The Big Picture

Overview image.
Note distribution of population and facilites.

State Data Book chapter 17 Energy and Science tables:
17.01 Consumption of Energy by Source (Physical units)
17.02 Consumption of Energy by Source (trillion BTUs)
17.05 Primary Energy COnsumption, By Source (trillion BTU)
17.03 Consumption by end-use Sector
17.16 Liquid Fuel Tax Base by Counties

2004 data suggest that our approx 324 trillion BTUs of annual
consumption come proportionally from:

Petroleum	88.8%
Biomass          1.9%
Solar            1.3%
Hydroelectric    0.3%
Coal             5.5%
Wind             0.02%
Geothermal       0.7%
Solid Waste      1.5%

Oil: the base of our energy

Sources of Hawaii's oil: see graphic on p6 of this HECO document

1997 Data on Sources of Crude Oil Used in Hawaii

Region		%

Indonesia	30.7
United States	29.5
Australia	17.7
China		15.5
Vietnam		 3.1
Papua NG	 2.7
South America	 2.2
Malaysia	 1.3
Canada		 0.8
Middle East	 0.5

Fuel Delivery System

Two (2) Refineries:

(DOE rank #1 is Exxon refinery at Baytown, TX with 523,000 bbl/day capacity)

Air photos of refineries and oil terminal at Barbers Point.
B&W Barbers Pt.
Color Barbers Pt.
Oil Terminals

Thirteen (13) Fuel Distributors (from yellow pages)

190 gas stations on Oahu (1996) (down from 241 in 1987 -HSDB)

In-town gas station locations & prices (from field survey by Geog488 Fall 1998).

Trends in vehicles (hope?)

In 2001 we had a record number of registered vehicles (631,232). In 2000, total highway fuel consumption was about as high as its ever been. We drove a record number of total miles.
18.08 Motor Vehicle Registrations
18.17 Motor Vehicle Fuel Consupmtion and Vehicle Miles

Note the overall fleet fuel efficiency from 1990 to 2005:

1990	20.4 mpg
2000    19.0 mpg
2005    20.0 mpg


ASIDE: SimCity advice (from on building a city:

  1. Build a power plant.
  2. Add zones.
  3. Connect power lines.
  4. Build roads.

Charter and history.

Oahu Power Plants.
HECO Plants:
Location Capacity Fuel
Honolulu 113 MW Oil
Waiau 449 MW Oil
Kahe 651 MW Oil
Independent Power Producers (IPPs):
Location Capacity Fuel
H-Power 46 MW Trash
Kalaeloa Producers 180 MW Oil
AES Hawaii 180 MW Coal
Kapaa 3 MW Landfill Methane

272,675 Oahu customers (1998)
239,945 residential
sales of 6,938,326,000 kWh (1998) (about 2% below 1996 peak)

Transmission lines and infrastructure. Substations. The 138kV Kamoku-Pukele line controversy.

Pipelines? Yes, that's right! Honolulu Advertiser 23 Aug 2001 story is about a HECO proposal for a 13-mile pipeline from Campbell Industrial Park to the Waiau power plant. The story refers to two existing pipleines: from CIP to the Kahe plant, and from Iwilei to the downtown power plant. The map accompanying the story references a "HECO Barbers Point tank farm". Construction was expected to start in 2003 and to take six to eight months to complete.

Largest private employer in the state. (year?, still?)

The Gas Company

According to its website (, The Gas Company started in 1904, employs 300 people, and serves about 115,000 customers, from Kapolei to Hawaii Kai. It delivers synthetic natural gas (SNG), derived from its 16.7 million cubic-foot capacity plant at Campbell Industrial Park, via a utility network. This gas is refinery by-product. Where the network does not reach, propane is delivered from a central storage point via underground lines, or via cylinders or tanks. It seems that the propane is imported as such. The website lists 14 propane dealers on Oahu.

The web page says that 90% of the compnay's product is used by industrial and commercial customers.

The (1995?) state data book indicated 33,597 Customers (1994 data)
30,334 Residential
3,263 Commercial (inferred)
leading one to believe that the industrail and commercial users use a lot more per head than do the residential customers.

Physical plant: in Campbell Industrial Park, plus distribution pipes and propane storage facility. (This needs a map of the distribution network). and a statement of SNG vs propane vs LPG vs other...

Musings on Energy use in Hawaii 1960 - 2000

Here are a few more tables, derived from those discussed in the class on energy overview, which indicate changes in the ways we use energy in Hawaii from 1960 to 1990. Note the inclusion of population as a factor in this analysis.

The up-shot is that both population increase and per capita energy use increase combine to produce our increased use of energy over the past several decades.

              Energy Consumption
               (trillion BTU)
Year  HI_pop  Residential  Commercial  Industrial  Transportation 

1960  632772     7.3          5.2         20.7         61.8
1970  769918    16.4         11.6         43.6        125.3
1980  964691    23.2         20.8         62.4        146.7
1990 1108229    25.9         34.3         80.0        156.9
2000 1211537    35.3         39.0         79.6        125.2

HI Pop and Energy consumption by sector 1960-1990
             (normalized to 1960 levels)
year pop  res  com  ind  trans 
1960 1    1    1    1    1
1970 1.21 2.24 2.23 2.10 2.02
1980 1.52 3.17 4.00 3.01 2.37
1990 1.75 3.54 6.59 3.86 2.53
2000 1.94 4.83 7.50 3.84 2.03

HI Per Capita Energy consumption by sector 1960-1990
                      (million BTU)
year  res    com    ind    trans 
1960  11.5    8.2   32.7    97.6
1970  21.3   15.0   56.6   162.7
1980  24.0   21.5   64.6   152.0
1990  23.3   30.9   72.1   141.5
2000  29.1   32.1   65.7   103.3


HI Per Capita Energy consumption by sector 1960-1990
         (standardized to 1960 levels)

year  res     com     ind     trans 
1960  1       1       1       1
1970  1.84    1.83    1.73    1.66
1980  2.08    2.62    1.97    1.55
1990  2.02    3.76    2.20    1.44
2000  2.53    3.91    2.00    1.05

Solar Potential

A 1992 study found that solar thermal-electric generation was not (yet then) economically viable on Oahu. Our humid and cloudy environment makes it a worse proposition than several commercial sites in the Mojave Desert. Still, a back of the envelope calculation is intriguing.

Take Oahu's area as 600 square miles, or about 1.5 x 10^^9 m^^2, and an insolation figure derived for Manoa in 1979 of 5.01 kWh/m^^2 d, and that works out to insolation amounting to about 9.75 x 10^^18 BTU/year. That's about 30,000 times the annual energy consumption noted in the recent State Data Book. That suggests that, apart from efficiency in production, conversions, storage; cost; and and land use issues, Oahu's energy demands could potentially be met using much less than 1 square km of land (only about 52000 sq meters).

Is this right? What's the hold up? A more detailed analysis would make a good term project.

Wind Power

Similarly, what is the wind energy potential?

Wave Power

Similarly, what is the energy potential in the tides and waves washing around our island?


See the links in the syllabus.html

DOE rankings of US refineries is at:

HECO's 138kV Kamoku-Pukele Transmission Line Honolulu Advertiser, 2 Jun 2003. With schematic map of main transmission lines.