Forward to this bibliography

[Kevin Roddy writes: The bibliographies on Language Endangerment, Preservation, and Diversity consist of three distinct works:

These bibliography is available through the Terralingua Web site.

In an effort to assist the Department of Linguistics at the University of Hawaii, Manoa, in determining what UH libraries held in language documentation and endangered language materials, I checked the contents of this bibliography using Hawai'i Voyager during the period 3 March - 17 May, 2004. All items in red are those that are not found in any UH System library. Most of the titles below are available at Hamilton Library, though there are a few titles that are available somewhere in the UH System, such as UH-Hilo or at the Community Colleges. Check Hawai'i Voyager for the latest status of the item you want. If the item you want is not available at Hamilton, you may order the item free of charge using the Library's IntraSystem Loan Service. Intra-campus shipping takes approximately one week.

I have corrected most of the typographical errors in titles that would make cataloging searching difficult.

In an ideal world, UH Libraries would like to provide access to every item on this list. Waning budget allocations for print materials, and the fact that some some materials go quickly out of print work against this goal. Still, many of the classics in this area of linguistics are readily available here at Manoa.

Should you find an item on this list that we don't have, you can 1) recommend it be purchased by the Linguistics Subject Specialist at Hamilton Library; 2) try to obtain the item through Interlibrary Loan; or 3) try contacting the writer to ask for a copy. My experience has been that linguists are very willing to share copies of their work if you make an effort to find the material first, and then ask them directly. Of course, if the scholar is "no longer with us" you may have only have option 2 available.

Please let me know if you have corrections to this list. I will review it occasionally to see if new items have been made available and make corrections. My email address is kroddy@hawaii.edu

The first bibliography: "Bibliographies on Language Endangerment, Preservation, and Diversity" or MITPWL begins now. - kr

 

 

Bibliographies on Language Endangerment, Preservation, and Diversity

 


A Preliminary Bibliography on Language Endangerment and Preservation

 

Jonathan David Bobaljik, Harvard & McGill Universities (USA & Canada)

Rob Pensalfini, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA)

Luciana Storto, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA)

©1996 Jonathan David Bobaljik, Rob Pensalfini & Luciana Storto. All rights reserved. First published in MIT Working Papers in Linguistics, vol 28: Papers on Language Endangerment and the Maintenance of Linguistic Diversity. Cambridge, MA: MIT. Posted on the Web June 1997. Permission is granted to download and otherwise reproduce this document for personal, educational, or research uses, not for profit. All copies must contain this copyright notice.


Introduction

In compiling this bibliography, we have attempted to focus on those materials which are of most direct relevance to the theme of this volume. In this, we have not made any attempt to survey the descriptive and theoretical literature on specific languages which are endangered (grammars, dictionaries, articles, etc...), nor have we comprehensively surveyed the work on structural aspects (e.g., grammatical reflexes) of language shift, or on code-switching. To do so would have further delayed publication of the entire volume.

The entries in this bibliography are loosely divided into four main sections (with some overlap and a good deal of arbitrariness). The first section lists books and articles on diversity generally. This includes other bibliographies, surveys and censuses (such as the Ethnologue Grimes, 1992), and articles comparing diversity in biology and language. The second section contains works dealing with language contact. We have included this section since we see endangerment as one possible outcome of languages (and populations) in contact, while other possibilities include multilingualism, creolization, etc., thus studying the dynamics of language contact could be relevant to understanding why and how languages become endangered. Section three comprises investigations into the causes and nature of language endangerment, shift, death, etc. This section includes articles which address the question: Why should anyone care? The final main section is devoted to language preservation, maintenance and revival. This section includes case studies of current or past language revival programmes.

Following the main body of the bibliography, we have included a list of organizations which are concerned with endangered languages and their preservation, with as much contact information as possible. Some of these organizations have newsletters or other publications.

The reader is cautioned that this bibliography is very much work in progress. It is in many regards quite incomplete. We realize that a large amount of relevant literature has been overlooked; in all cases, this is due to the compilers' ignorance and lack of resources; in no cases should the omission of any article or other work be construed as a decision that the work is irrelevant. In addition, some of the decisions to list an article in one section or another of the bibliography have been "best guesses" based on the title of the work. We hope to update the WWW version of this bibliography periodically and will work to rectify these oversights. The editors welcome any correspondence and copies of any relevant work, Endangered Languages Bibliography Project c/o MIT Working Papers in Linguistics, MIT Room 20D-219, Cambridge MA 02139, USA, or by email at the addresses below. Unfortunately, as this is being done on a voluntary basis, we cannot reimburse any expenses.

We would like to thank all those who supplied us with information for this bibliography. In particular, we acknowledge the following people who provided us with extensive bibliographies of their own from which we have cut-and-pasted liberally.

 

August D. de V. Cluver, University of South Africa, Pretoria

Nancy Dorian, Bowdoin, USA

Graham McKay, Edith Cowan University, Australia

Luisa Maffi, University of California, Berkeley, USA

Tony Woodbury, University of Texas at Austin, USA

 

JDB, RP, LS

Cambridge, MA

November 1996

 

 

1. Diversity (Including Surveys And Censuses)

 

Aboriginal Language Services (1991). A Profile of the Aboriginal Languages of the Yukon Whitehorse, Yukon: Yukon Executive Council Office, Aboriginal Language Services

Bastardas-Boada, Albert (1996). Ecologia de les llengues. Medi, contactes i dinamica sociolinguistica. Barcelona: Enciclopedia Catalana.

Bastardas-Boada, Albert (1991b). Comportament linguistic i canvi social. In Marti i Castell, J. (ed.), Processos de normalitzacio linguistica. Barcelona: Ed. Columna. pp. 41-63.

Bastardas-Boada, Albert (1993). Llengua catalana i futur: notes des d'una perspectiva eco-sistemica. Revista de Llengua i Dret 19. Barcelona. pp 81-93.

Berthelsen, Christian (1990). In Arctic languages - an awakening, 333-340. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Bickerton, D. (1981). Roots of language. Ann Arbor: Karoma.

Bickerton, D. (1984a). The language bioprogram hypothesis. Behavioral and brain sciences 7, 173-221.

Bickerton, D. (1984b). The language bioprogram hypothesis and second language acquisition. In Rutherford 1984 (ed.), Language universals and second language acquisition. Amsterdam:Benjamins.

Black, P. (1983). Aboriginal languages of the Northern Territory. Batchelor, Northern Territory: School of Australian Linguistics.

Blake, B. (1981). Australian aboriginal languages. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. (1991). Genes, peoples, and languages. Scientific American 265 (5): 104-110.

Cheremisina, M.I. (1992). Jazyki korennyx narodov Sibiri. Novisibirsk State University.

Cluver, A. D. de V. (1996). A selected bibliography on the sociology of language with emphasis on sources on language planning in Africa, University of South Africa, Department of Linguistics. Pretoria.

Clyne, M. (1980). Language ecology in Australia. Paper presented at the 50th ANZAAS Conference, Adelaide.

Clyne, M.G. (1982). Multilingual Australia. Melbourne River Seine Publ;ications.

Collis, Dirmid. (ed.) (1990). Arctic languages - an awakening. UNESCO.

Crowley, Terry (1993). Tasmanian Aboriginal language: old and new identities. In Michael Walsh and Colin Yallop (eds.).Language and Culture in Aboriginal Australia Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press 51-71.

De Graaf, Tjeerd (1992). The ethnolinguistic situation on the island of Sakhalin. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 94, 185-201.

Dejean, Y. (1993). An overview of the language situation in Haiti. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 102.. pp 73-83.

Eastman, C. (1984). Language, ethnic identity and change. In Edwards, J.R. (ed.), Linguistic Minorities and Pluralism. London: Academic Press.

Eastman, C. and T. Reese (1981). Associated language: how language and ethnic identity are related. General linguistics 21(2), 109-116.

Ehrenfeld (1986). Thirty million cheers for diversity New Scientist 110(1512), 38-43.

Enninger, Werner and Klaus-Herbert Wandt. (1984). Language ecology revisited: from language ecology to sign ecology. In Werner Enninger and Lillith M. Haynes eds Studies in Language Ecology 29-50.

Fishman, Joshua A. (1982). Whorfianism of the third kind: ethnolinguistic diversity as a worldwide societal asset. Language in society 11, 1-14.

Fishman, Joshua A. (1966). Some contrasts between linguistically homegeneous and linguistically heterogeneous polities. Sociological inequity 36, 146-158.

Fishman, Joshua A. (1971b). The sociology of language: an interdisciplinary social science approach to language in society. In Fishman (ed.), Advances in the sociology of language, vol. 1. The Hague: Mouton.

Fishman, Joshua A. (1987). Language and ethnicity. In Giles (ed.), Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. New York: Academic Press.

Fishman, Joshua A. (ed.). (1971). Advances in the sociology of language, vol. 1. The Hague: Mouton.

Fishman, Joshua A. (ed.). (1972). Advances in the sociobiology of language, vol.2. The Hague: Mouton.

Fishman, Joshua, A. Talcouret-Keller, M. Clyne, B. Krishnamurti & M. Abdulaziz (eds.). (1986).The Fergusonian impact, vol 2. Sociolinguistics and the sociology of language. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Fishman, Joshua A., V. Nahirny, J. Hofman, & R. Hayden (eds.). (1966). Language loyalty in the United States. The Hague: Mouton.

Fishman, Joshua A. (1989). Language and Ethnicity in Minority Sociolinguistic Perspective. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Giles, Howard (ed.). (1977). Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. New York: Academic Press.

Giles, Howard, R. Y. Bourhis & T. M. Taylor (1977). Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In Giles, Howard (ed.), Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. New York: Academic Press.

Giles, Howard and Patricia Johnson (1981). The role of language in ethnic group relations. In John C. Turner and Howard Giles eds Intergroup Behaviour Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Greenberg, Joseph. (1987). Language in the Americas. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Grimes, Barbara (ed.) (1992). Ethnologue - languages of the world. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Guyette, Susan (1981). An examination of Cherokee language vitality. Anthropological Linguistics 23(5):215-225.

Harmon, D. (1995a). The status of the world's languages as reported in the Ethnologue. Paper presented at the Symposium on Language Loss and Public Policy, Albuquerque, NM, June 30-July 2, 1995.

Harmon, D. (1995b). Losing species, losing languages: Connections between biological and linguistic diversity. Paper presented at the Symposium on Language Loss and Public Policy, Albuquerque, NM, June 30-July 2, 1995.

Harmon, David (1996). The converging extinction crisis: defining terms and understanding trends in the loss of biological and cultural diversity. Paper presented at the Symposium on Language Loss and Public Policy, Albuquerque, New Mexico, June 30-July 2, 1995; submitted for publication to the Southwest Journal of Linguistics.

Haugen, Einar (1972). The ecology of language. (Originally published 1971) In The Ecology of Language: Essays by Einar Haugen edited by Anwar S. Dil Stanford: Stanford University Press 325-339.

Haugen, E., J.D. McClure and D. Thompson (eds.) (1981). Minority languages today. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Haviland, John B. (1985). The life history of a speech community: Guugu Yimidhirr at Hopevale Aboriginal History 9(2):170-204.

Hill, Jane H. and K.C. Hill (1986). Speaking Mexicano: Dynamics of Syncretic Language in Central Mexico. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Hinton, Leanne (1994). Flutes of Fire: Essays on California Indian Languages. Berkeley, CA: Heyday Books.

Hoogenraad, Robert (1992). Preliminary report on the language census of the Barkly and Sandover regions. Appendix 4 of the Report on the Language in Education Survey of the Barkly and Sandover Regions. Unpublished report, Northern Territory Education Department, Alice Springs.

Kaldor, Susan and Ian Malcolm (1991). Aboriginal English-an overview. In Romaine ed. 1991:67-83.

Kaufman, Terrance. (1990). Language classification in South America: what we know and how to know more. In Amazonian linguistics: studies in lowland South American languages. Doris Payne (ed.). 13-74. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Key, Marie Ritchie (1979). The groupings of South American Indian languages. Tubingen: Gunter Narr.

Krauss, Michael (Forthcoming). The Indigenous Languages of the North: a Report on their present state, National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, Japan, final revised version of report to UNESCO. 34 pages.

Labov, W. (1972a). Language in the inner city. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Labov, W. (1972b). Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Leukotka, Cestmir (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: Latin American Center, UCLA.

Lieberson, S. (1970). Language and ethnic relations in Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Lieberson, S. and L. Hansen (1974). National development, mother tongue diversity and the comparative study of nations. American sociological review 39, 523-541.

Lieberson, S., G. Dalto, and M.E. Johnston (1975). The course of mother tongue diversity in nations. American Journal of Sociology 81(1):34-61.

Lizarralde, M. (1994). Index of the ethno-linguistic Indian groups of South America. In Cultures of South America, ed. by J. Wilbert. Encyclopedia of the Cultures of the World. New Haven, CN: HRAF.

Macnamara, J. (ed.). (1977). Language learning and thought. New York: Academic Press.

Maffi, Lusia. (1995). References on linguistic, cultural and biological diversity and related topics. Ms.University of California at Berkeley.

McCormack, W. C. and Wurm, S. A. (eds.). Approaches to Language: anthropological issues. The Hague: Mouton.

Mithun, Marianne (1994). SSILA Presidential Address, 1993. SSILA Newsletter 12(4), 10-11.

Mühlhäusler, P. (Forthcoming). The interdependence of linguistic and biological diversity. In The Politics of Multiculturalism in the Asia/Pacific, ed. by D. Myers. Darwin, Australia: Northern Territory University Press.

National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey 1994: Detailed Findings. Australian Bureau of Statistics

Nichols, Johanna. (1992). Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Nichols, P. O. (1983). Linguistic options and choices for Black women in the rural south. In Thorne, Kramarae & Henley (eds.), Language, gender and society. Rowley,MA: Newbury House Publishers.

Petersen, Robert (1990). The Greenlandic language: its nature and situation. In Arctic languages - an awakening. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Pool, J. (1969). National development and language diversity. La monda lingvo-problemo 1(3), 140-156.

Pottier, Bernard (1983). America Latina e sus lenguas Indigenas: coordinacion, presentacion y documentacion. Caracas: UNESCO/Monte Avila Editores, C.A.

Rigsby, Bruce and Peter Sutton (1980-2). Spech communities in Aboriginal Australia. Anthropological forum 5(1), 8-23.

Rodrigues, Aryon. (1985). The Present State of the Study of the Brazilian Indigenous Languages. In South American Indian Languages - Retrospect and Prospect., Klein, H. & L. Stark (eds.), 405-442. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Rodrigues, Aryon. 1986. Linguas Brasileiras - para o estudo das linguas indigenas. Sao Paulo: Loyola.

Romaine, Suzanne (ed.). (1991) Language in Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rumsey, Alan (1993). Language and territoriality in Aboriginal Australia. In Michael Walsh and Colin Yallop eds Language and Culture in Aboriginal Australia Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press 191-206.

Singerman, Robert. Indigenous languages of the americas: a bibliography of dissertations and theses. Scarecrow Press.

Stross, B. (1975). Variation and natural selection as factors in linguistic and cultural change. In Linguistics and Anthropology: In Honor of C.F. Voegelin, ed. by M.D. Kinkade et al. Pp. 607-632. Lisse: Peter de Ridder.

Sutton, Peter (1978). Wik: Aboriginal society, territory and language at Cape Keerweerpe peninsula. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Queensland, Australia.

Sutton, Peter (1981). Review of Dixon 1980, The languages of Australia. Aboriginal history 169-171.

Sutton, Peter (1991). Language in Aboriginal Australia: social dialects in a geographic idiom. In Romaine ed 1991:49-66

Tovar, A. and C. Tovar. (1984).Catalogo de las lenguas de america del sur. Madrid: Gredos.

Voeglin, Charles & Voeglin F. (1977).Classification and index of the world's languages. New York: Elsevier.

Wagner, H. (1958). Linguistic atlas and survey of Irish dialects. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.

Williams, C. (1984). More than tongues can tell: linguistic factors in ethnic separation. Edwards, J (ed.), Linguistic minorities, policies and p... , 179-219. London/Orlando: Academic Press.

Wolfram, W. (1969). A sociolinguistic description of Detroit negro speech. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Woodbury, Anthony C. (1993). A defense of the proposition "when a language dies, a culture dies," in Texas Linguistic Forum 33.

Woolard, K. (1985a). Language variation and cultural hegemony: toward an integration of sociolinguistic and social theory. American Ethnologist 12, 738-748.

Yukon Aboriginal Languages Conference (1991).Voices of the Talking Circle.

Zepeda, Ofelia and Jane H. Hill (1991). The condition of native American languages in the United States. In Robert H. Robins and Eugenius M. Uhlenbeck (eds.), Endangered Languages Oxford: Berg 135-155.

 

 

2. Language Contact

Abu-Manga, A. (1986) Fulfulde in the Sudan: process of adaptation to Arabic. Marbuger Studien zur Afrika- und Asienkunde, Serie A: Afrika 44. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.

Alatis, J. E. (1970). Bilingualism and language contact. Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press.

Allardt, E. (1984). What constitutes a language minority? Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Developments 5 (3&4), 195-205.

Andersen, R. W. (1982). Determining the linguistic attributes of language attrition. In Lambert & Freed (eds.), The loss of language skills. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.

Andersen, R. W. (ed.) (1983). Pidginization and creolization as language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Anderson, R. W. (ed.) (1984). Second languages: a cross-linguistic perspective. Cambridge, MA: Newbury House.

Arends, J., Muysken, P. and N. Smith (eds.). (1995). Pidgnins and creoles: an introduction. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Bahrick, H. (1984). Fifty years of second language attrition: implications for programmatic research. Modern language journal 68: 105-118.

Baker, Richard (1990). The Yanyuwa as a case study in the geography of contact history. Aboriginal History 14(1):25-60

Baral, D.P. (1980). The effects of home-school language shifts: the linguistic explanation. In: Padilla, R.V. (ed.) Theory in bilingual education. Ypsilanti MI: Eastern Michigan University: 136-147.

Bastardas-Boada, Albert (1986). The Relation between Linguistic Context, Behaviour and Competence. Quebec: International Center of Research on Bilingualism.

Bastardas-Boada, Albert (1991). Planning change in code-switching: theoretical and practical inferences from the Catalan case. Papers for the Symposium on Code-Switching in Bilingual Studies. Strasbourg: European Science Foundation.

Bavin, E. & T. Shopen (1985). Warlpiri and English: languages in contact. In Clyne (ed.).

Benton, Richard (1987). From the Treaty of Waitangi to the Waitangi Tribunal. In W. Hirsch ed. Living Languages: Bilingualism and Community Languages in New Zealand Auckland: Heinemann 63-74.

Bickerton, D. (1977). Pidginization and creolization: language acquisition and language universals.

Brandl, M. and M. Walsh (1982). Speakers of many tongues: towards understanding multilingualism among Aboriginal Australians. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 36, 71-81.

Campbell, L. (1976). Language contact and sound change. In W. W. Christie (ed.), Current progress in historical linguistics. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Castonguay, C. (1982) Intermarriage and language shift in Canada, 1971-1976. Canadian journal of sociology 263-278.

Chana, U. K. and S. Romaine (1984). Evaluative reactions to Panjabi/English code-switching. Journal of Multilingual and multicultural development, 447-473.

Daswani, C.J. (1989). Multilingualism and language decay: the case of Indian Sindhi. International journal of the sociology of language 75: 55-60.

De Bot, K. P. Gommans and C. Rossing (1991). L1 loss in an L2 environment: Dutch immigrants in France. Seliger, H.W. and R. M. Vago (eds.) First language attrition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 87-98.

Dil, A.S. (1986). Diglossia in Bangla: a study of shifts in the verbal repertoire of the educated classes in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In: Fishman, J.A., A. Tabouret-Keller, M.G. Clyne, Bh. Krishnamurti and M.H. Abdulaziz (eds.) The Fergusonian impact: in honour of Charles A. Ferguson on the occasion of his 65th birthday. Vol. 2: sociolinguistics and the sociology of language. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter: 451-465.

Dorian, N. (1988). The Celtic languages in the British Isles. In: Paulston, C.B. (ed.) International handbook of bilingualism and bilingual education. Westport (CT): Greenwood Press: 109-139.

Dorian, N. (1993). Internally and externally motivated change in language contact settings: doubts about dichotomy. In: Jones, C. (ed.) Historical linguistics: problems and perspectives. London: Longman: 131-155.

Eades, Diana (1985). You gotta know how to talk information seeking in south-east Queensland Aboriginal society. In J.B. Pride (ed.) Cross-Cultural Encounters: Communication and Mis-Communication Melbourne: River Seine 91-109

Eades, Diana (1991). Communicative strategies in Aboriginal English. In Romaine (ed.) 1991:84-93

Eades, Diana (1995). Interpreting Aboriginal English in the legal system. Paper presented at Proper True Talk: National Forum: Towards a National strategy for Interpreting in aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages.Alice Springs (convened by Attorney General's Department and the National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters)

Eckert, P. (1980). Diglossia: separate and unequal. Linguistics 18: 1053-64.

Enninger, W. (1980). Syntactic convergence in a stable triglossia plus trilingual situation in Kent county, Delaware. In Nelde (ed.), Spruchkonflikt and sprachkonflikt. Zeitschift fur dialektologie und linguistik, Beihelt 32. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.

Falchun, F. (1969). Essay on the lingual minority of Basse-Bretagne. In Holmstad & Lade (eds.), Lingual minorities in Europe. O... Norskle Samlaget.

Ferguson, Charles.A. (1959). Diglossia.Word 15:325-340

Fishman, Joshua A. (1967). Bilingualism with and without diglossia: diglossia with and without bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues 23:29-38

Fishman, Joshua A. (1978). Advances in the Study of Societal Multilingualism. The Hague: Mouton.

Gaarder, B.A. (1977). Language maintenance or language shift. In: Mackey, W.F. and T. Anderson (eds.) Bilingualism in early childhood. Rowley (MA): Newbury House Publishers: 409-434.

Gal, S. (1976). Language change and its social determinants in a bilingual community. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Berkeley.

Gal, S. (1978). Peasant men can't get wives: language change and sex roles in a bilingual community. Language in society 7(1), 1-16.

Gal, S. (1979). Language shift: social determinants of linguistic change in bilingual Austria. New York: Academic Press.

Gumperz, J.J. & R. Wilson (1971). Convergence & creolization: a case from the Indo-Arian/Dravidian border in India. In Hymes (ed.), Pidginization and Creolization of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hakuta, K. and D. D'Andrea (1992). Some properties of bilingual maintenance and loss in Mexican background high school students. Applied linguistics 13, 1: 72-99.

Hamp, Eric P. (1978). Problems of multilingualism in small linguistic communities. In Alatis (ed.), International dimensions of bilingual education. Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press.

Harris, John (1991). Kriol-the creation of a new language. In Romaine (ed.), 195-203.

Heine, B. (1970). Status and use of African lingua francas. München: Weltforum Verlag.

King, R. (1984). Linguistic variation and language contact: a study of French spoken in four Newfoundland communities. In Wakentyne (ed.), Papers from the Fifth International Conference on methods in dialectology. Victoria, BC: University of Victoria.

Kloss, H. (1967). Bilingualism and nationalism. Journal of social issues 23, 39.

Lieberson, Stanley (ed.) (1981). Language diversity and language contact. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

McConvell, Patrick (1985). Domains and codeswitching among bilingual Aborigines. In Michael Clyne ed Australia-Meeting Place of Languages (Pacific Linguistics C-92) Canberra: Pacific Linguistics 95-125.

Le page, R. B. & Tabouret-Kekker, A. (1985). Acts of identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mougeon, R. & E. Beniak, and D. Valois (1985). A sociolinguistic studuy of language contact, shift and change. Linguistics 23, 455-489.

Mühlhäusler, Peter (1991). Overview of the pidgin and creole languages of Australia. In Romaine (ed.), 159-173

Reuse, Willem J. de. (1994). Siberian Yup'ik Eskimo: the language and its contact swith Chukchi. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.

Rubin, J. (1968). National bilingualism in Paraguay. The Hague: Mouton.

Schneiderman, E. (1975). Attitudinal determinants of the linguistic behavior of French-English bilinguals in Welland, Ontario. Ph.D. dissertation. SUNY at Buffalo.

Shnukal, Anna (1988). Broken: An Introduction to the Creole Language of Torres Strait Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Spitzer. L. (1974). The creoles of Sierra Leone. Madison:University of Wisconsin Press.

Weinreich, Uriel. (1953). Languages in Contact (reprinted in 1968). The Hague: Mouton.

Weltens, B. (1987). The attrition of foreign language skills: a literature review. Applied linguistics 8, 1: 22-36.

Woolard, K. (1989). Double talk: bilingualism and the politics of ethnicity in Catalonia. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

 

 

3. Change, Shift And Endangerment

Adelaar, W.F.H. (1991). The endangered languages problem: South America. In: Robins, R.H. and E. M. Uhlenbeck (eds.) Endangered languages. Oxford: Berg Publishers: 45-91.

Adler, M.K. (1977). Welsh and the other dying languages in Europe: a sociolinguistic study. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

Agnew, J. A. (1981). Language shift and the politics of language: the case of the Celtic languages of the British Isles. Language problems and language planning 5: 1-10.

Aikio, Marjut (1990). The Finnish perspective: language and ethnicity. In Arctic languages - an awakening, 367-400. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Allard, R. and R. Landry (1992). Ethnolinguistic vitality beliefs and language maintenance and loss. In: Fase, W., K. Jaspaert and S. Kroon (eds.) Maintenance and loss of minority languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins: 171-195.

Amery, Rob (Forthcoming). Directions of language shift at Yirrkala, north east Arnhem Land. To appear in P. McConvell ed.Can Aboriginal Languages Survive? University of Queensland Press.

Bach, Emmon. (1996). The Politics of Universal Grammar. LSA Presidential Address.

Bach, Emmon. (1995). Endangered languages and the linguist. In Ik-Hwan Lee, (ed.) Linguistics in the Morning Calm 3: Selected Papers from SICOL-1992 (Seoul: Hanshin Publishing Company; 1995), pp. 31-43.

Bamgbose, A. (1993). Deprived, endangered, and dying languages. Diogenes 161: 19-26.

Barriga López, Franklin (1992) Las culturas indigenas ecuatorianas y el Instituto Lingüístico de Verano Quito: Ediciones Amauta

Batibo, H. (1992). The fate of ethnic languages in Tanzania. In: Brenzinger, M. (ed.) Language death: factual and theoretical explorations with special reference to East Africa. Berlin: Mouton: 85-94.

Beaujot, R.P. (1982). The decline of official language minorities in Quebec and English Canada. Canadian journal of sociology:367-390.

Benson, P. (1990). What is English like in Malaysia and is it in decline? English today 24, 6, 4: 19-22.

Bentahila, A. and E. E. Davies (1992). Convergence and divergence: two types of language shift in Morocco. In: Fase, W., K. Jaspaert and S. Kroon (eds.) Maintenance and loss of minority languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Blount, B. G. & M. Sanches (eds.) (1977). Sociocultural dimensions of language change. New York: Academic Press.

Boseker, B.J. (1994). The disappearance of American Indian languages.In: Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 15, 2/3: 147-160.

Bourbeau, R. (1983). Les transferts linguistiques au Canada / Canada's language transfer problem. Langue et societe / Language and society 11: 14-22.

Bradley, D. (1978). Identity, dialect and sound change in mBisu and ?`ugoN. Working Papers in Linguistics, University of Melbourne 4, 37-46.

Brenzinger, M. (1992a). Patterns of language shift in East Africa. In: Herbert, R.K. (ed.)Language and society in Africa. Johannesburg: Wirwatersrand University Press: 287-303.

Brenzinger, M. (1992b). Social contexts of language death. In: Brenzinger, M. (ed.) 3-5.

Brenzinger, M. (1993). Minority languages, a cultural legacy. Diogenes 161:1-18.

Brenzinger, M., B. Heine and G. Sommer (1991). Language death in Africa. In: Robins, R.H. and E. M. Uhlenbeck (eds.) 1991 Endangered languages. Oxford: Berg Publishers: 19-44.

Brenzinger, Matthias (ed.) (1992c). Language death: factual and theoretical explorations with reference to East Africa. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Buchheit, R.H. (1982). Language maintenance and shift among Mennomites in South-Central Kansas. Yearbook of German-American studies 17: 111-121.

Bugaeva, Alla and C. Taksami (1990). In Arctic languages - an awakening, 93-100. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Butters, R.R. (1989). The death of Black English: divergence and convergence in black and white vernaculars. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Calvel, L. J. (1973). Le Colonisation linguistique en France. Les Temps Modernes. 324-325-326, 74-89.?

Calvet, L. (1974). Linguistique et Colonialisme. Paris: Payot.

Campbell, L. (1976). The last Lenca. International Journal of American Linguistics 49.

Campbell, L. and M.C. Muntzel (1989). The structural consequences of language death. In: Dorian, N. (ed.) Investigating obsolescence: studies in language contraction and death. (Studies in the social and cultural foundations of language 7). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 181-196.

Cluver, A.D. de V. (1993). The decline of Afrikaans.Language matters 24: 15-46.

Clyne, M.G. (1981). Language death. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Clyne, M.G. (1985). Language maintenance and language shift: some data from Australia. In: Wolfson, N. and J. Manes (eds.) Language of inequality. (Contributions to the sociology of language, 36). Berlin: Mouton: 195-206.

Clyne, M.G. (ed.) (1985). Australia, meeting place of languages. Pacific Linguistic Series C-92. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Clyne, M.G. (1992). Linguistic and sociolinguistic aspects of language contact, maintenance and loss. Towards a multifacet theory. In: Fase, W., K. Jaspaert and S. Kroon (eds.) Maintenance and loss of minority languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins: 17-36.

Cooper, R. L. (ed.) (1982). Language Spread: studies in diffusion and social change. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Craig, C. (1992). Language shift and language death: the case of the Rama in Nicaragua. International Journal of the Sociology of language 93: 11-26.

Cuardn, B.G. and Y. Lastra (1991). Endangered languages in Mexico. In: Robins, R.H. and E. M. Uhlenbeck (eds.) Endangered languages. Oxford: Berg Publishers: 93-134.

Day, R. (1985). The ultimate inequality: linguistic genocide. In Wolfson, N. and J. Manes (eds.), Language of Inequality (Contributions to the sociology of language, 36). Berlin: Mouton, 163-181.

De Bot, K. and M. Clyne (1994). A 16-year longitudinal study of language attrition in Dutch immigrants in Australia. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 15, 1: 17-28.

De Vries, J. (1977a). Some new indices of language maintenance and language shift in Canada, 1971 and 1976. In: Lamy, P. (ed.) Language maintenance and language shift in Canada. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press: 81-94.

De Vries, J. (1977b). Explorations in the demography of language: estimation of net language shift in Finland 1961-1970. In: Acta soxiologica 20, 2: 145-153.

De Vries, J. (1984). Factors affecting the survival of linguistic minorities: a preliminary comparative analysis of data for Western Europe. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 5, 3/4: 207-216.

De Vries, J. (1985). Some methodological aspects of self-report questions on language and ethnicity. Journal of Multilingual and multicultural development 6, 347-368.

Denis, W.B. and P.S. Li (1988). The politics of language loss: a Francophone case from Western Canada. Journal of education policy 3, 1: 351-370.

Denison, N. (1977). Language death or language suicide? Linguistics 191: 13-22 (International journal of the sociology of language 12: 13-22).

Denison, N. and J. Tragut (1990). Language death and language maintenance. In: Ammon, U., K.J. Mattheier and P. Nelde (eds.) Minderheiten und Sprachkontakt / Minorities and language contact / minorites et contact linguistique. (Sociolinguistica, 4). Tubingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag: 150-156.

Dimmendaal, G.J. (1989). On language death in Eastern Africa. In: Dorian, N.C. (ed.) Investigating obsolescence: studies in language contraction and death. (Studies in the social and cultural foundations of language, 7). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 13-31.

Dimmendal, G. J. (Forthcoming). Language contraction and reductive processes in Kore. In M. Brenzinger (ed.). Language death: factual and theoretical explorations. Berlin: de Gruyter.

Dixon, R.M. (1991). The endangered languages of Australia, Indonesia and Oceania. In: Robins, R.H. and E. M. Uhlenbeck (eds.) Endangered languages. Oxford: Berg Publishers: 229-255.

Donaldson, Tamsin. (1985). From speaking Ngiyampaa to speaking English. Aboriginal History 9(2): 126-147.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1973) Grammatical change in a dying dialect. Language 49: 413-438.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1977a). The problem of the semi-speaker in language death. Linguistics 191: 23-32 (also in: International journal of the sociology of language 12: 23-32).

Dorian, Nancy C. (1977b). A hierarchy of morphophonemic decay in Scottish Gaelic language death: the differential failure of lenition. Word 28: 96-109.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1978). The dying dialect and the role of the schools: East Sutherland Gaelic and Pennsylvania Dutch. In: Alatis, J.E. (ed.) Georgetown University Round Table on language and linguistics 1978. International dimensions of bilingual education. Washington (DC): Georgetown University Press: 646-656.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1978a). The fate of morphological complexity in Scottish Gaelic language death: evidence from East Sutherland Gaelic. Language 54: 590-609.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1978b). The dying dialect and the role of schools: East Sutherland Gaelic and Pennsylvania Dutch. In Alatis (ed.), International dimensions of bilingual education. Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1980a). Linguistic lag as an ethnic marker. Language in society 9: 33-41.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1980b). Language shift in community and individual: the phenomenon of the laggard semi-speaker. International journal of the sociology of language 25: 85-94.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1981). Maintenance and loss of same-meaning structures in language death. Word 31: 39-45.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1981). Language death: the life cycle of a Scottish Gaelic dialect. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1981c). Tradition's end: a threatened language and culture.Political quarterly 58: 249-262 (repr. in 1983 in The highlander 21: 41-46).

Dorian, Nancy C. (1981d). Language death: the life cycle of a Scottish Gaelic dialect. Philadelphia: University, of Pennsylvania Press.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1982a). Language loss and maintenance in language contact situations. In: Lambert, R. and B. Freed (eds.) The loss of language skills. Rowley (MA.): Newbury House Publishers: 158-167.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1982c). Linguistic models and language death evidence. In: Obler, L. and L. Menn (eds.) Exceptional language and linguistics. New York:Academic Press: 31-48.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1983). Natural second language acquisition from the perspective of the study of language death. Andersen, R. (ed.) Pidginization and creolization as second language acquisition. Rowley (MA): Newbury House: 158-167.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1985). Radical asymmetries in the skills of speakers of obsolescent languages. Paper presented at the Centre for Franco-Ontarian Studies, The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Toronto, May 1.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1986a). The gathering of data in terminal speech communities.In: Fishman, J.A., A. Tabouret-Keller, M.G. Clyne, Bh. Krishnamurti and M.H. Abdulaziz (eds.) The Fergusonian impact: in honour of Charles A. Ferguson on the occasion of his 65th birthday. Vol. 2: sociolinguistics and the sociology of language. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter: 555-575.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1986b). Abrupt transmission failure in obsolescing languages: how sudden the 'trip' to the dominant language in communities and families? In Nikiforidou, V., M. van Clay, M. Niepokuy and D. Feder (eds.) Proceedings of the twelfth annual meeting of the Berkely linguistic society. Berkeley (CA): Berkeley Linguistics Society: 72-83.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1986c). Making do with less: some surprises along the language death proficiency continuum. Applied psycholinguistics 7: 257-275.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1991a). Surviving broadcast media in small language communities. Educational media international 28: 134-137.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1991b). Obsolescent languages. In: Bright, W. (ed.) The international encyclopedia of linguistics. Vol.3. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 135-136.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1993). A response to Ladefoged's other view of endangered languages. Language 69(3): 575-579.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1994a). Purism and compromise in language revitalization and language revival. Language in society 23: 479-494.

Dorian, Nancy C. (1994b) Comment: choices and values in language shift and its study. International journal of the sociology of language 110: 113-124.

Dorian, Nancy C. (ed.) (1989). Investigating obsolescence: studies in language contraction and death. (Studies in the social and cultural foundations of language, 7). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dorian, Nancy C.(1982b). Defining the speech community to include its working margins. In: Romaine, S. (ed.) Sociolinguistic variation in speech communities. London: Edward Arnold: 25-33.

Dressler, W. (1972). On the phonology of language death. Papers from the eigth regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 448-457.

Dressler, W. (1981). Language shift and language death - a protean challenge for the linguist. Folia Linguistica 15, 5-27.

Dressler, W. (1988). Language death. In: Newmeyer, F.J. (ed.) Language: the socio-cultural context. (Language: the Cambridge survey, 4). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 184-192.

Dressler, W. and R. Wodak-Leodolter (1973). Sprachbewahrung und Sprachtod in der Bretagne: eine soziolinguistische Voruntersuchung zum Status des Bretonischen im Tregor. Wiener linguistische Gazette 3: 45-58.

Dressler, W. and R. Wodak-Leodolter (1977a). Language preservation and language death in Brittany. Linguistics 191: 33-44 (also in: International journal of the sociology of language 12: 33-44).

Dressler, W. and R. Wodak-Leodolter (eds.) (1977b). Language Death. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 12. The Hague: Mouton.

Dressler, W.(1982). Acceleration, retardation, and reversal in language decay?"In: Cooper, R.L. (ed.) Language spread: studies in diffusion and social change. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University Press in cooperation with the Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington: 321-336.

Durbin, M. (1973). Formal changes in Trinidad Hindi as a result of language adaptation. American Anthropologist 75, 1290-1304.

Durkacz, V.E. (1983). The decline of the Celtic languages: a study of linguistic and cultural conflict in Scotland, Wales and Ireland from the Reformation to the twentieth century. Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers.

Edwards, J. (1992). Sociopolitical aspects of language maintenance and loss. In: Fase, W., K. Jaspaert and S. Kroon (eds.) Maintenance and loss of minority languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins: 37-54.

Edwards, J. (1994). Parochialism and intercourse: metaphors for mobility. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 15, 2/3: 171-178.

Edwards, W.F. (1983). Code selection and shifting in Guyana. Language in society 12: 295-311.

Elegoet, F. (1971-2). La domination linguistique en Bretqgne. Memoire de maitrise du sociologie, Universite de Paris X, Nanterre.?

Elliott, S. (1956). A pretty piece of prejudice. Journal of Education, Series 5, 6(1).

Elmendorf, W. (1981). Last speakers and language change: two californian cases. Anthropological linguistics 23(1), 36-49.

Erdmann, U.M. (1992). Language maintenance versus assimilation. A study of the fate of German in Northeast Lower Saxony since World War II. (Zeitschift fur Dialektologie und Linguistik, Beihefte 70). Stuttgart: Steiner.

Fabian, J. (1986). Language and colonial power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fase, W., K. Jaspaert and S. Kroon (eds.) (1992b). Maintenance and loss of minority languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Fase, W., K. Jaspaert and S. Kroon 1992a Maintenance and loss of minority languages: introductory remarks.In: Fase, W., K. Jaspaert and S. Kroon (eds.), 3-13.

Fennell, D. (1981). Can a shrinking linguistic minority be saved? In Haugen, McLure and Thomson (eds.), Minority languages today. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press: 32-39.

Fesl, E. (1985). Language death and language maintenance. Polycom 40: 30-32.

Fesl, E. (1987). Language death among Australian languages. Australian review of applied linguistics 10, 2: 12-22.

Fishman, Joshua A. (1964). Language maintenance and language shift as fields of inquiry. Linguistics 9: 32-70.

Fishman, Joshua A. (1965). Language maintenance and language shift: the American immigrant case within a general theoreticalperspective. Sociologus 16: 19-38.

Fishman, Joshua A. (1976). The spread of English as a new perspective for the study of 'language maintenance and language shift'.In: Kachru, B. (ed.) 1976 Studies in language learning: special issue of bilingualism: theory and case studies 1, 2: 59-104 (repr. in: Fishman, J.A., R.L. Cooper and A.W. Conrad (eds.) 1977: 109-133.

Fishman, Joshua A. (1985). The lively life of a 'dead' language. In: Wolfson, N. and J. Manes (eds.) Language of inequality. Berlin: Mouton: 207-222.

Fishman, Joshua A. (1988). Language spread and language policy for endangered languages. In: Lowenberg, P.H. (ed.) Georgetown University round table on languages and linguistics 19X7. Language spread and language policy: issues, implications and case studies. Washington (DC): Georgetown University Press: 1-15.

Fishman, Joshua A. (1990). What is reversing language shift and how can it succeed? Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 11, 1/2: 5-36.

Fishman, Joshua A. (1991a). Reversing Language Shift : Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languages. Clevedon (Avon), U.K.: Multilingual Matters.

Fishman, Joshua A. (1991b). Three dilemmas of organised efforts to reverse language shift. In: Ammon, U. and M. Hellinger (eds.) Status change of languages. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter: 285-293.

Florey, M. (1990). Language shift: changing patterns of language allegiance in western Seram. Honolulu: unpubl. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawaii.

Florey, M. (1991). Shifting patterns of language allegiance: A generational perspective from eastern Indonesia. Papers in Austronesian Linguistics, ed. by H. Steinhauer, 39-47. (Pacific Linguistics A81). Canberra: Australian National University.

Florey, M. (1992). Dialect-switching, language attitudes, and language obsolescence in an Alune-speaking village. Unpublished paper presented at the Second International Maluku Research Conference, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, Hawai'i.

Florey, M. (1993). The reinterpretation of knowledge and its role in the process of language obsolescence. Oceanic Linguistics 32(2): 295-309.

Florey, M. (1995). Skewed performance and structural variation in the process of language obsolescence. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics.

Folmer, J. (1992). Dutch immigrants in New Zealand: a case study of language shift and language loss. Australian review of applied linguistics 15, 2: 1-18.

Gal, S. (1979). Language Shift: Social Determinants of Linguistic Change in Bilingual Austria New York: Academic Press.

Galloway, B.D. (1992). The Samish dialect and Straits Salish: dialect death and dialect survival.International journal of the sociology of language 93: 37-51.

Gambhir, K. (1983). Diglossia in dying languages: a case study of Guayanese Bhojpuri and standard Hindi. Anthropological Linguistics 25. pp 28-38.

Garzon, S. (1992). The process of language death in a Mayan community in southern Mexico. International journal of the sociology of language 93: 53-66.

Giacalcone Ramat, A. (1979). Language function and language change in minority languages. Journal of Italian linguistics 4: 2: 141-162.

Giacalcone Ramat, A. (1983). Language shift and language death. Folia Linguistica 17: 1/4: 495-507.

Ginsberg, R.B. (1986). Issues in the analysis of language loss: methodology of the language skills attrition project. In: Weltens, B., K. de Bot and Th. van Els (eds.) Language attrition in progress. Dordrecht: Foris Publications: 19-36.

Gorter, D. (1987). Surveys of the Frisian language situation: some considerations of research methods on language maintenance and shift. International journal of the sociology of language 68: 41-56.

Greene, D. (1981). The Atlantic group: Neo-Celtic and Faroese.In: Haugen, E., J.D. McClure, and D. Thompson (eds) Minority languages today. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press: 1-9.

Grenoble, Leonore & Lindsay Whaley (Forthcoming). Language Loss and Community Response. Cambridge University Press.

Grey, P. (1994). Mendnyj Aleut: language contact in the North Pacific. Journal of Pidgin and Creole languages 9. pp 109-113.

Grin, F. (1990). Thresholds in minority language maintenance and shift. Cahiers du Centre de Recherche et Developpement en Economique, 2590. Montreal: Universite de Montreal.

Grin, F. (1992). The relevance of thresholds in language shift and reverse language shift: a theoretical examination. Language and society papers: linguistic decisions, LD16. Washington (DC): Center for the Humanities, University of Washington.

Grin, F. (1993). The relevance of thresholds in language maintenance and shift: a theoretical examination. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 14, 5: 375-392.

Gumperz, J. (1977). Social network and language shift. In: Molony, C., H. Zobl and W. Stolting (eds.) Deutsch im Kontakt mit anderen Sprachen / German in contact with other languages. (Monographien Linguistik und Kommunikationswissenschaft, 26). Kronberg (Taurus): Scriptor Verlag: 83-103.

Hale, K. et al. (1992). Endangered languages. Language 68(1): 1-42.

Hamel, R.E. (1993). Derechos lingüísticos. Nueva Antropología 12(44): 71-102.

Hamel, R.E. (1995). Language, discourse, and cultural models: Three levels of language shift and maintenance. Paper presented at the Symposium on Language Loss and Public Policy, Albuquerque, NM, June 30-July 2, 1995.

Haugen, E. (1989). The rise and fall of an immigrant language: Norwegian in America. In: Dorian, N. (ed.) Investigating obsolescence: studies in language contraction and death. (Studies in the social and cultural foundations of language, 7). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 61-73.

Heine, B. (1992). Dialect death: the case of Terik. In: Brenzinger, M. (ed.) Language death: factual and theoretical explorations with special reference to East Africa. Berlin: Mouton: 255-272.

Hill, Jane (1978). Language death, language contact and language. In McCornmack & Wurm (eds.), Approaches to language: anthropological issues. The Hague: Mouton.

Hill, Jane (1983). Language death in Uto-Aztecan. International journal of American linguistics 49: 258-276.

Hill, Jane (1993). Structure and practice in language shift. In: Hyltenstam, K. and A. Viberg (eds.) Progression and regression in language. Sociocultural, neuropsychological, and linguistic perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 68-93.

Hill, Jane (1995). The loss of structural differentiation in obsolescent languages. Paper presented at the symposium "Endangered Languages", AAAS Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 18 February 1995.

Hill, Jane and K. Hill (1977). Language death and relexification in Tlaxcalan Nahuatl. Linguistics: 191: 55-69 (also in: International journal of the sociology of language 12: 55-69).

Hindley, R. (1991). The death of the Irish language. London: Routledge.

Hinton, L. (1995). Current problems affecting language loss and language survival in California. Paper presented at the Symposium on Language Loss and Public Policy, Albuquerque, NM, June 3-July 2, 1995.

Hoenigswald, H.M. (1989). Language obsolescence and language history: matters of linearity, levelling, loss and the like. In: Dorian, N. (ed.) Investigating obsolescence: studies in language contraction and death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 347-354.

Hofman, J.E. and H. Fisherman (1971). Language shift and maintenance in Israel. International migration review 5, 2: 204-226 (repr. in: Fishman, Joshua A. (ed.) Advances in the sociology of language. Vol. 2: selected studies and applications. The Hague: Mouton: 342-364).

Holmes, J., M. Roberts, M. Verivaki and A. Aipolo (1993). Language maintenance and shift in three New Zealand speech communities. Applied linguistics 14, 1: 1-24.

Hudson-Edwards, A. and G.D. Garland (1980). Intergenerational language shift in an Albuquerque barrio. In: Blansitt, E.L. and R.V. Teschner (eds.) A festschrift for Jacob Ornstein. Rowley (MA): Newbury House Publishers: 139-158.

Huffines, M. (1980). Pennsylvania German: maintenance and shift. International journal of the sociology of language 25: 43-57.

Humphreys, H.L. (1991). The geolinguistics of Breton. Williams, C.H. (ed.) Language in geographic context. Clevedon (Avon): Multilingual Matters: 96-120.

Jamieson, P.M. (1980). The pattern of urban language loss. Australian and New Zealand journal of sociology 16, 2: 102-109.

Jaspaert, K. and S. Kroon (1989). Social determinants of language loss. ITL review of applied linguistics 83/84: 75-98.

Jaspaert, K. and S. Kroon (1991). Social determinants of language shift by Italians in the Netherlands and Flanders. International journal of the sociology of language 90: 77-96.

Jaspaert, K., S. Kroon and R. van Hout (1986). Points of reference in first-language loss research. In: Weltens, B., K. de Bot and Th. van Els (eds.) Language attrition in progress. Dordrecht: Foris Publications: 37-49.

Jones, B.L. (1981). Welsh: linguistic conservation and shifting bilingualism. In: Haugen, E., J.D. McClure, and D. Thompson (eds) Minority languages today. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press: 40-51.

Jones-Jackson, P. (1984). On decreolization and language death in Gullah. Language in society 13: 351-362.

Kahane, H. and R. Kahane (1979). Decline and survival of Western prestige languages. Language 55, 1: 183-198.

Karttunen, Frances and Alfred W. Crosby (1995). Language death, language genesis, and world history.

Kibrik, Aleksandr E. (1991). The problem of endangered languages in the USSR. In: Robins, R.H. and E.M. Uhlenbeck (eds.) Endangered languages. Oxford: Berg Publishers: 257-273.

Kinkade, M.D. (1991). The decline of native languages in Canada. In: Robins, R.H. and E.M. Uhlenbeck (eds.) Oxford: Berg Publishers: 157-176.

Kloss, H. (1984). Umriss eines Forschungprogrammes zum Thema 'Sprachentod'.International journal of the sociology of language 45: 65-76.

Knab, T. (1978). Language death in the Valley of Puebla: a socio-geographic approach. Ms.

Koenig, E. L. (1980). Ethnicity: the key variable in a case study of language maintenance and language shift. Ethnicity 7, 1-14.

Krauss, Micahel (1992). The world's languages in crisis. In Hale et al. (org.)Language 68: 4-10.

Krauss, Michael (1992). A Loss for Words. Earthwatch 11:3.10-12.

Krauss, Michael (1993). The Language Extinction Catastrophe Just Ahead: Should Linguists Care? Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Linguists, Quebec.

Krauss, Michael (1994). Language Endangerment. In Languages of the North Pacific Rim (Hokkaido University Publications in Linguistics 7), pp. 283-293.

Krauss, Michael (1995). Language Loss in Alaska, the United States, and the World. Frame of Reference Vol. VI, No.1, (Alaska Humanities Forum).

Krauss, Michael (1995). Status of Native American Language Endangerment. In Stabilizing Indigenous Languages, G. Cantoni (ed.), Flagstaff, pp. 16-21.

Krauss, Michael (Forthcoming). The Scope of Language Endangerment and Recent Responses to it. Proceedings of International Symposium on Endangered Languages, T. Tsunoda (ed.), University of Tokyo.

Kravin, H. (1992). Erosion of a language in bilingual development. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 13, 4: 307-325.

Kulick, D. (1992). Language shift and cultural reproduction: socialization, syncretism and self in a Papua New Guinean village. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kulick, D. (1993). Growing up monolingual in a multilingual community: how language socialization patterns are leading to language shift in Gapun (Papua New Guinea). In: Hyltenstam, K. and A. Viberg (eds.) Progression and regression in language. Sociocultural, neuropsychological, and linguistic perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 94-121.

Kulick, D. (1994). Language Shift and Cultural Change. Paper presented at the Australian Linguistic Institute, Workshop on Language Shift and Maintenance in the Asia Pacific Region, Latrobe University, Melbourne.

Kuter, L. (1985). Labeling people: who are the Bretons? Anthropological quarterly 58(1), 13-29.

Kwachka, P. (1992). Discourse structures, cultural stability, and language shift International journal of the sociology of language 93: 67-73.

Labov, W. (1965). On the mechanism of linguistic change. In Kreidler (ed.), Report of the Sixteenth Annual Round Table on Linguistics and Language Studies. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Labov, William. (1982). Objectivity and commitment in linguistic science: the case of the Black English trial in Ann Arbor. Language in Society 11. 165-201.

Ladefoged, Peter (1992). Another view of endangered languages. Language 68: 809-811.

Lamb, S. (1964). Linguistic diversification and extinction in North America. XXV Congreso Internacional de americanistas, Mexico.

Lambert, R. and B. Freed (eds.) (1982). The loss of language skills. Rowley (MA): Newbury House Publishers.

Lamy, P. (ed.) (1977). Language maintenance and language shift in Canada. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.

Laponce, J. A. (1975). Relating linguistic to political conflicts: the problem of language shift in multilingual societies. In: Savard, J.-G. and R. Vigneault (eds.) Les Etats multilingues: problemes et solutions. Quebec: Les Presses de l'Universite Laval: 185-207.

Legere, K. (1992). Language shift in Tanzania. In: Brenzinger, M. (ed.). Language death: factual and theoretical explorations with special reference to East Africa. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter: 99-115.

Leopold, W.F. (1968). The decline of German dialects.In: Fishman. JA. (ed.) 1968 Readings in the sociology of language. The Hague: Mouton: 340-364.

Lewis, G. (1978). Migration and the decline of the Welsh language. In: Fishman, J.A. (ed.) Advances in the study of societal multilingualism. The Hague: Mouton: 263-351.

Lieberson, S. and E. McCabe (1978). Domains of language usage and mother-tongue shift in Nairobi. International journal of the sociology of language 18: 69-81.

Lieberson, S. and T.J. Curry (1971). Language shift in the United States: some demographic clues. International migration review 5: 125-137.

Lindgren, A-R. (1984). What can we do when a language is dying? Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 5, 3: 293-300.

Lippi-Green, R.L. (1989). Social network integration and language change in progress in a rural Alpine village. Language in society 18, 2: 213-234.

Lloyd, I. (1986). The decline of the Irish language and the attempt to revive it. Plural societies 16, 1: 80-86.

Lopez, D.E. (1982). Language maintenance and shift in the United States today: the basic patterns and their social implications. Los Alamitos (CA): National Center for Bilingual Research.

Mackey, W.F. (1980). The ecology of language shift. Zeitschrift fur Dialektologie und Linguistik Beiheft 32: 35-41.

Mackey, W.F. and D.G. Cartwright (1979). Geocoding language loss from census data. In Mackey, W.F. and J. Ornstein (eds.) Sociolinguistic studies in language contact: methods and cases. The Hague: Mouton: 69-96.

MacKinnon, K. (1991). Language-retreat and regeneration in the present-day Scottish Gaidhealtachd.In: Williams, C.H. (ed.) Language in geographic context. Clevedon (Avon): Multilingual Matters: 121-149.

MacKinnon, K.M. (1977). Language shift and education: conservation of ethnolinguistic culture amongst schoolchildren of a Gaelic community. International journal of the sociology of language 14: 31-55.

Mahapatra, B.H. (1991). An appraisal of Indian languages. In: Robins, R.H. and E.M. Uhlenbeck (eds.) Endangered languages. Oxford: Berg Publishers: 177-188.

Markey, T. L. (1978). Linguistic acculturation: coalescence vs. conservation. In: Paradis, M. (ed.) Aspects of bilingualism. Columbia (SC): Hornbeam Press: 202-210.

Markey, T. L. (1987). When minor is minor and major is major: language expansions, contraction and death. Journal of multilingual and Multicultural Development 8, 1/2: 3-22.

Martin-Jones, M. (1989). Language, power and linguistic minorities: the need for an alternative approach to bilingualism, language maintenance and shift. In: Grillo, R. (ed.) Social anthropology and the politics of language. (Sociological review, monograph, 36). London: Routledge: 106-125.

Matisoff, J. A. (1991). Endangered languages of mainland Southeast Asia.In: Robins, R.H. and E.M. Uhlenbeck (eds.) Endangered languages. Oxford: Berg Publishers: 189-228.

McConvel, Patrick (ed.). (Forthcoming). Language shift in Aboriginal Australia.

Mesthrie, R. (1987). From OV to VO in language shift: South African Indian English and its OV substrates. English world-wide 8, 2: 263-276.

Mesthrie, R. (1992a). Fanagalo in colonial Natal. In: Herbert, R.K. (ed.) Language and society in Africa. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press: 305-324.

Mesthrie, R. (1992b). English in language shift: the history, structure and sociolinguistics of South African Indian English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mesthrie, R. (1995). South African Indian English: from L2 to L1.In: Mesthrie, R. (ed.) Language and social history: studies in South African sociolinguistics. Cape Town: David Philip: 251-264.

Miller, W.R. (1971). The death of language or serendipity among the Soshoni. Anthropological linguistics 13, 3: 114-120.

Molesky, J. (1988). Understanding the American linguistic mosaic: a historical overview of language maintenance and language shift. In: McKay, S.L. and S.C. Wong (eds.) Language diversity. Problem or resource? A social and educational perspective on language minorities in the United States. New York: Newbury House Publishers: 29-68.

Moore, R.E. (1988). Lexicalization versus loss in Wasco-Wishram language obsolescence. International journal of American linguistics 54: 453-468.

Mougeon, R. and E. Beniak (1994). Bilingualism, language shift, and institutional support for French: the case of the Franco-Ontarians. International journal of the sociology of language 105/106: 99-102.

Mougeon, R., E. Beniak and D. Valois (1985). A sociolinguistic study of language contact, shift and change. Linguistics 23: 455-489.

Mufwene-Salikoko, S. (1991). Some reasons why Gullah is not dying yet. English world-wide 12: 215-243.

Mufwene-Salikoko, S. (1992). Ideology and facts on African American English. Pragmatics 2. pp 141-166.

Mufwene-Salikoko, S. (1994a). On decreolization : the case of Gullah. In Language and the social structure of identity in creole situations. Morgan M (ed.). Los Angeles: Center for Afro-american Studies Publications. pp. 63-99.

Mufwene-Salikoko, S. (1994b). New English and criterias for naming them. World-englishes 13. pp21-31.

Munstermann, H. (1989). Dialect loss in Maastricht: attitudes, functions and structures. In: Deprez, K. (ed.) Language and intergroup relations in Flanders and in the Netherlands. Dordrecht: Foris Publications: 99-128.

Munstermann, H. and T. Hagen (1986). Functional and structural aspects of dialect loss: a research plan and some first results. In: Weltens, B., K. de Bot and Th. van Els (eds.) Language attrition in progress. Dordrecht: Foris Publications: 75-96.

Muntzel, M. C. (1979). Language death. MA dissertation. Department of Anthropology, SUNY Albany.

Muntzel, M. C. (1982). Problems of language loss for the descriptive linguist. Paper presented at the Symposium Features of Indigenous Languages. Mexico. Ms.

Myers-Scotton, C. (1992). Codeswitching as a mechanism of deep borrowing, language shift, and language death. In: Brenzinger, M. (ed.) Language death. Factual and theoretical explorations with special reference to East Africa. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter: 31-58.

Ngara, E. (1993). Language influence and culture: comments on the impact of English on Shona. Diogenes 161: 27-34.

Nicolas, M. (1982). Histoire du mouvement breton. Paris: Editions Syros.

O Riagain, P. (1992). Language maintenance and language shift as strategies of social reproduction: Irish in the Corca Dhuibhne Gaeltacht 1926-1986. (Research report, 17). Dublin: Institiuid Teangeolaiochta Eireann.

O Riagain, P. (1994). Language maintenance and language shift as strategies of social reproduction. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 15, 2/3: 179-197.

Oxford, R. (1982). Research on language loss: a review with implications for foreign language teaching. Modern language journal 66: 160-169.

Pan, B.A. and J.B. Gleason (1986). The study of language loss: models and hypotheses for an emerging discipline. Applied psycholinguistics 7, 3: 193-206.

Panwels, A.F.(1985). The role of mixed marriages in language shift in the Dutch communities. In: Clyne, M.G. (ed.) Australia meeting place of languages. (Pacific linguistics series C, 92). Canberra: The Australian National University: 39-55.

Parkin, D.J. (1974). Language shift and ethnicity in Nairobi: the speech community of Kaloleni. In: Whiteley, W.H. (ed.) Language in Kenya. Nairobi: Oxford University Press: 167-187.

Paulston, C.B. (1987). Catalan and Occitan: comparative test cases for a theory of language maintenance and shift. International journal of the sociology of language 63: 31-62.

Perry, T. (1982). An interpretive analysis of the Martin Luther King Jr. versus Ann Arbor Board District case. Dissertation, Harvard School of Education.

Person, Y. (1973). Imperialisme linguistique et colonialisme. Les Temps Modernes 324-325-326, 90-118.

Piriou, Y. B. (1971). Defense de cracher par terre et de parfler breton. Paris: P. J. Oswold.?

Posner, R. (1993). Language conflict in Romance: decline, death and survival. In Trends in Romance Linguistics and Philology, vol 5: bilingualism and linguistic conflict in Romance. R. Posner, ans J, Green (eds.), Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 41-75.

Powell, Alan (1982). Far Country: A Short History of the Northern Territory Melbourne: Melbourne University Press

Prabhakaran, V. (1992a). A language challenged - the struggle of a minority language in South Africa. Durban: V.P.S.S. Publishers.

Prabhakaran, V. (1992b). Generation - a factor in language shift and maintenance of the Telegu language. South African journal of linguistics 10, 3: 167-172.

Prabhakaran, V. (1992c). The political situation as a factor in shift and maintenance of the Telegu language in South Africa (a sociolinguistic study). SPIL PLUS 22. Linguistics for the language professions 1: part b: 485-499.

Prabhakaran, V. (1994). Tamil lexical borrowings in South African Telegu. South African journal of linguistics 12, 1: 26-31.

Prabhakaran, V. (1995). Language attrition - a case study of Telegu language in South Africa. South African journal of linguistics 13, 4: 131-137.

Putz, M. (1991). Language maintenance and language shift in the speech behaviour of German-Australian migrants in Canberra. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 12, 6: 477-492.

Pye, C. (1992). Language loss among the Chilotin. International journal of the sociology of language 93: 75-86.

Rabin, C. (1986). Language revival and language death. In: Fishman, J. A., A. Tabouret-Keller, M.G. Clyne, Bh. Krishnamurti and M.H. Abdulaziz (eds.) The Fergusonian impact: in honour of Charles A. Ferguson on the occasion of his 65th birthday. Vol. 2: sociolinguistics and the sociology of language. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter: 543-554.

Reece, J. E. (1977). The bretons against France. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Rhodes, Richard (1992). Language shift in Algonquian. International journal of the sociology of language 93: 87-92.

Rickford, J. & Traugott, E. (1985). Symbol of powerlessness and degeneracy, or symbol of solidarity and truth? Paradoxical attitudes towards pidgins and creoles. In Greenbaum (ed.), The English languaege today. Oxford: Pergamon.

Rigsby, Bruce (1987). Indigenous language shift and maintenance in Fourth World settings. Multilingua 6, 4: 359-378.

Robins Hunter. (1994). Language Extinction and the status of North American Indian Languages. Studies in Technology and Social Change 23. Ames, IA: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University.

Robins, R.H. and E.M. Uhlenbeck (eds.) (1991). Endangered Languages. Oxford: Berg.

Roca, A. (1991). Language maintenance and language ship in the Cuban American community of Miami: the 1990s and beyond. Marshall, D.F. (ed.) Language planning: festschrift in honor of Joshua A. Fishman on the occasion of his 65th birthday. Vol. 3. Amsterdam: John Benjamins: 245--257.

Romaine, S. (1992). Pidgins, creoles, immigrant and dying languages. In Investigating obsolensce: studies in language contraction and death . Dorian, N. (ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 369-383.

Rottland, F. and D. Okombo (1992). Language shift among the Suba of Kenya. In: Brenzinger, M. (ed.) Language death: factual and theoretical explorations with special reference to East Africa. Berlin: Mouton: 273-284.

Sandefur, John (1985). Aspects of the socio-political history of Ngukurr (Roper River) and its effect on language change. Aboriginal History 9(2):205-219.

Sankoff, G. (1977). Variability and explanation in language and culture: cliticization in New Guinea Tok Pisin. In Saville-Troike (ed.), Linguistics and anthropology. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Sankoff, G. (1980a). Political power and linguistic inequality in Papua New Guinea. In Sankoff, G. (ed.), The social life of language. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Sankoff, G. (1980b). The social life of language. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Sasse, H-J. (1992). Theory of language death. In: Brenzinger, M. (ed.) Language death. Factual and theoretical explorations with special reference to East Africa. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Schiffman, H.F. (1990). The balance of power in multiglossic languages: implications for language shift. In: Language and society papers: linguistic decisions, LD4. Washington (DC): Center for the Humanities, University of Washington.

Schjerve, R.R. (1981). Bilingualism and language shift in Sardinia. In: Haugen, E., J.D. McClure, and D. Thompson (ads) Minority languages today. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press: 208--217.

Schleicher, A. (1983). (original 1865). On the significance of language for the natural history of man. In Koerner (ed.), Linguistics and evolutionary theory. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Schlieben-Lange, B. (1977). The language situation in southern France. Linguistics 191: 101-108 (also in: International journal of the sociology of language 12: 101-108).

Schmidt, A. (1985). Young People's Dyirbal. An Example of Language Death from Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schmidt, A. (1990). The loss of Australia's Aboriginal language heritage. (The Institute Report Series). Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.

Sedlak, P.A.S. (1975a). Sociocultural determinants of language maintenance and language shift in a rural coastal Kenyan community. Ann Arbor MI: University Microfilms.

Sedlak, P.A.S. (1975b). General language shift and linguistic diversity measures: a Kenyan case. Studies in African linguistics 6, 1: 65-76.

Seliger, H.W. and R. M. Vago (eds.) (1991). First language attrition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shield, L. (1983). Unified Cornish - fiction or fact? An examination of the death and resurrection of the Cornish language. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 5, 3/4: 329-337.

Skorik, Piotr (1990). Social functions of the Soviet northern people's languages. In Arctic languages - an awakening, 77- 82. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Sledd, J. (1982). Review article: the Ann Arbor Black English case. English World-Wide 3. pp. 239-248.

Smitherman, G. (1983). Language and Liberation. Journal-of-Negro-Education 52. pp. 15-23.

Sommer, G. (1992). A survey of language death in Africa. Brenzinger, M. (ed.) Language death. Factual and theoretical explorations with special reference to East Africa. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter: 301-417.

Srivastava, R.N. (1989). Perspectives on language shift in multilingual settings. International journal of the sociology of language 75: 9-26.

Stevens, G. (1985). Nativity, intermarriage and mother-tongue shift. American sociological review 50, 74-83.

Stubbs, M. (1991). Educational language planning in England and Wales: multicultural rhetoric and assimilationist assumptions. In: Coulmas, F. (ed.) A language policy for the European community: prospects and quandaries. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter: 215-239 (also in: Maybin, J. (ed.) (1994) Language and literacy in social practice. Philadelphia (PA): Multilingual Matters and the Open University: 193-214).

Swadesh, M. (1948). Sociologic notes on obsolescent languages. International Journal of Americaln Linguistics 14, 226-135.

Tabouret-Keller, A. (1968). Sociological factors of language maintenance and language shift: a methodological approach based on European and African examples. In: Fishman, J.A., C.A. Ferguson and J. Das Gupta (eds.) Language problems of developing nations. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 107-118.

Tabouret-Keller, A. (1972). A contribution to the sociological study of language maintenance and language shift. In: Fishman, Joshua A. (ed.) Advances in the sociology of language. Volume 2: selected studies and applications. The Hague: Mouton: 365-376.

Taksami, Chuner (1990). Use of the northern languages in the mass media. In Arctic languages - an awakening, 83-92. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Taylor, A. R. (Forthcoming). Language obsolensce, shift, and death in Native American communities. International Journal of the Sociology of Language.

Taylor, A.R. (ed.) (1992). Language Obsolescence, Shift, and Death in Several Native American Communities. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 93. The Hague: Mouton.

Thomason, S.G. and T. Kaufman (1983). Excursus: simplification and foreignization of other germanic languages. In: Thomason, S.G. and T. Kaufman Language contact, creolization, and genetic linguistics. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press: 315-321.

Thompson, R.T. (1982). Implications of language attrition research for national language policy. In: Lambert, D. and B.F. Freed (eds.) The loss of language skills. Rowley (MA): Newbury House Publishers: 202-206.

Timm, L. A. (1980). Bilingualism, diglossia and language shift in Brittany. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 25, 29-41.

Timm, L. A. (1982). Language treatment in Brittany. Language Planning Newsletter 8(3), 1-6.

Trudgill, P. & Tzavaras, G. (1977). Why Albanian Greeks are not Albanians: language shift in Attica and Biotia. In Giles (ed.), Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. New York: Academic Press.

Tsitsipis, L. D. (1981a). Language change and language death in Albanian speech communities in Greece: a sociolinguistic study. Ph. D. dissertation. University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Tsitsipis, L. D. (1981b). Arvanitika language change in speech communities in Greece. In Aronson & Darden (eds.), Folio slavica: studies in Balkan linguistics in honor of E. P. Hamp on his sixtieth birthday. Columbus: Slavica Publishers.

Tsitsipis, L. D. (1983a). Narrative performance in a dying language: evidence from Albanian in Greece. Word 34, 25-36.

Tsitsipis, L. D. (1983b). Language shift among the Albanian speakers of Greece. Anthropological Linguistics 25, 288-308.

Tsou, B.K. (1975). On the linguistic covariants of cultural assimilation. Anthropological linguistics 17, 9: 445-465.

Uhlenbeck, E.M. (1993). De dredging van snelle taalsterfle: een sinds kort onbekend mondiaal probleem. Ons erfdeel 36, 1: 23-31.

Van der Plank, P.H. (1978). The assimilation and non-assimilation of European linguistic minorities: a sociological retrospection. In: Fishman, J.A. Advances in the study of societal multilingualism. The Hague: Mouton: 423-456.

Van Els, T. (1986). An overview of European research on language attrition. In: Weltens, B., K. de Bot and Th. van Els (eds.) Language attrition in progress. Dordrecht: Foris Publications: 3-18.

Van Langevelde, A. (1993). Migration and language in Friesland. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 14, 5: 393-409.

Van Ness, S. (1989). Changes in an obsolescing language: Pennsylvania German in West Virginia. Tubingen: Gunter Narr.

Veltman, C. (1979). New opportunities for the study of language shift. The Anglicization of New England language minorities. Language problems and language planning 3: 65-75.

Veltman, C. (1983). Language shift in the United States. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Vossen, R. (1988). Language maintenance, language shift and identity in Ngamiland, Botswana: some hypotheses.In: Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh. Botswana- education, culture and politics. (Seminar proceedings 29. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh: 65-75.

Wall, M. (1969). The decline of the Irish language. In O Cuiv (ed.), A view of the Irish language. Dublin: Stationery Office.

Watahomigie, Lucille J. and Akira Y. Yamamoto (1987). Linguistics in action: the Hualapai Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program. In Donald D. Stull and Jean J. Schensul eds Collaborative Research and Social Change: Applied Anthropology in Action Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press

Weltens, B., K. de Bot and Th. van Els (eds.) (1986). Language attrition in progress. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.

Willemyus, R. (1991). Linguistic legislation and prestige shift. In: Ammon, U. and M. Hellinger (eds.) Status change of languages. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter: 3-16.

Williams, C.H. (1989). The anglicisation of Wales. In: Coupland, N. (ed.), English in Wales. Clevedon (Avon): Multilingual Matters: 19-47.

Winter, J.C. (1979). Language shift among the Hasax, a hunter-gatherer tribe in Tanzania. In: Fodor, I., B. Heine, W.J.G. Mohlig, F. Rotland, R. Vossen and J.C. Winter (eds.) Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika. Band 1. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag: 175-204.

Wolff, E. (1974/75). Sprachwandel und Sprachwechsel in Nordostnigeria. In: Afrika und Ubersee 58, 3/4: 187-212.

Wong-Fillmore, L. (1991). When learning a second language means losing the first. Early childhood research quarterly 6: 324-346.

Woodbury, A.C. (1993). A defense of the proposition, When a language dies, a culture dies. Texas Linguistic Forum 33: 101-129.

Woolard, K.A. (1989). Language convergence and language death as social processes. In: Dorian, N. (ed.) 1989 Investigating obsolescence: studies in language contraction and death.(Studies in the social and cultural foundations of language, 7). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 355-367.

Wurm, S. A. (1991). Language death and disappearance: causes and circumstances. In: Robins, R.H. and E.M. Uhlenbeck (eds.) 1991 Endangered languages. Oxford: Berg Publishers: 1-18.

Young, R. L. (1988). Language maintenance and language shift in Taiwan. In: Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 9, 4: 323-338.

 

4. Maintenance, Survival, Literacy Programmes

Aboriginal Language Services (1995). Aboriginal Languages Community Initiatives Program: Contribution Agreements 1993-94 by Language Grouping.

Aboriginal Research Centre (1984). Bandjalang Language Learning Course Lesson 1. Clayton Vic: Aboriginal Research Centre, Monash University.

AILF (1993) Australian Indigenous Languages Framework: National Consultation Document November 1993 Adelaide: AILF Project.

Aipolo, A. and J. Holmes (1991). The Wellington Tongan community: prospects for language maintenance. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 12, 6: 501-521.

Akinnaso, F.N. (1993). The national language question and minority language rights in Africa: a Nigerian case study. In: Cohen, R., G. Hyden and W.P. Nagan (eds.) Human rights and governance in Africa. Gainsville: University Press of Florida.

Akinnaso, F.N. (1994). Linguistic unification and language rights. Applied linguistics 15, 2: 139-168.

Alatis, J. E. (1978). International dimensions of bilingual education. Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press.

Alatis, J.E. and J.J. Staczek (1985). Perspectives on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Algren de Gutierrez, E. (1987). The movement against teaching English in schools of Puerto Rico. Lanham MD: University Press of America.

Allard, R. and R. Landry (1992). Ethnolinguistic vitality beliefs and language maintenance and loss. In: Fase, W., K. Jaspaert and S. Kroon (eds.) Maintenance and loss of minority languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins: 171-195.

Ameri, S.M. (1991). Die deutschnationale Sprachbewegung im Wilhelminischen Reich. New York: Peter Lang.

Amery, R. (1994). Heritage and second language programs. In Hartman and Henderson (eds.) 1994:140-162.

Amery, R. and C. Watkins (Forthcoming) Language reclamation and revival. In D. Nathan, (ed.), Australia's Indigenous Languages. Australian Indigenous Languages Framework.

Amorose, T. (1989). The official-language movement in the United States: contexts, issues, and activities. Language problems and language planning 13, 3: 264-279.

Anderson, A. (1979). The survival of ethnolinguistic minorities: Canadian and comparative research.In: Giles, H. and B. Saint-Jacques (eds.) Language and ethnic relations. Oxford: Pergamon Press: 67-85.

Anderson, K. O. and W. Martin (1976). Language loyalty among the Pennsylvania Germans - a status report on Old Order Mennonites in Pennsylvania and Ontario. In E. A. Albrecht & J. A. Burzle (eds.), Germanica-Americana. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas.

Angle, J. (1978). Language maintenance, language shift, and occupational achievement in the United States. San Francisco (CA): R&E Research Associates Inc.

Angogo-Kanyoro, R. (1980). Linguistic and attitudinal factors in the maintenance of Luya group identity. Austin (Texas): unpubl. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas (publ. in 1983 as Unity in diversity, a linguistic survey of the Abalyia of Kenya. Vienna: Afro-Pub).

Annamalai, E. (1979a). Movement for linguistic purism: the case of Tamil. In: Annamalai, E. (ed.): 35-59.

Annamalai, E. (ed.) (1979b) Language movement in India. Mysore: Central Institute for Indian Languages.

Annamalai, E. (1986). Language rights and language planning. New language planning newsletter 1, 2: 1-3.

Ansre, G. (1977). Four rationalizations for maintaining European languages in education in Africa. In: Kiswahili 47, 2: 55-61 (also in (1979): Four rationalizations for maintaining European languages in Africa: a critique. In: African languages/Langues Africaines 5, 2: 10-17).

Arbeitsgruppe (1993). Bedrothe Sprachen. Informationsbroschure zur Dokumentation von bedrothen Sprachen. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Sprachwissenschaft.

Ash, Anna (1994). Use 'em or Lose 'em: The Theory and Practice of Aboriginal Language Maintenance Unpublished BA (Honours) Thesis Armidale NSW: University of New England.

Asuncion-Lande, N. and E.M. Pascasio (1979). Language maintenance and code switching among Filipino bilingual speakers. In: Mackey, W.F. and J. Ornstein (eds.) Sociolinguistic studies in language contact: methods and cases. The Hague: Mouton: 211-230.

ATSIC (1993). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages Initiatives Program (ATSILIP) Funding Guidelines (Draft Interim Guidelines, Attachment B).

Australian Department of Education, Northern Territory Division, Bilingual Education Section (1975). Handbook for Teachers in Bilingual Schools in the Northern Territory of Australia Second edition.

Azevedo, M. (1984). The re-establishment of Catalan as a language of culure. Hispanic linguistics 1, 2: 305-330.

Baarda, Wendy (1994). The impact of the bilingual program at Yuendumu, 1974-1993. In Hartman and Henderson (eds.) 204-213.

Baker, K. (1992). Comments on Suzanne Irujo's review of Rosalie Pedalino Porter's Forked Tongue: The Politics of Bilingual Education. A reader reacts. TESOL Quarterly 26:397-405.

Barnes, D. (1982). Nationalism and the Mandarin movement: The first half-century. In: Cooper, R.L. (ed.) Language spread: studies in diffusion and social change. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University Press in cooperation with the Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington: 260-290.

Bastardas-Boada, Albert. (1987a). La planification linguistique en Catalogne au XX siecle. In J. Maurais (ed.), Politique et amenagement linguistiques. Quebec/Paris: Conseil de la Langue Francaise/Le Robert, pp. 121-158.

Bastardas-Boada, Albert. (1987b). La Planificacio linguistica en els cassos flamenc, basc i catala. Revista de llengua i dret 9. Barcelona. pp. 141-146.

Bastardas-Boada, Albert. (1988a). La normalitzacio linguistica: l'extensio de l'us. In A. Bastardas and J. Soler (eds.). Sociolinguistica i llengua catalana . Barcelona: Ed. Empuries.

Bastardas-Boada, Albert. (1988b). Quebec, Catalunya i Eukskadi: una tipologia de planificacio sociolinguistica. Treballs de sociolinguistica catalana 7. Valencia. pp. 51-56.

Bastardas-Boada, Albert.(1989). Language-use extension in linguistic normalization processes. Catalan Review vol II, no. 1. pp. 59-84.

Bastardas-Boada, Albert (1990). L'extensio de l'us del catala: fonaments teorics per a una nova etapa. Revista de Catalunya 38. Barcelona. pp. 13-23.

Bastardas-Boada, Albert (1991). Fer el futur: sociolinguistica, planificacio i normalitzacio del catala. Barcelona: Ed. Empuries.

Bastardas-Boada, Albert. (1992). Planificacio (socio)linguistica: cap a una teoria per a la pratica. Revista de Catalunya 62. Barcelona. pp. 57-64.

Bastardas-Boada, Albert. (1995). Politica i planificacio lingiuistiques: perspectives i preguntes per a un camp interdisciplinari. Revista de llengua i dret (Barcelona) 24, pp. 145-163.

Bauman, James J. (1980). A guide to Issues in Indian Language Retention Washington DC: Centre for Applied Linguistics.

Bell, Sherrill (1995). Background and Context of the NAATI Draft National Strategy. Paper presented at Proper True Talk: National Forum: Towards a National strategy for Interpreting in aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages.Alice Springs (convened by Attorney General's Department and the National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters).

Bentahila, A. and E. E. Davies (1993). Language revival: restoration or transformation? In: Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 14, 5: 355-374.

Benton, R A. (1986). Schools as agents for language revival in Ireland and New Zealand. In: Spolsly, B. (ed.) Language and education in multilingual settings. Clevedon (Avon): Multilingual Matters: 53-76.

Benton, Richard (1979). The legal status of the Maori language: current reality and future prospects. Wellingto: Maori Unit, New Zealand Council for Educational Research.

Benton, Richard (1981). The Flight of the Amokura: Oceanic Languages and Formal Education in the South Pacific Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.

Bernard, H. Russell (1994). Mexican Indians publish books in native languages. and CELIAC/Oaxaca Native Literacy Project. Message on Nat-Lang List (Internet).

Bernstein, R. (1985). France speaks up for regional languages. New York Times, August 19, Sec 4, 6E.

Bord na Gaeilge (1988). The Irish Language in a Changing Society: Shaping the Future Dublin: Bord na Gaeilge

Born, R. (1991). Phases of language maintenance and shift: on the status of Michigan Franconian. In: Ammon, U. and M. Hellinger (eds.) Status change of languages. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter: 439-456.

Bostock, W. (1988). Assessing the authenticity of a supra-national language-based movement: la Francophonie. In: Williams, C.H. (ed.) Language in geographic context. (Multilingual matters, 38). Clevedon PA: Multilingual Matters: 73-92.

Bourhis, R. Y. (1984). Introduction: language policies in multilingual settings. In R. Y. Bourhis (ed.) Conflict and language planning in Quebec. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Boyd, S. (1985). Language survival: a study of language contact, language shift, and language choice in Sweden. (Gothenburg monographs in linguistics, 6). Gothenburg: Department of Linguistics, University of Goteborg.

Bradley, D. (1981). Majority-minority linguistic interfaces in Thailand. Working Papers in Linguistics, University of Melbourne 7, 79-86.

Bradley, D. (ed.) (1985a). Language policy, language planning and sociolinguistics in South East Asia. Pacific Linguistics A-67. Canberra: Australian National University.

Bradley, D. (1985b). Traditional minorities and language education in Thailand. In Bradley 1985a (ed.).

Brandt, E A. (1988). Applied linguistic anthropology and American Indian language revival. Human organization 47: 322-329.

Brandt, E. A., and Ayoungman, V. (1989). Language renewal and language maintenance: A practical guide. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 16(2), 42-77.

Brennan, Gloria (1979). The Need for Interpreting and Translation Services for Australian Aboriginals, with Special Reference to the Northern Territory Department of Aboriginal Affairs

Brown, B. (1993) The social consequences of writing Louisiana French. In: Language in society 22, 1: 67-101.

Buchheit, R.H. (1982) Language maintenance and shift among Mennomites in South-Central Kansas. In: Yearbook of German-American studies 17: 111-121.

Byron, J. L. (1976). Selection among alternates in languages standardization : the case of Albanian. Paris: Mouton.

Cantoni, Gina (ed.). (1996). Stabilizing Indigenous Languages. Flagstaff: Center for Excellence in Education, Northern Arizona University.

Carberry, Lesley (1995). Letter to Dr Graham McKay dated February 15, 1995. (Lesley Carberry, Program Manager, Aboriginal Language Services, Yukon Executive Council Office, Whitehorse, Yukon.)

Cartwright,D. (1987). Accomodation among the anglophone minority in Quebec to official language policy: a shift in traditional patterns of contact. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 8, 1/2: 187-212.

Castile, G. P. & Kushner, G. (eds.) (1981). Persistent peoples: cultural enclaves in perspective. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.

Catholic Education Office, Kimberley Region (1992). Two Way Learning: A Guide to Policy for Kimberley Catholic Schools (Originally published 1986, Revised Edition 1992). Broome: Jawa Curriculum Support Centre, Catholic Education Office, Kimberley Region.

Chafe, W. (1982). Integration and involvement in speaking, writing, and oral literature. In Tannen (ed.), Spoken and written language. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Co.

Chafe, W. and D. Tannen (1987). The relation between written and spoken language. Annual Review of Anthropology 16: 383-407.

Chrisp, Steven M. (1994). The Maori language and Maori broadcasting: The tale of a modern Trojan Horse. Wellington: Maori Language Commission

Christie, Michael (1988). Aboriginalizing post primary curriculum. The Aboriginal Child at School 16(5):3-16 as reprinted in The Aboriginal Child at School 22(2) (1994):86-94.

Christie, Michael (1989). Literacy, genocide and the media The Aboriginal Child at School 17(5):27-32.

Christie, Michael (1994). Yirrkala Community Education Centre and the Laynha homelands schools: north-east Arnhem Land, NT. In Hartman and Hederson eds 117-125.

Christie, Michael (1995). The teaching of Yolngu languages and culture within the Faculty of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Northern Territory University.

Clyne, M. (1981). Community languages and language policy: a demographic perspective. In Garner, M. (ed.), Community languages. Melbourne: ALAA/River Seine, 13-16.

Clyne, M.G. (1985). Language maintenance and language shift: some data from Australia. In: Wolfson, N. and J. Manes (eds.) Language of inequality. (Contributions to the sociology of language, 36). Berlin: Mouton: 195-206.

Clyne, M.G. (1992). Linguistic and sociolinguistic aspects of language contact, maintenance and loss. Towards a multifacet theory. In: Fase, W., K. Jaspaert and S. Kroon (eds.) Maintenance and loss of minority languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins: 17-36.

Commins, P. (1988). Socio-economic development and language maintenance in the Gaeltacht. International journal of the sociology of language 70: 11-28.

Cooper, Robert (1989). Language planning and social change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crowe, Greg (1994). Aboriginal languages in teacher training at Batchelor College. In Hartman and Henderson eds 1994:341-354.

Cummins, J. (1978). Educational implications of mother tongue maintenance in minority groups. Canadian modern language review 34, 3: 395-416.

Cummins, J. (1991). Forked Tongue: The Politics of Bilingual Education: A Critique. Canadian Modern Language Review 47:786-793.

Cummins, J. (1993). Bilingualism and second language learning. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 13:51-70

Dalton, L., S. Edwards, R. Farquarson, S. Oscar and P. McConvell (Forthcoming). Gurindji children's langauge and language maintenance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language.

Darmsteeg, T. (1988). Language maintenance amongst the East Indian Surinamese.In: Bremer, T. and U. Fleischmann (eds.) Alternative cultures in the Caribbean: first international conference of the Society of Caribbean Research. Berlin 1988. (Bibliotheca Ibero-Americana, 46). Frankfurt: Vervuert: 79-92.

De Vries, J. (1977). Some new indices of language maintenance and language shift in Canada, 1971 and 1976. In: Lamy, P. (ed.) 1977 Language maintenance and language shift in Canada. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press: 81-94.

DEET (Department of Employment, Education and Training) (1990). The Language of Australia: Discussion Paper on an Australian Language and Literacy Policy for the 1990s. (The 'Green Paper') Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

DEET (Department of Employment, Education and Training) (1991a). Australia's Language: The Australian Language and Literacy Policy. (The 'White Paper') Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

DEET (Department of Employment, Education and Training) (1991b). Australia's Language: The Australian Language and Literacy Policy: Companion Volume to the Policy Information Paper. (The 'White Paper') Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Denison, N. and J. Tragut (1990). Language death and language maintenance. In: Ammon, U., K.J. Mattheier and P. Nelde (eds.) Minderheiten und Sprachkontakt / Minorities and language contact / minorites et contact linguistique. (Sociolinguistica, 4). Tubingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag: 150-156.

Dent, Lynette (1994). Dynamics of Koorie Language A and B: Bundjalung Student Notes Churchill, Vic.: Monash Distance Education Centre.

Deslandes, B.S. (1979). Homeland centre education in the Maningrida (NT) district.The Aboriginal Child at School 7(2):15-29.

Devlin, Brian (Forthcoming). The evaluation of bilingual programs in the Northern Territory, Australia, 1973-1993 International Journal of the Sociology of Language.

Djite, P.G. (1990). The place of African languages in the revival of the Francophonie movement. International journal of the sociology of language 86: 87-102.

Dorian, Nancy. (1980). Maintenance and loss of same-meaning structures in language death. Word 31, 39-45.

Dorian, Nancy. (1982). Language loss and maintenance in language contact situations. In: Lambert, R. and B. Freed (eds.) The loss of language skills. Rowley (MA): Newbury House Publishers: 44-59.

Dorian, Nancy. (1986a). Gathering language data in terminal speech communities. In Fishman et al, The Fergusonian impact, vol 2. Sociolinguistics and the sociology of language. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Dorian, Nancy. (1986b). Making do with less: some surprises along the language death proficiency continuum. Applied psycholinguistics 7, 257-276.

Dorian, Nancy. (1987). The value of language-maintenance efforts which are unlikely to succeed. International journal of the sociology of language 68: 57-67.

Dorian, Nancy. (1987). The value of language maintenance efforts that are unlikely to succeed. Internatiojnal journal of the sociology of language 68, 57-67.

Dow, J. (1988). Toward an understanding of some subtle stresses on language maintenance among the Old Order Amish of Iowa. International journal of the sociology of language 69: 19-31.

Drapeau, Lynn & Jean-Claude Corbeil (1992). Les langues autochtones dans la perspective de l'amenagment linguistique. In Jacques Maurais (ed.).

Dressler, W. U. & Wodak-Leodolter, R. (1977). Language preservation and language death in Brittany. International journal of the sociology of language 12, 33-44.

Driedger, L. (1977). Structural, social and individual factors in language maintenance in Canada. In: Coons, W.H., D.M. Taylor and M-A. Tremblay (eds.) The individual, language and society in Canada. L'individu, la langue et la societe au Canada. Ontario: The Canada Council/Conseil des Arts du Canada: 213-241.

Eastman, C.M. (1979). Language resurrection: a language plan for ethnic interaction. In: Giles, H. and B. Saint-Jacques (eds.) Language and ethnic relations. Oxford: Pergamon Press: 215-222.

Edwards, J. (1977). Ethnic identity and bilingual education. In H. Giles (ed.) Language, Ethnicity and Intergroup Relations London: Academic Press

Edwards, J. (1984). Irish: planning and preservation.In: Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 5: 267-275.

Edwards, J. (1992). Sociopolitical aspects of language maintenance and loss." In: Fase, W., K. Jaspaert and S. Kroon (eds.) Maintenance and loss of minority languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins: 37-54.

Edwards, J. (1993). Language revival: specifics and generalities.In: Studies in second language acquisition 15: 107-113.

Ellis, P.B. and S. Mac a'Ghobhainn (1971). The problem of language revival. Inverness: Club Leabhar.

Erdmann, U.M. (1992). Language maintenance versus assimilation. A study of the fate of German in Northeast Lower Saxony since World War II. (Zeitschift fur Dialektologie und Linguistik, Beihefte 70). Stuttgart: Steiner.

Fairbairn-Dunlop, P. (1984). Factors associated with language maintenance: the Samoans in New Zealand. New Zealand journal of educational studies 19: 99-113.

Familari, Toni (1994). Aboriginal Studies program at Nulungu Catholic College. The Aboriginal Child at School 22(3):13-15.

Faraclas, Nicholas (1993). Critical literacy and control: give praxis a chance . Ms.

Faraclas, Nicholas (1994). The politics of culture and successful language maintenance in Papua New Guinea Paper presented to Australian Linguistic Institute, Workshop on Language Shift and Maintenance in the Asia-Pacific Region Latrobe University Melbourne.

Fase, W., K. Jaspaert and S. Kroon (1992a). Maintenance and loss of minority languages: introductory remarks. In: Fase, W., K. Jaspaert and S. Kroon (eds.), 3-13.

Fase, W., K. Jaspaert and S. Kroon (eds.) (1992b) Maintenance and loss of minority languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Fellman, J. (1979). The teachers did it: a case history in the revival of a national language. In: Feitelson, D. (ed.)Mother tongue or second language? On the teaching of reading in multilingual societies. Delaware: International Reading Association: 48-56.

Fennell, D. (1981). Can a shrinking minority be saved? Lessons from the Irish experience. In: Haugen, E., J.D. McClure, and D. Thomson (eds.) Minority languages today. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press: 32-39.

Fesl, E. (1985). Language death and language maintenance. Polycom 40: 30-32.

Field, T.T. (1981). Language survival in a European context: the future of Occitan. In: Language problems and language planning 5, 3: 251-263.

Fishman, J. (1964). Language maintenance and language shift as fields of inquiry. Linguistics 9: 32-70.

Fishman, J. (1972a). Domains and the relationship between micro-and macro-sociolinguistics. In J.J. Gumperz and D. Hymes eds. Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Fishman, J. (1972b) Language maintenance in a supra-ethnic age. In: Di., A.S. (ed.) Language in sociocultural change. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press: 48-75.

Fishman, J. (1972c). Planned reinforcement of language maintenance in the United States. In Dil, A. (ed.), Language in sociocultural change. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Fishman, J. (1976). The spread of English as a new perspective for the study of language maintenance and language shift. Studies in language learning 1, 2: 59-104.

Fishman, J. (1977). The spread of English as a new perspective for the study of language maintenance and language shift. In: Fishman, J. A., R.L. Cooper and A.W. Conrad (eds.).The spread of English. The sociology of English as an additional language. Rowley MA: Newbury House Publishers: 109-133.

Fishman, J. (1980a). Minority language maintenance and the ethnic mother-tongue school. Modern language journal 64: 167-172.

Fishman, J. (1980b). Language maintenance. In: Thernstrom, S., A. Orlov and O. Handlin (eds.) Harvard encyclopedia of American ethnic groups. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press: 629--638.

Fishman, J. (1981). Language maintenance and ethnicity. Canadian review of studies in nationalism 8: 229-248.

Fishman, J. (1985). Language maintenance and ethnicity. In: Fishman, J.A., M.H. Gertner,E.G. Lowy and W.G. Milan (eds.) The rise and fall of the ethnic revival: perspectives on language and ethnicity. (Contributions to the sociology of language, 37). Berlin: Mouton: 57-76.

Fishman, J. (1989). Language maintenance and language shift in ethnocultural perspective. In: Fishhman, J. Language and ethnicity in minority sociolinguistic perspective. Clevedon (Avon): Multilingual Matters: 177-180.

Fishman, J. (1990). What is reversing language shift (RLS) and how can it succeed? Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 11: 5-36.

Fishman, J. (1991). Reversing Language Shift: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languages Clevedon: Multilingual Matters

Fishman, J.,V. Nahirny, J. Hofman and R.G. Hayden (eds.) (1966). Language loyalty in the United States. The maintenance and perpetuation of non-English mother tongues by American ethnic religious groups. The Hague: Mouton.

Fleras, Augie (1989). Te kohanga reo: a Maori renewal program in New Zealand. Canadian Journal of Native Education 16(2):78-88.

Floyd, M.B. (1982). Spanish language maintenance in Colorado. In: Barkin, F., EA. Brandt and J. Ornstein-Galica (eds.) Bilingualism and language contact: Spanish, English, and Native American languages. New York: Teachers College Press: 290-303.

Floyd, M.B. (1985). Spanish in the Southwest: language maintenance or shift? In: Elias-Olivares, L., E.A. Leone, R. Cisneros and J.R. Gutierrez (eds.) 1985 Spanish language use and public life in the United States. Berlin: Mouton: 13- 25.

Fuller, E. (1982). A study of Navajo language maintenance and shift. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.

Gaarder, B. A. (1977a). Language maintenance or language shift. In: Mackey, W.F. and T. Andersson (eds.) Bilingualism in early childhood. Rowley (MA): Newbury House Publishers: 409-434.

Gaarder, B.A. (1977b). Bilingual schooling and the survival of Spanish in the United States. Rowley (MA): Newbury House Publishers.

Gal, S. (1979). Language shift: social determinants of linguistic change in bilingual Australia. New York: Academic Press.

Gale, K., M. Christie, D. McClay and S. Harris (1981). Academic achievement in the Milingimbi bilingual education program. TESOL Quarterly 15(3).

Gale, Mary-Anne (1990). A review of bilingual education in Aboriginal Australia Australian Review of Applied Linguistics 13(2):40-80.

Gale, Mary-Anne (1992). Dhangum Djorra'wuy Dhäwu: The Development of Writing in Aboriginal Languages in S.A. and the N.T. Since Colonisation Unpublished MEd thesis, Northern Territory University.

Gale, Mary-Anne (1994a). Bilingual education programs in Aboriginal schools In Hartman and Henderson eds 192-203

Gale, Mary-Anne (1994b). Dhangu djorra'wuy dhäwu: a brief history of writing in Aboriginal language. Aboriginal Child at School 22(1):22-34.

Gardner, Leslie (1993). Walking the Talk: Implementation Evaluation of the Canada-Yukon Funding Agreement on the Development and Enhancement of Aboriginal Languages 1988/89-1992/93. Edmonton, Alberta: Leslie Gardner & Associates.

Gardner, R.C. (1982). Social factors in language retention. In: Lambert, R.D. and B.F. Freed (eds.) The loss of language skills. Rowley (MA): Newbury House Publishers: 24-43.

Giles, H. and P. Johnson (1987). Ethnolinguistic identity theory: a social psychological approach to language maintenance. International journal of the sociology of language 68: 66-99.

Gilhorta, M. (1985). Maintenance of community languages in multicultural Australia. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 6, 1: 59-66.

Glazer, N. 1(978). The process and problems of language maintenance: an integrative review. In: Lourie, M A. and N.F. Conklin (eds.) A pluralistic nation: the language issue in the United States. Rowley MA: Newbury House Publishers: 32-42.

Goddard, Cliff (1990). Emergent genres of reportage and advocacy in the Pitjantjatjara print media Australian Aboriginal Studies 2:27-47.

Gonzalez, A.B. (1988). The role of English and its maintenance in the Philippines. Manila: Solidaridad Publishing House.

Goody, J. (1987). The Interface Between the Written and the Oral. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Goody, J. (ed.) (1968). Literacy in Traditional Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gorter, D. (1987). Surveys of the Frisian language situation: some considerations of research methods on language maintenance and shift. International journal of the sociology of language 68: 41-56.

Government Review Team (1988). Report of the Review of Te Kohanga Reo-Language is Life to the People.

Grenoble, Leonore and Lindsay Whaley (Forthcoming). Language Loss and Community Response, Cambridge U. Press.

Grin, F. (1990). Thresholds in minority language maintenance and shift. Cahiers du Centre de Recherche et Developpement en Economique, 2590. Montreal: Universite de Montreal.

Grin, F. (1993). The relevance of thresholds in language maintenance and shift: a theoretical examination. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 14, 5: 375-392.

Guilhotra, M. S. (1985). Maintenance of community languages in multicultural Australia. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 6, 59-66.

Gumperz, J.J. and E. Hernandez-Chavez (1972). Bilingualism, bidialectalism and classroom interaction. In C. Cazden, V. John and D. Hymes eds. Functions of Language in the Classroom New York: Teachers' College Press 84-111.

Harris, J. (1991). The contribution of primary schools to the maintenance of Irish. In: Jaspaert, K. and S. Kroon (eds.) Ethnic minority languages and education. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger: 87-105.

Harris, J. (1994). One Blood: 200 Years of Aboriginal Encounter with Christianity: A Story of Hope Second edition. Sutherland NSW: Albatross.

Harris, Stephen (1977). Beyond common sense in bilingual education. In E. Brumby and E. Vaszolyi (eds.)Language Problems and Aboriginal Education. Perth: Mount Lawley College of Advanced Education 116-138.

Harris, Stephen (1982). Bilingual education in the N.T.: a sharp tool easily blunted? Australian Review of Applied Linguistics 5(1):25-29.

Harris, Stephen (1993). Differences between bilingual education and two-way schooling. The Aboriginal Child at School 21(4):3-14.

Harris, Stephen (1994a). Language immersion: friend or enemy of indigenous minorities? The Aboriginal Child at School 22(3):16-23.

Harris, Stephen (1994b). Teaching Aboriginal languages in Aboriginal schools: some issues. In Hartman and Henderson (eds.) 129-139.

Harris, Stephen (Forthcoming). Evolution of bilingual education theory in Northern Territory Aboriginal schools International Journal of the Sociology of Language.

Harris, Stephen and Peter Jones (1991) The changing face of Aboriginal bilingual education in the Northern Territory: a 1990 update. The Aboriginal Child at School 19(5):29-53

Harris, Stephen, Beth Graham and Paul Buschenhofen (1984). Aboriginal bilingual education in the NT: priorities for the second decade. Paper presented at the Ninth Annual Congress of the Applied Linguistics Association of Australia, Alice Springs.

Hartman, Deborah and John Henderson (eds.) (1994). Aboriginal Languages in Education Alice Springs: IAD Press.

Heyne, J. (1978). Bilingualism and language maintenance among German speaking immigrants in Brazil. In: Nickel, G. (ed.) 1978 Sociolinguistics. Stuttgart: Hochschulverlag: 93-106.

Heyne, J. (1979). Bilingualism and language maintenance in two communities in Santa Catarina, Brazil. In: McCormack, W.C. and S.A. Wurm (eds.) Language and society: anthropological issues. The Hague: Mouton: 401-421.

Hill, J. H. & K. C. Hill (1980). Mixed grammar, purist grammar and language attrition in modern Nahuatl. Language in society 9, 321-348.

Hill, J. H. & K. C. Hill (1986). Speaking Mexicano. Tucson: Univesity of Arizona.

Hill, J. H. (1983). Review of Scollon & Scollon, Narrative, literacy and face in inter-communication. American Anthropologist 85, 484.

Hill, J. H. (1985). The grammar of consciousness and the consciousness of grammar. American Ethnologist 12, 725-737.

Hinton, L. (1990/91). How to learn your language. News from Native California, 5(1), 34-36.

Hinton, Leanne (1994). Flutes of fire: Essays on Californian Indian languages. Berkeley: Heyday Books.

Holmes, J., M. Roberts, M. Verivaki and A. Aipolo (1993). Language maintenance and shift in three New Zealand speech communities. Applied linguistics 14, 1: 1-24.

Hoogenraad, Robert (1994). Local Aboriginal language and culture programs in schools in the Barkly and Sandover regions of the NT. In Hartmann and Henderson (eds.). 172-189.

Hornberger, N.H. (1985). Bilingual education and Quecha language maintenance in Highland Puno, Peru. Madison (WI): unpubl. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Wisconsin.

Hornberger, N.H. (1987). Bilingual education and Quccha language maintenance in highland Puno, Peru. NABE journal (National Association for Bilingual Education) 7: 117-140.

Hornberger, N.H. (1988). Bilingual education and language maintenance: a southern Peruvian Quecha case. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.

Hornberger, N.H. (1989). Can Peru's rural schools be agents for Quechua language maintenance? Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 10: 145-159.

House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs (1992). Language and Culture-A Matter of Survival: Report of the Inquiry into Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Language Maintenance. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Hudson, Joyce (1994). Framework for the teaching of Aboriginal languages in primary schools. In Hartman and Henderson (eds.) 163-171.

Hudson, Joyce and Patrick McConvell (1984) Keeping Language Strong: Report of the Pilot Study for the Kimberley Language Resource Centre.

Huffines, M. (1980). Pennsylvania German: maintenance and shift. International journal of the sociology of language 25: 43-57.

Huffines, M. (1986). Strategies of language maintenance and ethnic marking among the Pennsylvania Germans. Language sciences 8, 1: 1-16.

Husband, C. (1977). News media, language and race relations: a case study in identity maintenance. In: Giles, H. (ed.) Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. London: Academic Press: 211--240.

Hymes, D. (1964). Introduction: Toward ethnographies of communication. American Anthropologist 66 (6), 1-34.

Iutzi-Mitchell, R. (1990). Can bilingual education contribute to Eskimo language survival? Paper presented to the Sixth International Conference on Hunting and Gathering Societies, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Quoted in McConvell 1994:251.

Johnson, Kim (1994). The Djabugay language at Kuranda State School. In Hartman and Henderson eds 1994:40-44

Johnson, P., H. Giles and R.Y. Bourhis (1983) The viability of ethnolinguistic vitality: a reply. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 4: 255-269.

Johnson, S. (1987). The philosophy and politics of Aboriginal language maintenance. Australian aboriginal studies 2: 54-58.

Jones, B.L. (1981). Welsh: linguistic conservation and shifting bilingualism. In: Haugen, E. J. McClure and D. Thompson (eds.) Minority languages today. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press: 40-51.

Kalantzis, M. and Cope, B. (1984). Multicultural education and the meaning of 'culture'. Sydney: Social Literacy Monograph.

Kalantzis, M. B. Cope and D. Slade (1986). The language question: the maintenance of languages other than English. Vol I: Research findings. Vol. II: Methodology and empirical results. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing.

Karl, J. and B. Spolsky (1978). Trends in the study of Athapaskan language maintenance and bilingualism. In: Fishman, J. (ed.) Advances in the study of societal multilingualism. The Hague: Mouton: 635-664.

Karttunen, F. (1994). Between worlds: interpreters, guides and survivors. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Kelly, L.G. (1975). Language maintenance in Canada. Migus, (ed.) Sounds Canadian: language and culture in a multi-ethnic society. Toronto: Peter Martin Associates: 23-28.

Kelman, H. (1972). Languages as aid and barrier to involvment in the national system. In Fishman J. (ed.), Advances in the sociology of language, 185-212.The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.

Krashen, S. (1991). Bilingual Education: A Focus on Current Research (Occasional Papers in Bilingual Education, Spring 1991, Number 3) Washington, DC: National Clearninghouse for Bilingual Education.

Kristiansen, T. J. Harwood and H. Giles (1991). Ethnolinguistic vitality in 'the Danish capital' of America. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 12, 6: 421-448.

Ladefoged, P. (1992). Another view of endangered languages. Language 68: 809-811.

Laitin, D. (1989). Linguistic revival: politics and culture in Catalonia. Comparative studies in society and history 31, 2: 297-317.

Lamy, P. (ed.) (1977). Language maintenance and language shift in Canada. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.

Landry, R. and R. Allard (1994a). The Acadians of New Brunswick: demolinguistics and the vitality of the French language. International journal of the sociology of language 105/106: 181-215.

Landry, R. and R. Allard (1994b). Diglossia, ethnolinguistic vitality, and language begavior. International journal of the sociology of language 108: 15-42.

Landry, R. and R. Hard (1994). Introduction: ethnolinguistic vitality: a viable construct. International journal of the sociology of language 108: 5-13.

Lanley, L. (1980). It's got to be inside we feel Aboriginal: the problem of preserving traditional values in a changing cultural context. Preserving Indigenous cultures: a new role for museums., 35-39. Canberra: Australian government publishing service.

Le Nail, B. (1985). La creation Litteraire et l'edition en langue bretonne aujourd'hui. Biblioteques publiques et langues regionales. Paris: Ministere de la Culture, Directoir du Livre et de la Lecture.

Lee, Penny (1993). Bilingual Education in Remote Aboriginal Schools: Developing First and Second Language Proficiency Broome, WA: Catholic Education Office Kimberley Region.

Levy, J. (1982). Policy implications/complications arising from native language attrition in U.S. ethnolinguistic minority groups.In: Lambert, D. and B.F. Freed (eds.) The loss of language skills. Rowley (MA): Newbury House Publishers: 191-201.

Lieberson, S. (1980). Procedures for improving sociolinguistic surveys of language maintenance and shift. International journal of the sociology of language 25: 11-27.

Lindgren, A-R. (1984). What can we do when a language is dying? Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 5: 293-300.

Lloyd, I. (1986). The decline of the Irish language and the attempt to revive it. In: Plural societies 16, 1: 80-86.

Lo Bianco, J. (1987). National policy on languages. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Education.

Lo, J. (1980). Sociolinguistique et diglossie: le eus du Breton In Gardin, Marcellesi & Greco, R. (eds.). (1980). Sociolinguistique : approaches, theories, pratiques, tome 1. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Lopez, D.E. (1982). Language maintenance and shift in the United States today: the basic patterns and their social implications. Los Alamitos (CA): National Center for Bilingual Research.

MacArthur, R.S. (1977). Individual, social and structural factors in language maintenance and restoration in Canada. In: Coons, W.H., D.M. Taylor and M.-A. Tremblay (eds.) The individual, language and society in Canada. L'individu, la langue et la societe au Canada. Ontario: The Canada Council/Conseil des Arts du Canada: 209-212.

Mackay, C. J. (1992). Language maintenance in Chipilo: a Veneto dialect in Mexico. International journal of the sociology of language 96: 129-145.

Mackey, W.F. (1981). Safeguarding language in school: the effects of mixed French/English schools - assimilation or bilingualism. Language and society 4: 10-14.

Macnamara, J. (1971). Successes and failures in the movement for the restoration of Irish. In: Rubin, J. and B. Jernudd (eds.) Can languages be planned? Sociolinguistic theory and practice for developing nations. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii: 65-94.

Malinowski, A. (1983). Judeo-Spanish language-maintenance efforts in the United States. International journal of the sociology of language 44: 137-151.

Maori Language Commission (1990). Te Reo Maori. Extract from NZ Yearbook .

Maori Language Commission (1993a). Maori language development through the ages: a lexical tour of the Maori language.

Maori Language Commission (1993b). Evaluating Maori Language Maintenance.

Maori Language Commission (1993c). The Maori language in the commercial sector.

Maori Language Commission (1994). E marama ai te korero, me tika ra ano: or A discussion of communicative competence and grammar.

Marika-Mununggiritj, Raymattja, Banbapuy Maymuru, Multhara Mununggurr, Badang'thun Munyarryun, Gandalal Ngurruwutthun, Yalmay Yunupingu (1990). The history of the Yirrkala Community School: thinking about education in the Laynha and Yirrkala area Ngoonjook: Batchelor Journal of Aboriginal Education No. 3 32-52.

Marmion, Doug (1994). The Yamaji Language Centre. In Hartman and Henderson eds 370-380.

Martin-Jones, Marilyn (1989). Language, power and linguistic minorities: the need for an alternative approach to bilingualism, language maintenance and shift. In Ralph Grillo (ed.) Social Anthropology and the Politics of Language (Sociological Review Monograph 36) London: Routledge 106-125.

McConvell, Patrick (1981). Supporting the two-way school. In Jeannie Bell ed.Language Planning for Australian Aboriginal Languages Alice Springs: Institute for Aboriginal Development 60-76.

McConvell, Patrick (1986). Aboriginal language programmes and language maintenance in the Kimberley. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics Series S No. 3:108-122.

McConvell, Patrick (1991). Understanding language shift: a step towards language maintenance. In Suzanne Romaine ed. Language in Australia Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 143-155.

McConvell, Patrick (1992). Review of Fishman 1991. Australian Journal of Linguistics 12(1):209-220.

McConvell, Patrick (1994a). Two-way exchange and language maintenance in Aboriginal schools. In Hartman and Henderson eds 1994:235-256

McConvell, Patrick and Graham McKay (1994b). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander language maintenance intervention activities Paper presented to Workshop Language Shift and Maintenance in the Asia Pacific Region, Australian Linguistic Institute, Latrobe University, Melbourne.

MCEETYA Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs Taskforce on the Australian Language and Literacy Policy (1995). Collaborative Strategy for Education in Languages Other Than English in Schools.

McKay, Graham (1982). Attitudes of Kunibidji speakers to literacy. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 36:105-114.

McKay, Graham (1991). Linguistics in the education of speakers of Aboriginal languages: The first decade of the School of Australian Linguistics. In Ian G. Malcolm ed. Linguistics in the Service of Society: Essays to Honour Susan Kaldor Perth: Institute of Applied Language Studies, Edith Cowan University 37-53.

McLaughlin, D. (1990). The sociolinguistics of Navajo literacy. Journal of Navajo Education, 7(2), 28-36.

Milner, George (1984). The new missionaries: language education and the Pacific way. In Christian Clerk ed. The Effects of Development on Traditional Pacific Islands Cultures London: Royal Commonwealth Society 6-21.

Ministry of Education Western Australia (1992) Framework for the Teaching of Aboriginal Languages in Primary Schools Perth.

Mithun, Marianne and Wallace L. Chafe (1979) Recapturing the Mohawk language. In Timothy Shopen ed Languages and Their Status Cambridge MA: Winthrop 3-33.

MoeHeken, W.W. (1983) Language maintenance and language shift in Pennsylvania German: diversity and comparability. In: Nelde, P.H. (ed.) Vergleichbarkeit von Sprachkontakten. (Plurilingua, 3). Bonn: Ferd. Dummlers Verlag: 295-305.

Mohanty, A.K. (1990). Psychological consequences of mother tongue maintenance and multilingualism in India. In: Pattanayak, D.P. (ed.) Multilingualism in India. Clevedon (Avon): Multilingual Matters: 54-66.

Molesky, J. (1988). Understanding the American linguistic mosaic: a historical overview of language maintenance and language shift. In: McKay, S.L. and S.C. Wong (eds.) Language diversity. Problem or resource? A social and educational perspective on language minorities in the United States. New York: Newbury House Publishers: 29-68.

Moller, Aqigssiaq (1990). Language Policy and planning under the home rule administration. In Arctic languages - an awakening, 361-366. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Monash University (1993). Associate Diploma of Arts (Koorie Studies) School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Monash University Gippsland Campus, Churchill Victoria. Brochure.

Mordaunt, O.G. (1991). Attitudes of Swazi teacher trainees towards firts official language. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 12, 3: 205-219.

Morgan, G. (1988). The place of school in the maintenance of the Welsh language. Comparative education 24, 2: 247- 255.

Mougeon, R. (1984). Retention of French among young Franco-Ontarians. Language and society 13: 17-21.

Mougeon, R. and M. Canale (1979). Maintenance of French in Ontario: is education in French enough? Interchange 9, 4: 30-39.

Mougeon, R. and M. Heller (1986). The social and historical context of minority French language education in Ontario. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 7, 219-227.

Muhlhausler, Peter. (1992). Preserving languages or language ecologies? A top-down approach to language survival. Oceanic linguistics 31, 2: 163-180.

Muhlhausler, T. (1987). The politics of small languages in Australia and the Pacific. Languages and communication 7, 1-24.

Murtagh, Edward J. (1979). Creole and English Used as Languages of Instruction with Aboriginal Australians. Doctoral Dissertation, Stanford University (publ. microfilm UMI 1980).

Murtagh, Edward J. (1982). Creole and English used as languages of instruction in bilingual education with Aboriginal Australians: some research findings. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 36:15-33.

Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative (1993). Prospectus: Traineeships in Aboriginal Language & Culture

Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative (1994). Language Activities-Report to Dr Graham McKay Manuscript Sherwood via Kempsey NSW: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.

Nahir, M. (1973). Language academies, language planning, and the case of the Hebrew revival. Pittsburg (PA): unpubl. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburg.

Nahir, M. (1988). Language planning and language acquisition: the 'greet leap' in the Hebrew revival. In: Paulston, C.B. (ed.) International handbook of bilingualism and bilingual education. New York: Greenwood Press: 275-295.

National Aboriginal and Torres Starit Islander Survey 1994: detailed findings. (1994). Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Navajo nation: Educational Policies. Window Rock, AZ: Navajo Division of Education.

Nicholls, Christine (1994). Vernacular language programs and bilingual education programs in Aboriginal Australia: issues and ideologies. In Hartman and Henderson eds 214-234.

Nicholson, R. and R. Garland (1991). New Zealanders' attitudes to the revitalization of the Maori language. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 12, 5: 393-410.

Nir, R. (1981). Acceptability and normatism in the use of a revived language." In: Hartwig, M. (ed.) Angewandte Soziolinguistik. Tubingen: Gunter Narr: 89-98.

Northern Territory Department of Education (1980). Handbook for Teachers in Bilingual Schools in the Northern Territory of Australia Third edition.

Northern Ute Tribe. (1985). Ute Language Policy. Cultural Survaival Quarterly 9(2), 16-19.

Northwest Territories Education, Culture and Employment (1994). Dene Hanié Nadlé/Dinji Zhu'gwindak Anatr'agwaandak/Inuit Qangama Quliaqtuagit/Inuvialuktun and Dene Stories Reborn. Volume Two.

O Riagain, P. (1992). Language maintenance and language shift as strategies of social reproduction: Irish in the Corca Dhuibhne Gaeltacht 1926-1986. (Research report, 17). Dublin: Institinid Teangeolaiochta Eireann.

O Riagain, P. (1994). Language maintenance and language shift as strategies of social reproduction. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 15, 2/3: 179-197.

O'Brien, T. (1979). Economic support for minority languages. In Alcock, A, Taylor, B. and Welton, J. (eds.), The future of cultural minorities, 82-101. London: Macmillian.

Papertalk-Green, C. and J. Bell (eds.) (1986). Report of the Aboriginal Languages Association. Brisbane: Aboriginal Languages Association.

Papulu Apparr-kari Language and Culture Centre and Barkly Language Projects (1993). Activity Reports 1992/93 Tennant Creek.

Papulu Apparr-kari Language and Culture Corporation (1993). Community Training Plan 1993/1995 Tennant Creek

Pascua Yaqui Tribal Council. (1984). Yaqui Language Policy for the Pascua Yaqui Tribe: Policy Declaration. Tucson, AZ: Tucson Unified School District.

Paulston, C.B. (1987). Catalan and Occitan: comparative test cases for a theory of language maintenance and shift. International journal of the sociology of language 63: 31-62.

Paulston, C.B. (1994). Linguistic minorities in multilingual settings. Implications for language policies. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Paulston, C.B., P.C. Chen and M. C. Connerty (1993). Language regenesis: a conceptual overview of language revival, revitalization and reversal. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 14, 4: 275-286.

Paulston, Christina Bratt (1994). Linguistic Minorities in Multilingual Settings: Implications for Language Policies (Studies in Bilingualism, Volume 4) Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Pauwels, A. (1986a). Diglossia, immigrant dialects and language maintenance in Australia: the case of Limburgs and Swabian. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 7,1: 13-30.

Pauwels, A. (1986b). Immigrant dialects and language maintenance in Australia: the cases of the Limburg and Swabian dialects. (Topics in sociolinguistics, 2). Dordrecht: Foris.

Petherbridge-Hernandez, P. (1990). The recatalanisation of Catalonia's schools. Language, culture and curriculum 3, 2: 98-108.

Platero, D. (1975). Bilingual education in the Navajo nation. In Troike, R. and N. Modiano (eds.), Proceedings of the first Inter-Americal Conference on Bilingual Education, 54-63. Arlington: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Porter, R.P. (1990). Forked Tongue: The Politics of Bilingual Education New York: Basic Books.

Prentis, M.D. (1972). Aborigines and Europeans in the northern rivers region of New South Wales, 1823-1881 MA thesis, Macquarie University.

Priestly, T. (1994). Effects of educational and social mobility on language maintenance, language attitudes and language structure: the case of Sele in Carinthia. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 15, 2/3: 199-217.

Pugh, Derek (1993). The development of homeland centre education in Maningrida The Aboriginal Child at School 21(5) (Oct/Nov 1993):42-50.

Putz, M. (1991). Language maintenance and language shift in the speech behaviour of German-Australian migrants in Canberra. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 12,6: 477-492.

Quinn, M. Bayu balgal guyurru-la-Building a bayu (house of bark and leaves) in the wind: Steps towards keeping in place a threatened languageDjabugayspoken by the Bama of the Gimuy (Cairns)/Ngunbay (Kuranda) rainforest area of northern Queensland. Photocopied paper, Kuranda State School.

Quinn, T. (1981). Establishing a treshold-level concept for community language teaching in Australian. In Garner, M (ed.), Community languages, 79-95. Melbourne: ALAA/River Seine.

Rabin, C. (1986). Language revival and language death. In: Fishman, J.A., A. Tabouret-Keller, M.G. Clyne, Bh. Krishnamurti and M.H. Abdulaziz (eds.) The Fergusonian impact: in honour of Charles A. Ferguson on the occasion of his 65th birthday. Vol. 2: sociolinguistics and the sociology of language. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter: 543- 554.

Rangila, R.S. (1986). Maintenance of Panjabi language in Delhi: a sociolinguistic study. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.

Rayfield, D. (1990). Saving the Basque language. Multilingua 9, 4: 413-425.

Rayfield, Donald (1990). Review Article: Saving the Basque language. Multilingua 9-4, 413-423. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Regnier, Robert (1987). Survival schools as emancipatory education Canadian Journal of Native Education 14(2):42-53.

Reitz, J.G. (1980). Language and ethnic community survival. In: J.E. Goldstein and R.M. Bienvenue (eds.) Ethnicity and ethnic relations in Canada: a book of readings. Toronto: Butterworths: 111-129.

Reyhner, Jon (ed.) (1988). Teaching the Indian child : a bilingual/multicultural approach. Billings, MT : Eastern Montana College.

Reyhner, J. (1990a). A Description of the Rock Point Community School Bilingual Education Program. In Jon Reyhner (ed.), Effective language education practices and native language survival Choctaw, OK: Native American Language Issues.

Reyhner, J. (ed.) (1990b). Effective language education practices and native language survival Choctaw, OK: Native American Language Issues.

Reyhner, Jon. (1992). Review of Joshua Fishman, Reversing Language Shift. In Bilingual Research Journal, vol.16 nn3-4, p.148.

Reyhner, J. (1993). Maintaining and renewing native languages in the schools. In T. E. Schirer & S. M. Branstner (eds.), Native American Values: Survival and Renewal (pp. 47-56). Sault Sainte Marie, MI: Lake Superior State University.

Reyhner, J., & Tennant, E. (1995). Maintaining and Renewing Native Languages. Bilingual Research Journal, 19, 279-304.

Richards, Eirlys (1987). Pinarri: Introducing Aboriginal Languages in Kimberley Schools (Reprinted with corrections 1989) Halls Creek: Kimberley Language Resource Centre and Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Rigsby, B. (1987). Indigenous language shift and maintenance in Fourth World settings. Multilingua 6,4: 359-378.

Roca, A. (1991). Language maintenance and language shift in the Cuban American community of Miami: the 1990s and beyond.In: Marshall, D.F. (ed.) Language planning: focusschrift in honor of Joshua A. Fishman on the occasion of his 65th birthday. Vol. 3. Amsterdam: John Benjamins: 245-257.

Rubin, Joan (1972). Evaluation and language planning. In Fishman, J. (ed.), Advances in the sociology of language. The Hague: Mouton, 476-510.

SAL Review Panel (1989). School of Australian Linguistics Review Report Prepared by Michael Cooke. Batchelor College.

Saulson, S.B. (ed.) (1979). Institutionalized language planning: documents and analysis of the revival of Hebrew. (Contributions to the sociology of language, 23). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Sawaie, M. and J. A. Fishman (1985). Arabic language maintenance efforts in the United States. Journal of ethnic studies 13,2: 33-49.

Schooling, S. (1990). Language maintenance in Melanesia: sociolinguistics and social networks in New Caledonia. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and University of Texas at Arlington.

Scotton, C.M. (1982). The possibility of code-switching: motivation for maintaining multilingualism. Anthropological linguistics 24, 4: 432-444.

Scribner, S. and M. Cole (1981). The Psychology of Literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Sedlak, P.A.S. (1975). Sociocultural determinants of language maintenance and language shift in a rural coastal Kenyan community. Ann Arbor (MI): University Microfilms.

Senate Standing Committe on Education and the Arts (1984) Report on a National Language Policy Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service

Shafer, S.M. (1988) Bilingual/bicultural education for Maori cultural preservation in New Zealand. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 9, 6: 487-501.

Sharpe, Margaret (1993) Bundjalung: teaching a disappearing language In M. Walsh and C. Yallop eds Language and Culture in Aboriginal Australia Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press 73-84.

Shnukal, A. (1984). Torres Strait Islander students in Queensland schools. Part I: Language Background. The Aboriginal child at school 12(3), 27-33.

Shnukal, Anna (1989). Language shift and maintenance in Torres Strait.Vox 3:41-47 (The Journal of the Australian Advisory Council on languages and Multicultural Education).

Shnukal, Anna (1990). Torres Strait Creole: historical perspectives and new directions In M.A.K. Halliday, John Gibbons and Howard Nicholas (eds.) Learning, Keeping and Using Language Volume II (Selected papers from the 8th World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Sydney, 16-21 August 1987) Amsterdam: Benjamins 163-173.

Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1981). Bilingualism or not: The education of minorities. Clevedon,UK: Multilingualism Matters.

Skutnabb-Kangas, T. and R. Phillipson (eds.) 1994. Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Smolicz, J (1984). Minority languages and the core values of culture: changing policies and ethnic responses in Australia. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 5(1), 23-41.

Smolicz, J. and M. Secombe (1985). Community languages, core values and cultural maintenance: the Australian experience with special reference to Greek, Latvian and Polish groups. In Clyne, M. (ed.), Australia, meeting place of languages, 11-38. Canberra: Linguistics, C-92.

Spolsky, B. (1975). Prospects for the survival of the Navajo language. In: Kinkade, M.D., K.L. Hale and O. Werner (eds.) Linguistics and anthropology: in honour of C.F. Voegelin. Lisse: The Peter de Ridder Press: 597-606.

Spolsky, B. (1977). American bilingual education. International journal of the sociology of language 14: 57-72.

Spolsky, B. (1978a). A model for the evaluation of bilingual education. International review of education 24, 3: 347- 360.

Spolsky, B. (1978b). American Indian bilingual education. In B. Spolsky and R.L. Cooper (eds.) Case Studies in Bilingual Education Rowley, MA: Newbury House 332-361.

Spolsky, B. (1989). Maori bilingual education and language revitalization. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development: 10, 2: 89-106.

Sridhar, K.K. (1988). Language maintenance and language shift among Asian Indians: Kannadigas in the New York area. International journal of the sociology of language 69: 73-87.

St. Clair, R. and W. Leap (eds.) (1982). Language renewal among American Indian tribes: problems, and prospects. Rosslyn (VA): National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.

Stone, G.T. (1989). Language revival in France: the regional idioms. Language problems and language planning 13: 224-242.

Street, David and Topsy Chestnut (1984). We spell it 'Gooniyandi' In G.R. McKay and B.A. Sommer Further Applications of Linguistics to Australian Aboriginal Contexts Applied Linguistics Association of Australia Occasional Papers No. 8: 17-18.

Sykes, R. (1986). Incentive, acheivement and community: an analysis of black viewpoint issues relating to Black Australian education. Sydney: Sydney University Press.

Tabouret-Keller, A. (1968). Sociological factors of language maintenance and language shift: a methodological approach based on European and African examples. In: Fishman, J.A., C.A. Ferguson and J. Das Gupta (eds.) Language problems of developing nations. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 107-118.

Tabouret-Keller, A. (1972). A contribution to the sociological study of language maintenance and language shift. In: Fishman, J.A. (ed.) Advances in the sociology of language. Volume 2: selected studies and applications. The Hague: Mouton: 365-376.

Tempe High School (1994). Tempe High Languages School: Profile 1994.

Teske, Travis, Wagea Waia, Kala Waia, Mebai Warusam, Jackasai Warusam, Pili Waigana, Imasu Waigana (1988). Saibai: Island of Torres Strait Queensland: Far Northern Schools Development Unit.

Thieberger, N. (1988). Language programmes: for tradition or today? In Harvey, B. and M. S. (eds.), Learning my way. Perth: Institute for Applied Aboriginal 81- 90.

Thieberger, N. (1990). Language maintenance: Why bother? Multilingua 9(4): 333-358.

Thieberger, N. (1993). The AIATSIS Aboriginal dictionaries project Report to the AUSTRALEX Meeting September 1993.

Thorburn, T. (1972). Cost-benefit analysis in language planning. In Fishman, J (ed.), Advances in the sociology of languagee, vol 2., 511-519. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.

Thorne, B., C. Kramarae and N. Henley (eds.) (1983) Language, gender, and society. Rowley (MA): Newbury House Publishers.

Tindale (1994). Training for Aboriginal language teachers in central Australia. In Hartman and Henderson (eds.) 355-369.

Tlen, Daniel (1986). Speaking Out: Consultations and Survey of Yukon Native Languages Planning, Visibility and Growth Whitehorse, Yukon: Yukon Native Language Centre.

Valdman, A. (1988). A la recherche d'une norme regionale dans la revitalization du francais en Louisiane. Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Nice, Cahiers du Grill 10-11.

Van der Plank, P.H. (1970). The assimilation and non-assimilation of European linguistic minorities. In: Fishman, J. (ed.) Advances in the study of societal multilingualism. The Hague: Mouton: 424-456.

Vandermeeren, S. (1993). Dialekvitalitat links und rechts der belgischen Sprachgrenze. Language problems and language planning 17, 3: 210-224.

Vanek, A.L. and R. Darnell (1978). Doukhobor Russian language maintenance. Fishman J.A. (ed.) Advances in the study of societal multilingualism. The Hague: Mouton: 401- 422.

Varcoe, Nelson (1994). Nunga languages at Kaurna Plains School. In Hartman and Henderson (eds.), 33-39.

Vossen, R. (1988). Language maintenance, language shift and identity in Ngamiland, Botswana: some hypotheses. Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh Botswana- education, culture and politics. (Seminar proceedings, 29). Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh: 65- 75.

Wafer, J. (1977). The bugbear of literacy in the education of tribal Aborigines. In E. Brumby and E. Vaszolyi (eds.) Language Problems and Aboriginal Education Mount Lawley WA: Mount Lawley College of Advanced Education 160-164.

Waite, Jeffrey (1992). Aoteareo: Speaking for Ourselves: A Discussion on the Development of a New Zealand Languages Policy Part A: The Overview, Part B: The Issues Wellington: Learning Media, Ministry of Education, NZ.

Walton, C. and W. Eggington (eds.) (1990). Language: maintenance, power and education in Australian Aboriginal contexts. Darwin: Northern Territory University Press.

Watahomigie, L. and Yamamoto, A. Y. (1987). Linguistics in Action: the Hualapai bilingual/bicultural education program. In D. D. Stull & J. J. Schensul, Collaborative research and social change: applied anthropology in action:. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Watahomigie, L. J., J. Bender, and A.Y. Yamamoto (with E. Mapatis, J. Manakaja, M. Powskey) (1982). Hualapai Reference Grammar Los Angeles: American Indian Studies Centre, University of California, Los Angeles.

Watahomigie, Lucille J. and Akira Y. Yamamoto (1992). Local reactions to perceived langauge decline. Language 68(1):10-17.

Whitaker, J.A. Borroloola: Isolated and Interesting 1885-1985 .

Williams, R.C. (1984). Some sociological factors in the survival of Pennsylvania German. Plural societies 15, 2: 172-184.

Williamson, R.C., J.A. van Eerde and V.L. Williamson (1983). Language maintenance and shift in a Breton and Welsh sample. Word 34, 2: 67-88.

Willmot, E. (1984). Out of the silent land: report of the task force on Aboriginal and .. broadcasting and communications. Canberra: Australian Government .. Service.?

Wolfram, W. (1979). Landmark Decision affects Black English speakers. Linguistic Reporter 22. pp. 6-7.

Wood, R. (1980). Language maintenance and external support: the case of the French Flemings. International journal of the sociology of language 25: 107-119.

Wu, S.-M. (1995). Maintenance of the Chinese language in Australia. Australian review of applied linguistics 18, 2: 105-136.

Wurm, Stephen (1986). Remarks on a case of language decay and revival. In Fishman, J, A. Tabouret, M. Clyne, B. Krishnamurti and Abdulaziz. The Fergusonian impact, vol.2. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Xia, N. (1992). Maintenance of the Chinese language in the United States. Bilingual review 17, 3: 195-209.

Yanyuwa People (1988). Yanyuwa Country: The Yanyuwa People Tell the History of Their Land (Translated and Illustrated by John Bradley) Richmond: Greenhouse Publications.

Young, R.L. (1988). Language maintenance and language shift in Taiwan. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 9, 4: 323-338.

Yunupingu, Mandawuy (Bakamana) (1990). Language and Power: the Yolngu rise to power at Yirrkala School. In Christine Walton and William Eggington (eds.) Language: Maintenance, Power and Education in Australian Aboriginal Contexts Darwin: Northern Territory University Press 3-6.

Zuniga, Madeleine, J. Ansion and L. Cueva. (1987). Educacion en poblaciones Indigenas: politicas y estrategias en America Latina. Santiago de Chile: UNESCO/OREALC.

 

5. Organizations

Advocates for Indigenous California Language Survival

POBox 1050
Bolinas, CA 94924
Contact: Mary Bates

American Indian Language Development Institute

Contact: Ofelia Zapeda or Teresa McCarty (Directors)
Department of Language, Reading and Culture
University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721
Phone (602) 621-1068; fax (602) 621- 1853



Centro Editorial en Literatura Indigena

Box 1530, 68000 Oxaca (Mexico)
Contact: Jesus Salinas or Josefa Gonzalez (in Spanish)
Phone 52-951-59725
CELIAC@laneta.igc.apc.org
Contact: H. Russell Bernard (in English)
Phone (904) 376-4544; fax (904) 376-8617
ufruss@nervm.nerdc.efl.edu

Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Sprachwissenschaft.

Arbeitsgruppe Bedrothe Sprachen
Chair: Hans-Jurgen Sasse
University of Koln
am015@rsl.rrz.Uni-koeln.DE

The Endangered Languages Fund
Department of Linguistics
Yale University
New Haven, CT 06520

Foundation for Endangered Languages
Dept. of Philosophy
University of Bristol,
7, Wodland Road,
Bristol BS8 1TB (England)

The Institute for the Preservation of the Original Languages of the Americas

Conact: Joanna Hess (President), Gloria Emerson (Vice-President)
1237 Cerro Gordo Road,
Santa Fe, NM 87501
Phone (505) 820-0311

Linguistic Society of America

Committee on Endangered Languages and their Preservation
Contact: Akira Yamamoto, Chair
Department of Anthropology,
University of Kansas
akira@kuhub.cc.ukans.edu

Museu Emilio Goeldi

Linguistics Division
CP 399, Av. Magalhaes Barata , 376
66040-170 Belem, PA (Brazil)
Contact: Denny Moore
moore@marajo.secom.anpa.br

Native American Language Institute
P.O. Box963
Choctaw, OK 73020
Phone (405) 454-3681; fax (405) 454-3688

Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas

Contact: Victor Golla
Ethnic Studies
Humboldt State University
Arcata, CA 95521
gollav@axe.humboldt.edu

Terralingua

P.O. Box 122
Hancock, Michigan 49930-0122 (USA)
gws@mail.portup.com (ATTN: Dave Harmon)

 

UNESCO

Contact: Stephen A. Wurm
Australian National University
Linguistics
Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)
Phone 6-6-249-2369; fax 61-6--257-1893
ftp://combs.anu.edu.au/coombspapers/otherarchives/cipsh-unesco-archives/




Bibliography on attitudes towards language

Originally posted 1 August 1997 to LINGANTH; linganth@cc.rochester.edu

 

Introduction (by Luisa Maffi)

Dear fellow Linganthers,

Last June I posted a query on literature about attitudes vis-a-vis language, and promised to post the results. Lots of stuff especially thanks to Jeni Loftus who sent me a long bib, from which I selected the items that seemed most relevant. Many thanks also to Betsy Brandt, Izzy Cohen, Sue Ervin-Tripp, Jane Hill, Leanne Hinton, Peter Patrick, Mark Allen Peterson, Hal Schiffman, Richard Senghas, Jack Sidnell, Kit Woolard for references and comments. I think I didn't forget anyone, but if I did, apologies! Here is the list, as complete as I had the energy to make it. The overall scope may be a bit wider than "language attitudes" sensu stricto, but it's still mostly related. Hope it's useful.

 

***************************

 

 

General:

 

Aikio, Marjut 1992. Are Women Innovators in the Shift to a Second Language? A Case Study of Reindeer Sami Women and Men. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 94.

 

Aikio, Marjut 1991. The Sami Language: Pressure of Change and Reification. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 12:1-2.

 

Amery, Rob 1995. "It's Ours to Keep and Call Our Own: Reclamation of the Nunga Languages in the Adelaide Region, South Australia." International Journal of the Sociology of Language 113: 63-82.

 

Axelsson, Monica 1995. Bilingual Women: Anthropological Approaches to Second-Language Use. Ethnos 60: 1-2.

 

Brandt, Elizabeth 1981. "Native American Attitudes Toward Literacy and Recording in the Southwest". LASSO 4(2): 152-60. Special issue of the journal of the Linguistic Association of the Southwest on Native American languages, edited by Amy Zaharlick.

 

Bull, Tove 1995. Language Maintenance and Loss in an Originally Trilingual Areain North Norway." International Journal of the Sociology of Language 115.

 

Calame-Griaule, Genevieve 1965. Ethnologie et langage: La parole chez les Dogon. Paris: Gallimard. (also available in English as Words andthe Dogon World)

 

De Bravo Ahuja, Gloria R. 1992. The Process of Multilingualism in a Multiethnic Context. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 96.

 

Dorian, Nancy 1981. Language Death; The Life Cycle of a Scottish Gaelic Dialect. Philadelphia: U. of Philadelphia Press.

 

Dorian, Nancy 1992. Small Languages and Small Language Communities. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 95.

 

Dua, Hans R. 1986. Language Use, Attitudes and Identity Among Linguistic Minorities. Central Institute of Indian Languages.

 

Dubois, Sylvie and Megan Melancon 1995. The Shift from a Linguistic to a Cultural Community: The Cajun Case".

 

Edwards, John 1985. Language, Society and Identity.Oxford: Blackwell.

 

Fasold, Ralph 1984. The Sociolinguistics of Society. Oxford: Blackwell.

 

Fishman, Joshua 1982. Whorfianism of the third kind: Ethnolinguistic diversity as a worldwide societal asset. Language in Society 11: 1-14.

 

Fishman, Joshua 1987. Language Spread and Language Policy for Endangered Languages. Georgetown University Round Table.

 

Fishman, Joshua 1989. Language and Ethnicity in Minority Sociolinguistic Perspective. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.

 

Fishman, Joshua 1991. Reversing Language Shift: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languages. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.

 

Fishman, Joshua 1997. In praise of the beloved language : a comparative view of positive ethnolinguistic consciousness. Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter. Series title: Contributions to the sociology of language 76.

 

Grosjean, Francois 1992. Life With Two Languages: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

 

Gudykunst, William 1988. Language and Ethnic Identity. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

 

Gumperz, John 1983. Communication, Language, and Social Identity. Cambridge U. Press.

 

Haugen, Einar 1975. Language and Society: A Sociolinguistic Profile of Norway. Michigan Germanic Studies 1(1).

 

Haugen, Einar; J. Derrick McClure; Derick Thompson 1981. Minority Languages Today. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

 

Hidalgo, Margarita 1995. Language and Ethnicity in the 'Taboo' Region: The U.S. Mexico Border. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 114:29-45.

 

Kostoulas-Makrakis, Nelly 1995. Language Maintenance or Shift? A Study of Greek Background Students in Sweden. Dissertation Abstracts International, C: Worldwide 56(4).

 

Paul Kroskrity 1993. Language, History, and Identity: Ethnolinguistic Studies of the Arizona Tewa. Tucson: U. of Arizona Press.

 

Maynard, Senko K. 1995. Situated Meaning: Inside and Outside Japanese Self, Society and Language. Language in Society 24(4).

 

Neilsen, Kai 1987. Cultural Identity and Self-Definition. Human Studies 10:383-390.

 

Papademetre, Leo 1994. Self-Defined, Other-Defined Cultural Identity: Logogenesis and Multiple-Group Membership in a Greek Australian Sociolinguistic Community. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 15(6): 507-525.

 

Pentikainen, Juha 1991. "Finno-Ugric Minorities in Siberia: Extinction or Survival?" Language Problems and Language Planning 15(3)..

 

Pozetta, George E 1991. American Immigration and Ethnicity. New York: Garland Publishing.

 

Romaine, Suzanne 1994. Language in Society: An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

Rumsey, A. 1990. Wording, Meaning and Linguistic Ideology. American Anthropologist 92(2).

 

Shnukal, Anna 1995. From Monolingualism to Multilingualism in Australia's Torres Strait Island Communities. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 113: 121-136.

 

Staude, John Raphael 1994. Language, Narration and the Self. History of the Human Sciences 7(2): 141-149.

 

Tavakoli Targhi, Mohamad 1990. Refashioning Iran: Language and Culture during the Constitutional Revolution. Iranian Studies 23: 77-101.

 

Teschner, Richard V 1995. Beachheads, Islands, and Conduits: Spanish Monolingualism and Bilingualism in El Paso, Texas. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 114.

 

Urban, Greg 1996. Metaphysical Community: The Interplay of the Senses and the Intellect. Austin: U. of Texas Press.

 

Urciuoli, Bonnie 1995. Language and Borders. Annual Review of Anthropology24: 525-546.

 

Van Horne, Winston A. 1987. Ethnicity and Language. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin System Institute on Race and Ethnicity.

 

Witherspoon, Gary 1997. Language and Art in the Navajo Universe. Ann Arbor: U. of Michigan Press.

 

Woolard, K. 19??. Language Variation and Cultural Hegemony. American Ethnologist XII: 738-748.

 

Woolard, K. and B Schieffelin 1994. Language Ideology. Annual Review of Anthropology 23: 55-82.

 

 

On perception of languages in multilingual situations:

 

Probal Dasgupta 1993. The Otherness of English, New Delhi: Sage.

 

 

From the Pidgin and Creole literature:

 

Rickford, J. and E.C. Traugott. 1985. "Symbol of Powerlessness and Degeneracy, or Symbol of Solidarity and Truth? Paradoxical Attitudes Toward Pidgins and Creoles." In Sydney Greenbaum, ed., The English Language Today, pp.252-61. Oxford: Permagon Press.

 

Rickford, J. 1981(?). "Standard and Non-standard Language Attitudes in a Creole Continuum." In N. Wolfson and J. Manes, eds. Language of Inequality, pp. 145-160.

 

 

From the sign languages literature:

 

Reagan, Timothy 1995. A Sociocultural Understanding of Deafness: American Sign Language and the Culture of Deaf People. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 19(2): 239-251.

 




Uwe Siebert's Bibliography on minority and/or endangered languages in Nigeria

© 1998 Uwe Siebert. All rights reserved. For more information contact Uwe_Seibert@sil.org.

 


Back to top of page

 

Terralingua Home



Last updated: 24 April 1999

Terralingua logo is original artwork; © 1998 Fausto Bonasera and Anna Maffi. All rights reserved.