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Plagiarism          Quoting          Paraphrasing          Summarizing


 

Overall directions for this material:

 

In this learning module, we will examine plagiarism, quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing in the context of writing research reports.

 

This document is composed of material progressing from a discussion of plagiarism to discussions dealing with quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing.

 

Please read through everything in this module. Afterwards, download the task documents and complete all of the tasks. Type your answers directly into the task sheets, then either submit your answers to me by email or, if you are taking this course online, submit your answers to me through the digital drop box feature. You do not have to print out any of this material unless you want to.

 

In addition, please access the following website, and read through the material on plagiarism contained there. This is an excellent web site developed by Purdue University, devoted to English writing:

 

http://owl.english.purdue.edu

 

And, if you have wisely purchased A Writer's Reference as suggested by me, please read the following pages on plagiarism, quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing:

 

pp. 76-78, and pp. 82-91


Avoiding Plagiarism

 

Academic writing in American institutions is filled with rules that writers often don’t know how to follow. A working knowledge of these rules, however, is critically important; inadvertent mistakes can lead to charges of plagiarism, or the unacknowledged used of somebody else’s words or ideas. While other cultures may not insist so heavily on documenting sources, American institutions do. A charge of plagiarism can have severe consequences, including expulsion from the university. This handout, which does not reflect any official university policy, is designed to help writers develop strategies for knowing how to avoid accidental plagiarism.

 

Actions that might be seen as plagiarism:

Deliberate plagiarism--------------------------------------------------------Accidental plagiarism

            Buying, stealing or                                                              Using source too closely

borrowing a paper                                                               when paraphrasing

Hiring someone                                          Using someone else’s

to write your paper                                       ideas without citation

            Copying from another source without

                                                citing (deliberately or accidentally)

 

Since teachers and administrators may not distinguish between deliberate and accidental plagiarism, the heart of avoiding plagiarism is to make sure you give credit where it is due. This may be credit for something somebody said, wrote, emailed, drew, or implied.

 

Choosing when to give credit

 

 

Need to document

 

No need to document

 

When you use or refer to somebody else’s words or ideas from a book, magazine, newspaper, Web page, computer program, letter, or any other media

 

When you use information gained through interviewing another person

 

When you copy the exact words or a "unique phrase" from somewhere 

 

When you reprint any diagrams, illustrations, charts, and pictures

                       

When you use ideas that others have given you in conversations or over email

 

When you are writing your own experiences, your own observations, your own insights, your own thoughts, your own conclusions about a subject

 

When you are using "common knowledge”: folklore, common sense observations, shared information within your field of study or cultural group

                                        

When you are compiling generally accepted facts

                                         

When you are writing up your own experimental results

 

But when in doubt, document: Making Sure You Are “Safe”

 

 

 

 

Action during the writing process

 

Appearance on finished paper

 

when researching, note-taking, and interviewing

 

Mark everything that is someone else’s words with a big Q (for quote) or with big quotation marks

 

Indicate in your notes which ideas are from sources (S) and which are your own (ME).

 

Record all of the relevant documentation information in your notes

 

Proofread and check your notes (or photocopies of sources) to make sure that anything taken from your notes is acknowledged in some combination of the ways listed below:

* in-text citation

* footnote

* bibliography

* quotation marks

* indirect quotation marks

 

when paraphrasing and summarizing

 

First, write your paraphrase and summary without looking at the original text, so you only rely on your memory

 

Next, check your version with the original for content, accuracy, and mistakenly borrowed phrases

 

Begin your summary with a statement giving credit to the source: According to Jonathan Kozol, ...

 

Put any unique words or phrases that you cannot change, or do not want to change, in quotation marks:...”savage inequalities” exist throughout our educational system (Kozol).

 

when quoting directly

 

Keep the person’s name near the quote in your notes, and in your paper

 

Select those direct quotes that make the most impact in your paper

NOTE!! Too many direct quotes lessen your credibility and interfere with your style.

 

Mention the person’s name either at the beginning of the quote, in the middle, or at the end

 

Put quotation marks around the text that you are quoting

 

Indicate added phrases in brackets ([]) and omitted text with ellipses (. . .)

 

when quoting indirectly

 

Keep the person’s name near the text in your notes and in your paper

 

Rewrite the key ideas using different words and sentence structures than the original text

 

Mention the person’s name either at the beginning of the information or in the middle or at the end

 

Double check to make sure that your words and sentence structures are different than the original text

 

Deciding if something is "common knowledge"

 

 

Material is probably common knowledge if...

 

You find the same information undocumented in at least five other sources

 

You think it is information that your readers will already know

 

You think a person could easily find the information with general reference sources (e.g. dictionary, encyclopedia, etc.)


 

Sources used in creating this handout:

Aaron, Jane E. The Little, Brown Essential Handbook for Writers. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

Gefvert, Constance J. The Confident Writer, second edition. New York: Norton, 1988.

Heffernan, James A.W., and John E. Lincoln. Writing: A College Handbook, third edition. New York: Norton, 1990.

Howell, James F. and Dean Memering. Brief Handbook for Writers, third edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993.

Leki, Ilona. Understanding ESL Writers: A Guide for Teachers. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1992.

Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers, sixth edition. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.


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Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing
brought to you by the Purdue University OWL

 

This section is intended to help you become more comfortable with the uses of and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries.

 

What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

 

These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing. Obviously, a quotation must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.

Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.

 

*    Quotations must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.

*    Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source.

*    Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

 

Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries?

 

Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes. You might use them to:

 

*    provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing

*    refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing

*    give examples of several points of view on a subject

*    call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with

*    highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original

*    distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not  your own

*    expand the breadth or depth of your writing

 

How to use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries

 

A good way to start is to read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas. Then, summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the essay is. Next, paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the essay. Also consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly. There are several ways to integrate quotations into your text. Often, a short quotation works well when integrated into a sentence. Longer quotations can stand alone. Remember that quoting should be done only sparingly; be sure that you have a good reason to include a direct quotation when you decide to do so. You'll find guidelines for citing sources and punctuating citations at our documentation guide pages. We have one guide for the format recommended by the Modern Language Association (MLA) for papers in the humanities and another for the format recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA) for papers in the social sciences.

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Choosing and Using Quotes Effectively: (adapted from ELI materials)

 

To quote - to borrow the exact words of another writer.

Quotes, quotation – the borrowed words of another writer.

 

You should be very careful about how many quotes you use and how you incorporate them into your paper. The following points may help you decide how and whether to quote a particular passage.

 

·      You should never quote material that you do not understand.

·      Use quotes to support your ideas, not replace them.

·      The main ideas of your papers should be your own words your with quotes used to support them. You should not use quotes to state the main ideas of your paper.

·      Discuss your quote in a way that helps your reader see how it supports your topic sentence or why it is a good example of the point you are trying to make.

·      Consider quoting a phrase or a part of a sentence rather than whole sentences. This requires careful writing, but the paper will be more your own writing.

·      No more than 20 percent of your paper should be quoted.

·      The use of too many quotes weakens, rather than strengthens, a paper.

·      Every quote must be clearly indicated and accompanied by an in-text citation

·      Quotes must be copied and punctuated carefully.

·      Introduce your quote in a way that smoothly blends it into the paragraph you are writing. If you are quoting an authority or a famous person, you might use their name to help introduce the quote.

·      The easiest way to introduce a quote is: The author says, "…”

·      Below are a number of verbs you can substitute for "says" or "says that." You may need to consult a dictionary or a teacher to be sure that you understand the specific meaning of some of these verbs or how to use them in a sentence.

1. to argue 6. to insist 11. to state
2. to believe 7. to observe 12. to suggest
3. to claim 8. to point out 13. to tell
4. to establish 9. to present evidence 14. to write
5. to find 10. to propose  


Quotes must be written exactly as they originally appeared with these exceptions:

 

1. Ellipsis points (…) may be used to omit portions of quoted material, but be careful

 that your omission does not change the meaning of the original passage.  If the ellipsis includes the end of a sentence, add the period or other ending punctuation required (….) as well as the three ellipsis dots.

 

Original Words

As these transnational problems grow ‑ and experts say they certainly will - solving them will require tempered negotiations to prevent hostility or, even, war.

 

Text with Quote

According to the author, "As these transnational problems grow...solving them will require tempered negotiations to prevent hostility or, even, war" (Hale 8).

 

2. Extra information may be added to a quote by enclosing it within square brackets [ ]. The purpose of such information is to clarify the quote.

 

Original Words

Ironically, some scholars say this new class of international issues could set off a wave of unprecedented cooperation and bolster global peace.

 

Text with Quote

Experts have suggested that "this new class of international [environmental] issues" could foster greater cooperation and peace among nations (Hale 8).

 

3. If the quoted passage originally began with a capital letter but logically fits into your sentence, you can replace the capital letter with a lower case letter.

 

Original Words

Water is the world's most precious and critical natural resource.

 

Text with Quote

Environmentalists and politicians agree that "water is the world's most precious and critical natural resource" (Hale 8).


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Punctuating Quotes:

 

·      Quotes must also be carefully punctuated.

·      In general, periods and commas are placed within the quotation marks.

·      Other punctuation marks are placed within the quotation marks if they are part of the quoted material but outside if they are your own marks.

·      Not all quotes require quotation marks.

 

1. A quote is considered "short" if it is four lines or shorter. Short quotes must be indicated with quotation marks.

 

Original Words from an article by Ellen Hale

Pollution, diversion, misuse and overuse of shared water supplies are proving

among the most severe and urgent environmental problems.

 

Text with Quote

As environmental writer Ellen Hale notes, "pollution, diversion, misuse and

overuse of shared water supplies are proving among the most severe and

urgent environmental problems" of our day (7).

 

2. A quote is considered "long" if it is longer than four lines. No quotation marks are needed for long quotes because they are clearly marked with a ten-space or two-tab indent. A colon is used to introduce long quotes. Notice that the source citation comes after the final punctuation mark.

 

Original Words from an article by Jeanne Gibson

In a continent where men make the political decisions and where feminism is a dirty word, the Green Belt Movement gives African women a chance to accomplish something important on their own. And it does this without arousing the anger or suspicion of the male-dominated society.

 

Text with Quote

In Kenya, where the countryside has sometimes been wiped clean by women looking for firewood, there is a growing awareness of the environment. A simple tree-planting project has grown into a nationwide movement called the Green Belt Movement. One supporter describes the movement in this way:

In a continent where men make the political decisions and where feminism is a dirty word, the Green Belt Movement gives African women a chance to accomplish something important on their own. And it does this without arousing the anger or suspicion of the male-dominated society. (Gibson 26)

 

3. If the material you are quoting already contains quotation marks, change the

original marks to single quotes (‘  ‘) and use double quotes (“  “) to enclose the entire quoted passage.

 

Original Words from an article by George Murphy

Forty European conservation groups are calling on their governments to preserve the vast stretches of "no-man's-land" along the former Iron Curtain as special border parks.

 

Text with Quote

The political changes in Eastern Europe may have some surprising side effects. One is that long border areas separating Eastern and Western Europe were off limits to citizens for many years. This allowed wildlife to live freely without the impact of human development. Now, "forty European conservation groups are calling on their governments to preserve the vast stretches of 'no-man's-land' along the former Iron Curtain as special border parks" (Murphy 29).

 

4. Another type of quote within a quote occurs when you want to quote what someone else has quoted. In this case, you should cite the article you read, not the original source. You can write such a quote in two ways.

 

Original Words by Dr. Jennifer Jones which appear in Suzanne Smith's article. The abbreviation, "qtd." in the second example means "quoted."

 

Dr. Jennifer Jones, administrator of Mercy Hospital for 27 years, states, "the rising costs of health care cannot be curbed in three easy steps. It is a very complicated issue involving government, the health industry, and insurance companies."

 

Student's text with quote

Smith quotes long-time hospital administrator Dr. Jennifer Jones as saying "the rising costs of health care cannot be curbed in three easy steps" (10).

or

Long-time administrator of Mercy Hospital, Dr. Jennifer Jones states, "the rising costs of health care cannot be curbed in three easy steps" (qtd.  in Smith 10).


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Paraphrase: Write it in Your Own Words

 

Learn to borrow from a source without plagiarizing.  A paraphrase is...

 

*    your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form.

*    one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source.

*    a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea.

 

Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because...

 

*    it is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage.

*    it helps you control the temptation to quote too much.

*    the mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original.

 


7 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing:

 

1. Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.

 

2. Set the original aside, write your paraphrase on a note card.

 

3. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.

 

4. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form.

 

5. Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source.

 

6. Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper.

 

7. The easiest way to introduce a paraphrase of another person's work is to write:
    Dr. Jennifer Jones says that

·        Below are a number of verbs you can substitute for "says" or "says that."

·        You may need to consult a dictionary or a teacher to be sure that you understand the specific meaning of some of these verbs or how to use them in a sentence.

 

1. to argue 6. to insist 11. to state
2. to believe 7. to observe 12. to suggest
3. to claim 8. to point out 13. to tell
4. to establish 9. to present evidence 14. to write
5. to find 10. to propose  


It is not always necessary to use the name of the writer in the text of your paper. This is especially true if the writer is not an authority in the field she or he is writing about. In cases where you want to avoid using the name of the writer in the paper, you can introduce a paraphrase with phrases such as the following

 

1. Research shows that...

 

2. Evidence indicates that ...

 

3. Recent studies have established that.

 

4. Test results prove that ...

 

5. Surveys suggest that...


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Effective Paraphrasing: Some Examples to Compare

 

The original passage:

Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper.  Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46‑47.

 

A legitimate paraphrase:

In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim.

 

An acceptable summary:

Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper.

 

A plagiarized version:

Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.



Writing a Summary: (Ford, adapted from textbook sources)

A summary is a condensed version of another piece of writing.

 

1.    It is shorter than the original, usually 25-33% of the original.

2.    It contains only the main idea and supporting major ideas.

3.    It omits most if not all examples and other details.

4.    It is written in your own words.

 

A summary often begins from the opening paragraph with information about the original source’s author and title, followed by a restatement of the thesis in terms of the author’s main purpose for writing the original piece.

 

Here are some common verbs used to express what an author’s purpose may be:

 

alleges          claims            discusses     indicates       proposes      suggests

argues           demands      explains         maintains      questions      talks about

asks               describes      implies          points out      says               tells

 

The summary usually begins with a sentence that often takes this form:

 

In <article or book title>, <author> <verb> that/ how <clause explaining main idea>.

 

For example:

 

In <his autobiography>, <Malcolm X> <describes> how <he fought prejudice>.

 

In <”The Roman God”>, <Professor Smith> <argues> that <Caesar was an alcoholic>.

 

Then the main points of the original writing are restated in your own words.

 

To summarize an article:

 

1.    First read the entire article (several times if necessary to get the meaning).

2.    Then determine what the author’s main idea or thesis is.

3.    Express the main idea in one sentence, including the author’s name and the title of the writing.

4.    Next, divide the article into MAJOR parts. Each division might contain more than one paragraph.

5.    Using one or two sentences for each part, describe what the author is trying to say or do.

6.    Make sure your descriptions of each part move smoothly from one to the next: use appropriate transitions.

 

Some summaries are evaluative in nature. That is, the summary writer expresses his or her own opinion about what the author of the original has said or about how the author has made his or her points. Some summaries are NON-evaluative. In non-evaluative summaries, the summary writer is asked to communicate WHAT the original writing said and/ or describe HOW the writer is proving his or her thesis, without any evaluation.


NOTE: After you have read through everything in this module, download the task documents and complete all of the tasks. Type your answers directly into the task sheets, then either submit your answers to me by email or, if you are taking this course online, submit your answers to me through the digital drop box feature. You do not have to print out any of this material unless you want to.


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