Sculpture confronts us with the third dimension, with the concept of depth.
Modeling – generally associate with clay, but wax and plaster are also common. Since these materials are pliable the sculptor can build up the form, gouge away sections, pinch it forward, scratch into it with a sharp tool, smooth it with the hands, etc.
Assembling – a process by which individual pieces or segments or objects are brought together to form a sculpture.
Casting –a mold is made, into which molten metal, specifically bronze, is poured and allowed to harden. Bronze is superheated until it flows, and will pour freely into the tiniest crevices and forms and then hardens to extreme durability. There is no fear of fingers and projections from the sculpture to break off with bronze sculptures.
Carving – a subtractive process, more direct than casting, sculptors begin with a block of material and cuts, chips, and gouges away until the form of the sculpture emerges. Usually uses wood and stone.
Direct casting – the object to be casted, such as a leaf, is fitted with wax rods and encased in plaster. Molten metal is poured in, the heat vaporizes the leaf, replacing it with a bronze replica.
Relief – relief sculptures have 3 –dimentional depth, but they do not occupy space as independently as sculptures in the round.
Low relief (bas relief) – coins are examples of low relief
High relief (haut relief) – projects by at least half its depth from a background
Terra cotta – clay that has been fired to make it hard
Mobile – a sculpture that incorporates motion.
Contrapposto – used to describe sculptures in which the figure is portrayed in a natural, relaxed, S-curve suggestive of motion.
Christo and Jeanne-Claude: Projects such as the running fence and Wrapped Reichstag live on afterwards in preparatory sketches, photographs, books, and film. Their art is not just the end result, but the entire process from planning through dismantling, including the way it energizes people and creates relationships.
s’ sculpture explores issues of taste. It challenges people notion of what is traditionally expected as “high art” and look down on sentimental paintings such as big eye dogs on velvet, or porcelain figurines of adorable animals in pastel colors. Like Christo, Koons challenges the notion permanence of sculptures.
Pre-ColumbianPot, Warrior form(Clay), 300 B.C.-A.D.700
Clodion, Satyr & Bacchante, terracotta, 1775
Greece, Anon. Poseidon or Zeus, bronze, 460-450 B.C.
Louise Bourgeois, Nature Study, 1984
Auguste Rodin, The Bronze Age, 1875-77
Nancy Graves, Wheeler, 1985
Mali, Ancestor Figures,
Giza. IV Dynasty, Mycerinus with Queen Khamerenebty, 2525 B.C.
Polyclitus, Spear Bearer, 440 B.C.
Roman copy of Greek original, Aphrodite, 300 B.C.
Michelangelo, The Dying Slave, 1513-1516
Michelangelo, David, 1504
Michelangelo, Pieta, 1498-1499
Deborah Butterfield, Vermillion, 1989
Louise Nevelson, Mrs. N.’s Palace, 1964-77
Louise Nevelson, Black Cord, 1964
David Smith, Becca, 1965
David Smith, Becca, 1964
Joseph Cornell, Glass Box and Sand Drawer, 1950
Joseph Cornell, A Pantry Ballet, 1942
Joseph Cornell, Untitled, 1940
Alexander Calder, Untitled, 1976
Alexander Calder, Lobster Trap and Fish Tail, 1939
Alexander Calder, Iguana, 1950-60
Ancient Near East, Killing Lions, 850 BC
Lorenzo Ghiberti, East Doors, “Gates of Paradis”, 1425-52
Magdalena Abakanowicz, Seated Figures, 1974-79
Magdalena Abakanowicz, Backs, 1976-82
Magdalena Abakanowicz, Infantes, 1992
Henry Moore, Recumbent, 1938
Henry Moore, Reclining Mother and Child, 1960
Henry Moore, Reclining Mother and Child, 1975-76
Henry Moore, Reclining Large Interior Form, 1981
Constantin Brancusi, The Kiss, 1910
Red Grooms, Philadelphia Cornucopia, 1982
Claes Oldenburg, Clothespin, 1976
Richard Serra, Tilted Arc, 1982
Jeff Koons, Puppy, 1992
Christo and Jeanne-Claude, Valley Curtain, 1970-72
Christo and Jeanne-Claude, Running Fence, 1972-76