- Defining Geography. What is Geography/Geographic?
- Questions Geographers ask
- Themes and Concerns in Geography
- Urban geography
- Some Greatest hits
Chapter 9 in Getis and Getis, The United States and Canada (1995).
If you want more, look for: Paul Knox Urbanization (1994).
A Definition of Geography?
Greek -- Earth writing. Writing about, i.e. describing, the earth.
"Geography is an integrative discipline that brings together
the physical and human dimensions of the world in the study of
people, places, and environments. Its subject matter is the
Earth's surface and the processes that shape it,
the relationships between people and environments,
and the connections between people and places."
-Geography for Life: National Geography Standards 1994, p 18.
- Where? (and Where else?)
- Why there? (and not elsewhere?)
- What Associations?
- What Consequences?
- What's this place like?
Themes and considerations
- People & Environment
(nee Man-Land Relations; Earth as the home of man)
- Place / Region (Areal Differentiation)
- Character of places
- Comparison of places
- Relationships among places (-> connections & flows)
- Environment / Ecology
- Space (location, distance, effects)
- Location (absolute v relative , "site" and "situation"
- Oraganization - systems of parts, interdependence, hierarchy,
- Regions: formal, functional, fiat, nodal v. uniform regions.
- Behavior in space --- activites, choices,
The Five Themes (from 1984 AAG and NCGE for school curriculum)
- Human-Environment Interaction
Geography for Life: National Geography Standards 1994
Geography Education Standards Project --- developed on behalf
of: American Geographical Society; Association of American
Geographers; National Council for Geographic Education; National
- The World in Spatial Terms
- Places and Regions
- Physical Systems
- Human Systems
- Environment and Society
- The Uses of Geography
"Cutting Up" Geography as a subject...
- Human vs. Physical (vs. Cartography?) Subject matter
- Regional vs. Systematic Perspective
- 52(?) Specialty Groups in the
... studying the geography of cities.
... marked by density of people and built environment.
... simultaneously the products and the shapers of economic, social apolitical, cultural, and technological change."
Urbanization as a process of Interaction between People
and the Environment that results in cities.
- Urban Systems
- Land Use Patterns
- Information Fields / Flows
- Built Environments
- Social Interactions / Ways of Life
Why cities locate where they do.
- Physical factors
- shelter (from prevailing weather)
- access to drinking water
- freedom from floods
- defensive positions
- Resources at the site
- minerals (mining and logging towns)
- energy (water power)
- agricultural hinterlands
- Transportation junctions
- river junctions
- bridging points / fords
- break-of-bulk points
- often junction of transportation systems
- edge between terrains / regions
- land / water junctions (harbors)
- Accident / Chance
Some Greatest Hits: