Ruth Elynia S. Mabanglo

Courses Taught

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WI -- IP 396



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Course Content | Objectives | Text/References | Requirements | Major Papers, Reaction Paper and Other Writing | Cultural Activities | Grade Weights | Schedule of Activities | Other References | On-Line Reaings | Suggested Topics for Paper #1 | Suggested Topics

Course Content

The Philippines has a rich literary tradition that dates back from pre-colonial times. It covers a variety of languages, forms and expressions.

Literature cannot be seen as separate from the daily life of the community, it reflects the life and ideals of the people. Hence, Philippine literature and folklore mirror the values, hopes and aspirations of the Filipino people. Its roots can be traced from the ancient cultures of Asia, Southeast Asia and Polynesia. This further enriched by Spanish and American influences that later evolved a literary culture that affected the language, subject and style of contemporary writing.

This course will study the representative samples of Philippine folklore and vernacular literature in translation. It will analyze particular elements and recurring value-patterns and make inferences on how they affect decisions and lifestyles of modern-day Filipinos. It will also try to look into certain elements that could be related to present lifestyles, beliefs and characteristics of various ethnic communities in Hawaii.


  • Know the forms and contents of folk literature of various ethnic communities of the Philippines.
  • Make inferences on the world-views, value systems, folk beliefs and traditions of the Filipinos as gleaned from the contents of their myths, epics, legends, folklore, etc.
  • See how folk beliefs, literatures and values impact the decisions people make in their everyday lives.
  • Discover how the various folk literatures are preserved and propagated in modern times with the use of other media (visual, performing arts, etc.)
  • Do research or independent studies on how the myths, legends and folk stories have evolved from period to period as influenced by colonization and modernization.
  • Write and present a comparative study of one Philippine folktale/myth with Hawaiian and/or existing Asia-Pacific Communities in Hawaii using various analytical and critical approaches.


  • Readings: IP 396 Philippine Literature and Folklore in Translation Compiled by Dr. Ruth Mabanglo (available at Professional Image)
  • Photocopied readings of Hawaiian, Asia-Pacific Folk literature
  • Video materials related to the various topics being discussed
  • CD-Rom materials; websites relevant to the readings
  • Lectures of invited guest speakers
  • Excerpts of various movies/teleplays relevant to the topics
  • Other References (See List)*


  1. Complete the readings/writing assignments. [This include emailing questions, reactions, posting messages, etc. through email; and, reading your email messages]
  2. Be present in class. Actively participate in the discussions and activities (share knowledge gathered from experience or independent research).
  3. Submit two 7-paged papers on topics discussed in class. These papers are results of readings and discussions in class, or of independent studies and research
  4. One reaction paper on a major paper written by a peer; one take-home midterm examinations (essay type).
  5. Attendance/Participation in some relevant cultural activities.
  6. Do a final presentation of a project related to lessons.

Major Papers, Reaction Paper and Other Writing

There are two papers in the course. Each paper will follow a specific topic. Students can choose from a list provided by the syllabus. Some students may deviate from this list after consultation with the instructor.

The first paper had to be revised before it is graded. Additional points will be given to this paper if it were chosen for publication (in the Katipunan Magazine). This paper will be exchanged at random for peer response or reaction. The response should not be less than 3 pages.

Students are required to do a presentation of the second paper in class. This second paper should be a comparative study of a topic in Philippine folk literature with any Hawaiian and Asian-Pacific counterpart (e.g., folk heroes, creatures of lower mythology; creation myths, etc.). The presentations are scheduled toward the end of the semester. Topics for this paper are also provided in the schedule. Again, students may deviate from the assigned topics after consultation with the instructor.

Both major papers will be 7 pages, submitted in 81/2 X 11 inches paper, typewritten, double-spaced, using 12 font size of Times or Times New Roman.

The syllabus states other forms of writing (e.g., writing summary, inferences and explanatory notes) that the instructor will collect. The idea for this activity is to prepare students for the analytical/critical nature of the course.

Cultural Activities

10% of the class grade is devoted to cultural activities related to the course (e.g., Katipunan picnic which teaches Filipino games and songs, field trips, participation to cultural performances, watching and reviewing shows related to the topics of the course, public lectures, demonstrations, etc.). Additional points will be given to the publication of academic papers to the Katipunan magazine. The points can be banked and used for contingencies like incomplete attendance, quizzes that were missed, etc.

Grade Weights

    Attendance/participation (15 meetings) . . . . . . . . . . . 40%
    Writing Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40%*
    Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10%
    Participation in Cultural Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10%
    Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100%

F 2006


DATE TOPIC/DISCUSSION Activities/Assignments
Week 1 Introduction to the course; video viewing:
"A Video Documentary on Philippine
Ethnic Literature"
Lecture on the sources of Philippine Folk
Complete video viewing
Activity. Take Notes;
Read topics assigned at home
Read assignments. Email
questions; deadline: 5 pm
Aug. 27
Week 2
Filipino Myths
"Filipino Universe" (1), "Samal Genesis"
(4), "Origin Myths of the Manuvu" (6),
"The Creation of Man in Philippine Myths"
(14); "Ifugao Flood Myth"
Q and A; group discussions;
Short Writing Activities

Email questions
Week 3
Filipino Myths
"Why the Sun Shines Brightly Than the
Moon"; "The Sun and the Moon"; "The
First Visayan Man and Woman";
"Tungkung Langit and Alunsina"
Q and A; group discussions

Story Telling Activities

Email Questions
Week 4
Legends and Folktales
"Legends and Folktales"; "The Wrath
of Kahilwayan"; "The Chocolate Hills of
Bohol"; "Why the Mosquitoes Hum and Cry
to Get Into Out Ears"
Make inferences
Look for Filipino legends of
FRUITS; report to class next
meeting; Email your topic by
Sept 17 (by Group)
Week 5
Folktales, Proverbs, Riddles
Group Story Telling
Riddles and Proverbs
Riddling game; Filipino
proverbs discussion
PICNIC Preparation
Email assignments
Week 6
Filipino And Philippine Literature
Program PICNIC
-- all students and
Submit essay of reaction or
observation on picnic, Sept 26
Week 7
Philippine Folksongs

Submit first paper; exchange
paper for peer review
Week 8

Submit Paper # 1 with
reaction to

Get Assignments on Epic
Heroes (Group)

Week 9
Epics and Heroic Tales:
Week 10
Reportage on Folk Heroes
Show Video:
Video on Tattoing
and "Indarapatra"
Submit Video Worksheet
Invite: Vita (Lecturer in
Samoan Program
Week 11
Reportage on Folk Heroes
Week 12
Filipino and Philippine Literature
Program Filipino Film Presentation:

"La Visa Loca"
Week 13
Characters of Lower Mythology
Week 14

Week 15
Characters of Lower Mythology
Nov 21    
Nov 28    
Dec 5    

Week 9 Proverbs, Riddles, Folksongs, Folk poems
"Proverbs"; "Riddles"; "Pre-Spanish
Tanagas"; "Lyricism in Seven Syllables";
"A Folio of Nonsense Rhymes an Songs";
"Tagalog Song Book"

Proverbs and Riddles from Hawaii and
other Pacific/Asian Countries.
Submit: Written insights on the
topics read; group discussion on
the values and content of
proverbs, riddles, etc.
Distribution of take-home
midterm test
Week 10-11
Characters of Lower Mythology

"About the Aswang"; "More About the
Asuang"; "Witchcraft, Pangasinan Style";
"Black Art in Ilocandia"; "Serena"
Creatures of Lower Mythology
Other Countries

Video Viewing:
Segments of "Aswang",
"Shake, Rattle and Roll"
Week 12
Metrical Romances

"Datu Sumakwel"; "Byzantine Happening";
"Ibong Adarna"; "Bernardo Carpio",
"Florante and Laura"
Submit: summary of readings
with your own insights;
compare pre-Spanish heroes
with metrical romances heroes
Week 13
Metrical Romance

Field Trip to the Bishop Museum
Summarize the epic;
Discuss the epic poem as a
nationalist literature

Week 14
Metrical Romances

Hawaiian Metrical Stories/Mele
Write Summaries;
Narrate Stories

Keawe Lopes
Week 15 STUDENT PRESENTATION Submit Paper # 2
Submit all other
requirements you need to

Wrap Up:
Instructor summarize the whole course;
course evaluation
Submit Revised
Note: At anytime within the semester, students are encouraged to meet with the teacher
to discuss their writing in particular and any topic/academic concerns in general.

*Other References:

  • Burne, Charlotte Sophia. The Handbook of Folklore: Traditional Beliefs, Practices, Customs, Stories and Saying. London: The Guernsey Press, Co. Ltd., 1995.
  • Carter, Angela (Ed). Strange Things Sometimes Still Happen: Fairy Tales From Around the World. Boston: Faber and Faber. 1993.
  • Clement, Clara Erskine. Legendary and Mythological Art. London: Bracken Books, 1994.
  • Ebert, Samuel H. (Ed). Selections from Fornander's Hawaiian Antiquities and Folk-Lore. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 1959.
  • Gutmanis, June. Na Pule Kahiko: Ancient Hawaiian Prayers. Honolulu, Hawaii: Editions Limited, 1983.
  • Johnson, Rubellite Kawena. Kumulipo: The Hawaiian Hymn of Creation. Honolulu: Topgallant. 1981.
  • _____________. The Kumulipo Mind: A Global Heritage in the Polynesian Creation Myth. Published on-line by Fatbrain. 2000,
  • Kalakaua, King David. The Legends and Myths of Hawaii by His Hawaiian Majesty Kalakaua. Rutland: Charles E. Tuttle Company.
  • Kame'eleihiwa, Lilikala K. A Legendary Tradition of Kamapua'a: The Hawaiian Pig
  • Knappert. Jan. An Encyclopedia of Myth and Legend: Pacific Mythology. Northampton, England: The Aquarian Press, 1992.
  • Kramer, Samuel Noah. (Ed) Mythologies of the Ancient World. New York: Anchor Books, 1961.
  • Piggott, Juliet. Japanese Mythology. London: Paul Hamlyn, 1969.
  • ___________. Library of the World's Myths and Legends: Japanese Mythology. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1991.
  • Pukui, Mary Kawena. 'Olelo No'eau: Hawaiian Proverbs and Poetical Sayings. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Speical Publication No. 71. 1983
  • Rappoport, Angelo S. The Sea: Myths and Legends. London: The Guernsey Press, Co. Ltd., 1995.
  • Seki, Keigo (Ed). Folktales of Japan. University of Chicago Press. 1963.
  • Smith, Richard Gordon. Ancient Tales and Folklore of Japan. London: The Guernsey Press, Co, Ltd., 1995.
  • Thompson, Vivian. Hawaiian Legends of Tricksters and Riddlers. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990.
  • ____________. Hawaiian Tales of Heroes and Champions. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 1971.
  • Varez, Dietrich. Pele: The Fire Goddess. Hawaii: Bishop Museum, 1991.
  • ____________. Maui: The Mischief Maker. Bishop Museum Press, 1991.
  • Werner, Edward. Ancient Tales and Folklore of China. London: Studio Editions Limited, 1995.
  • Westervelt, W.D. Myths and legends of Hawaii: Ancient Lore Retold. Hawaii: Mutual Publishing Company, 1987.

On-Line Readings:

Hawaiian Folklore series from Honolulu Advertiser

Suggested Topics for Paper # 1:

(1) The Earth Mother in Different Polynesian and Asian Cultures

(2) Sun-Moon Stories in Difference Asian and Polynesian Cultures

(3) Compare Philippine Deities with Gods/Goddesses of Other Countries

(4) Discuss pre-Hispanic Filipino values as gleaned from myths/legends

(5) Similarities and Differences of Asian, Pacific, Southeast Asian Values as Gleaned from Myths

(6) Comparative Study of Animistic Religions of Hawaii, Philippines and other Asian/Southeast Asian Countries

(7) Pantheon of Two Countries: A Comparative Study

Suggested topics:

(1) The Need for Heroes From Ancient Times to Present (2) Compare one metrical romance with "Lord of the Rings" or other similar works using at least 5 parameters. (3) Comparative Study of Lower Mythological Characters [Native Hawaiian/Polynesian and Philippines; Asian and Philippines] (4) Florante at Laura and Philippine Nationalism (5) Superstitions and Decisions: An Analysis of How Superstitions Affect Modern Lives