Note distribution of population and facilites.
State Data Book chapter 17 Energy and Science tables:
17.01 Consumption of Energy by Source (Physical units)
17.02 Consumption of Energy by Source (trillion BTUs)
17.05 Primary Energy COnsumption, By Source (trillion BTU)
17.03 Consumption by end-use Sector
17.16 Liquid Fuel Tax Base by Counties
2004 data suggest that our approx 324 trillion BTUs of annual consumption come proportionally from: Petroleum 88.8% Biomass 1.9% Solar 1.3% Hydroelectric 0.3% Coal 5.5% Wind 0.02% Geothermal 0.7% Solid Waste 1.5%
Sources of Hawaii's oil: see graphic on p6 of this HECO document
1997 Data on Sources of Crude Oil Used in Hawaii Region % Indonesia 30.7 United States 29.5 Australia 17.7 China 15.5 Vietnam 3.1 Papua NG 2.7 South America 2.2 Malaysia 1.3 Canada 0.8 Middle East 0.5
Two (2) Refineries:
(DOE rank #1 is Exxon refinery at Baytown, TX with 523,000 bbl/day capacity)
Air photos of refineries and oil terminal at Barbers Point.
B&W Barbers Pt.
Color Barbers Pt.
Thirteen (13) Fuel Distributors (from yellow pages)
190 gas stations on Oahu (1996) (down from 241 in 1987 -HSDB)
In-town gas station locations & prices (from field survey by Geog488 Fall 1998).
In 2001 we had a record number of registered vehicles (631,232).
In 2000, total highway fuel consumption was about as high
as its ever been. We drove a record number of total miles.
18.08 Motor Vehicle Registrations
18.17 Motor Vehicle Fuel Consupmtion and Vehicle Miles
Note the overall fleet fuel efficiency from 1990 to 2005:
1990 20.4 mpg 2000 19.0 mpg 2005 20.0 mpg
ASIDE: SimCity advice (from http://simcity.ea.com/us/guide) on building a city:
Charter and history.
Oahu Power Plants.
|Independent Power Producers (IPPs):|
|Kalaeloa Producers||180 MW||Oil|
|AES Hawaii||180 MW||Coal|
|Kapaa||3 MW||Landfill Methane|
272,675 Oahu customers (1998)
sales of 6,938,326,000 kWh (1998) (about 2% below 1996 peak)
Transmission lines and infrastructure. Substations. The 138kV Kamoku-Pukele line controversy.
Pipelines? Yes, that's right! Honolulu Advertiser 23 Aug 2001 story is about a HECO proposal for a 13-mile pipeline from Campbell Industrial Park to the Waiau power plant. The story refers to two existing pipleines: from CIP to the Kahe plant, and from Iwilei to the downtown power plant. The map accompanying the story references a "HECO Barbers Point tank farm". Construction was expected to start in 2003 and to take six to eight months to complete.
Largest private employer in the state. (year?, still?)
According to its website (http://www.hawaiigas.com), The Gas Company started in 1904, employs 300 people, and serves about 115,000 customers, from Kapolei to Hawaii Kai. It delivers synthetic natural gas (SNG), derived from its 16.7 million cubic-foot capacity plant at Campbell Industrial Park, via a utility network. This gas is refinery by-product. Where the network does not reach, propane is delivered from a central storage point via underground lines, or via cylinders or tanks. It seems that the propane is imported as such. The website lists 14 propane dealers on Oahu.
The web page says that 90% of the compnay's product is used by industrial and commercial customers.
The (1995?) state data book indicated
33,597 Customers (1994 data)
3,263 Commercial (inferred)
leading one to believe that the industrail and commercial users use a lot more per head than do the residential customers.
Physical plant: in Campbell Industrial Park, plus distribution pipes and propane storage facility. (This needs a map of the distribution network). and a statement of SNG vs propane vs LPG vs other...
Here are a few more tables, derived from those discussed in the class on energy overview, which indicate changes in the ways we use energy in Hawaii from 1960 to 1990. Note the inclusion of population as a factor in this analysis.
The up-shot is that both population increase and per capita energy use increase combine to produce our increased use of energy over the past several decades.
Energy Consumption (trillion BTU) Year HI_pop Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation 1960 632772 7.3 5.2 20.7 61.8 1970 769918 16.4 11.6 43.6 125.3 1980 964691 23.2 20.8 62.4 146.7 1990 1108229 25.9 34.3 80.0 156.9 2000 1211537 35.3 39.0 79.6 125.2 ---- HI Pop and Energy consumption by sector 1960-1990 (normalized to 1960 levels) year pop res com ind trans 1960 1 1 1 1 1 1970 1.21 2.24 2.23 2.10 2.02 1980 1.52 3.17 4.00 3.01 2.37 1990 1.75 3.54 6.59 3.86 2.53 2000 1.94 4.83 7.50 3.84 2.03 --- HI Per Capita Energy consumption by sector 1960-1990 (million BTU) year res com ind trans 1960 11.5 8.2 32.7 97.6 1970 21.3 15.0 56.6 162.7 1980 24.0 21.5 64.6 152.0 1990 23.3 30.9 72.1 141.5 2000 29.1 32.1 65.7 103.3 ----- HI Per Capita Energy consumption by sector 1960-1990 (standardized to 1960 levels) year res com ind trans 1960 1 1 1 1 1970 1.84 1.83 1.73 1.66 1980 2.08 2.62 1.97 1.55 1990 2.02 3.76 2.20 1.44 2000 2.53 3.91 2.00 1.05
A 1992 study found that solar thermal-electric generation was not (yet then) economically viable on Oahu. Our humid and cloudy environment makes it a worse proposition than several commercial sites in the Mojave Desert. Still, a back of the envelope calculation is intriguing.
Take Oahu's area as 600 square miles, or about 1.5 x 10^^9 m^^2, and an insolation figure derived for Manoa in 1979 of 5.01 kWh/m^^2 d, and that works out to insolation amounting to about 9.75 x 10^^18 BTU/year. That's about 30,000 times the annual energy consumption noted in the recent State Data Book. That suggests that, apart from efficiency in production, conversions, storage; cost; and and land use issues, Oahu's energy demands could potentially be met using much less than 1 square km of land (only about 52000 sq meters).
Is this right? What's the hold up? A more detailed analysis would make a good term project.
Similarly, what is the wind energy potential?
Similarly, what is the energy potential in the tides and waves washing around our island?
See the links in the syllabus.html
DOE rankings of US refineries is at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/neic/rankings/refineries.htm
HECO's 138kV Kamoku-Pukele Transmission Line Honolulu Advertiser, 2 Jun 2003. With schematic map of main transmission lines.