Table 1

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Taxonomy of Affective Instructional Speech Acts in User Documentation

Level  Function         Category    Users' Affective          Writer's Instructional     
                                    Behaviors                 Speech Acts                
                        a   b   c   Feeling enthusiasm vs.    Affirming final outcome    
  3    REASSURING       d  e        displeasure  Feeling      as successful              
       (to overcome                 empowered vs. helpless    Reinforcing user's         
       resistance and               Showing acceptance vs.    perceived self-efficacy    
       encourage                    resistance  Having hope   Affirming principle that   
       acceptance)                  vs. dread  Satisfied      users are never at fault   
                                    vs. dissatisfied          Mitigating appearance      
                                                              of loss Pointing out       
                                                              value of a result          
    2       ADVISING    a   b   c   Feeling trust vs. fear    Rank ordering options or   
       (to counteract       d       of failure                strategies  Sharing        
         anxiety and                Experiencing fun vs.      convenient tips &          
       build positive               tedium  Feeling           information  Giving        
         attitudes)                 confident vs. anxious     feedback (what will        
                                    Experiencing clarity      happen if...)              
                                    vs. confusion             Identifying something on   
                                                              a diagram or giving an     
                                                              example                    
                        a   b   c   Being patient vs.         Telling how long it        
  1    ORIENTING  (to   d    e  f   impatient  Feeling        takes (secs. or mins.)     
        reduce anger      g    h    anticipation vs.          Identifying common         
        and maintain                frustration  Being        errors  Telling which      
       reality check)               cautious vs. angry        are non- reversible        
                                    Having realistic expec-   actions  Telling what is   
                                    tations vs. being         excluded when there is     
                                    disappointed  Feeling     doubt   Calling            
                                    guided vs. lost  Being    attention to groupings     
                                    thankful vs.              or sets  Showing concern   
                                    complaining  Being        for technical difficulty   
                                    realistic vs.             Telling what is            
                                    disappointed   Feeling    reasonable to expect       
                                    being taken care of vs.   Telling where something    
                                    being on one's own        needed can be found such   
                                                              as sub-titles              

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