S., Badger, L.W., Diaz, N., Guarnaccia, P. J., & Kennedy, G. J. (2001, November). Serious but too embarrassing to disclose: Psychiatric symptoms as interpreted by Hispanic seniors. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Chicago, IL.
Berkman, C. S., Badger, L.W., Diaz, N., Guarnaccia, P. J., & Kennedy, G. J. (2001). Serious but too embarrassing to disclose: Psychiatric symptoms as interpreted by Hispanic seniors. Gerontologist, 41, 156-157.
Bernstein, V. F. (1972). Effects of embarrassment on ingratiation attempts. (Unpublished master's thesis). Ohio State Unviersity, Columbus, OH.
Besemeres, M. (2001). Immigrant irony and embarrassment: Andrew Reimer's "The Habsburg Cafe". Journal of Australian Studies: Fresh Cuts: New Talents 2001, 67, ??.
Bethell, L., Lin, H-C, & McFatter, R. (2014). Embarrassment and empathy before helping: How internal working models come into play. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 131-139. doi:10.1007/s11031-013-9369-y [added September 22, 2014]
Billig, M. (2001). Humour and embarrassment: Limits of `nice-guy' theories of social life. Theory Culture and Society, 18, 23-44.
Bird, C. M., Castelli, F., Malik, O., Frith, U., & Husain, M. (2004). The impact of extensive medial frontal lobe damage on ‘Theory of Mind’ and cognition. Brain, 127, 914-928.
Blackwell, B. S., Grasmick, H. G., & Cochroan, J. K. (1994). Racial differences in perceived sanction threat: Static and dynamic hypothesis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 31, 210-224.
Blair, K. S.; Geraci, M., Hollon, N., Otero, M., Devido, J., Majestic, C., Jacobs, M., Blair, R. J. R., & Pine, D. S. (2010). Social norm processing in adult social phobia: Atypically increased ventromedial frontal cortex responsiveness to unintentional (embarrassing) transgressions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 1526-1532. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09121797 [added February 14, 2012]
Blair, S., & Roese, N. J. (2013). Balancing the basket: The role of shopping basket composition in embarrassment. Journal of Consumer Research, 40(4), 676-691. doi:10-1086/671761 [added September 18, 2014]
Boegels, S. M., Alberts, M., & de Jong, P. J. (1996). Self-consciousness, self-focused attention, blushing propensity and fear of blushing. Personality & Individual Differences, 21, 573-581.
Boegels, S. M., & Reith, W. (1999). Validity of two questionnaires to assess social fears: The Dutch Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory and the Blushing, Trembling and Sweating Questionnaire. Journal of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment, 21, 51-66.
Boeringa, J. A. (1983). Blushing: A modified behavioral intervention using paradoxial intention. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 20, 441-444.
Bond, C. F. Jr. (1982). Social facilitation: A self-presentational view. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 1042-1050.
Bond, C. F. Jr., Atoum, A. O., & Van Leeuwen, M. D. (1996). Social impairment of complex learning in the wake of public embarrassment. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 18, 31-44
Bond, M. H., & Lai, T. (1986). Embarrassment and code-switching into a second language. Journal of Social Psychology, 126, 179-186.
Borg, I., Scherer, K. R,. & Staufenbiel, T. (1986). Determinaten von peinlichkeit und scham: Ein facet tentheoretischer ansatz (Determinants of embarrassment and shame: A facet theory approach). Archiv fur Psychologie, 138, 53-70.
Borg, I., S., & Scherer, K. R. (1988). On the symbolic basis of shame. In K. R. Scherer (Ed.), Facets of emotion: Recent research (pp. 79-98). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Borkin, A., & Reinhart, S. M. (1978). Excuse me and I'm sorry. Tesol Quarterly, 12, 57-69.
Bowers, J. W., Metts, S. M., & Duncanson, W. T. (1985). Emotion and interpersonal communication. In M. L. Knapp & G. R. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of interpersonal communication (pp. 500-550). Beverly Hills: Sage.
Bradford, L. (1990, November). Intercultural differences in embarrassment: A case of plan failure. Paper presented at the meeting of the Speech Communication Association, Chicago, IL.
Bradford, L. (1993). A cross-cultural study of strategic embarrassment in adolescent socialization. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54(7), 2385A.
Bradford, L. (1994, February). Hispanic and non-Hispanic adolescents use of strategic embarrassment. Paper presented at the meeting of the Western Speech Communication Association, San Jose, CA.
Bradford, L. (2002, March). Strategic embarrassment creates, constrains, and liberates: Functions of strategic embarrassment in friendships. Paper presented at the meeting of the Western Speech Communication Association, Long Beach, CA.
Bradford, L., & Petronio, S. (1996, April). If I knew you well, would I embarrass you better? Paper presented at the meeting of the Central States Communication Association, Minneapolis, MN.
Bradford, L., & Petronio, S. (1998). Strategic embarrassment: The culprit of emotion. In P. A. Anderson & L. K. Guerrero (Eds.), Communication and emotion: Research, theory, applications, and context (pp. 99-121). New York: Academic Press.
Bragg, S., & Buckingham, D. (2004). Embarrassment, education and erotics: The sexual politics of family viewing. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 7, 441-459.
Braithwaite, D. O. (1991, February). "Getting his feet wet" II: Cultural communication at "coed" wedding and baby showers. Paper presented at the International Network on Personal Relationships Conference, Bloomington-Normal, IL.
Braithwaite, D. O. (1995). Ritualized embarrassment at "coed" wedding and baby showers. Communication Reports, 8, 145-157
Brown, B. R. (1968). The effects of need to maintain face on interpersonal bargaining. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 4, 107-122.
Brown, B. R. (1970). Face-saving following experimentally induced embarrassment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 6, 255-271.
Brown, B. R. (1977). Face-saving and face-restoration in negotiation. In D. Druckman (Ed.), Negotiations: Social-psychological perspectives (pp. 275-299). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Brown, B. R., & others. (1971). The effects of another`s dependency and expectations of meeting with him on the reduction of face-saving behavior. (Journal unknown, please email complete cite if known).
Brown, B. R., & Garland, H. (1971). The effects of incompetency, audience acquaintanceship, and anticipated evaluative feedback on face-saving behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 7, 490-502.
Brown, D. K. (2003). Goffman's dramaturgical sociology: Developing a meaningful theoretical context and exercise involving "embarrassment and social organization." Teaching Sociology, 31, 288-299.
Brown-Ralston, S. (2010). A conceptual model of parentally-initiated strategic embarrassment and its association to emotional, psychological, and relational effects. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 70(12), 4525.
Brumbaugh, A. M., & Rosa, J. A. (2009). Perceived discrimination, cashier metaperceptions, embarrassment, and confidence as influencers of coupon use: an ethnoracial-socioeconomic analysis. Journal of Retailing, 85, 347-362.
Buck, R. W., & Parke, R. D. (1972). Behavioral and physiological response to the presence of a friendly or neutral person in two types of stressful situations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24, 143-153.
Buck, R. W., Parke, R. D., & Buck, M. (1970). Skin conductance, heart rate, and attention to the environment in two stressful situations. Psychonomic Science, 18, 95-96.
Bundy, C. C., Meischke, H., Eisenberg, M. S., & Larsen, M. P. (1996). Embarrassment and fear of false-alarm: Barriers to health care seeking behavior in chest pain patients. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 44, A138-A138.
Burgess, T. (1839). The physiology or mechanism of blushing. London: J. Churchill.
Burken, M., Boyer, L., Phares, P., & Horak, T. (2000, April). The effects of embarrassment on helping behavior. Paper presented at the ILLOWA Undergraduate Psychology Conference, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL.
Burrows, A., & Johnson, S. (2005). Girls' experiences of menarche and menstruation. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 23, 235-249.
Buss, A. H. (1980). Self-consciousness and social anxiety. San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman.
Buss, A. H., Iscoe, I., & Buss, E. H. (1979). The development of embarrassment. Journal of Psychology, 103, 227-230.
Buss, L. (1978). (Does overpraise cause embarrassment?) Unpublished raw data, University of Texas, Austin.
Buttermore, N. R. (2004). Status, dominance, or prestige?: Domains of self-esteem as moderators of reactions to an embarrassing situation. (Unpublished master's thesis). College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA.
Bybee, J. A. (1996). Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride - Tangney, J. P., & Fischer, K. W. [Review of the book Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride]. Journal of Personality Assessment, 67, 210-214.
Last updated on September 2, 2014
Copyright © 2001-2014 William F. Sharkey