Three disciplines

Kalam (Theology)

Aristotle & Neo-Platonism

  1. the meaning of Qu’ranic ethical and philosophical attributes such as "just", "obligatory", "good", "evil", etc.
  2. uncover the relationship between human free will and divine free will (theodicies)
  3. the capacity of human beings to derive, through reason, the knowledge of objective ethical norms and truths
  4. Cosmological Arguments — the word of God

  5. Find a new connection with God

Teleological argument

Sharia or "the right way to water"

"Christianity is a theological religion, deeply concerned with the right articles of faith to hold. Islam is primarily an ethical religion, deeply concerned with the right things to do."

Basic Assumptions:

  1. Human beings have free will.
  2. No original sin.
  3. God has created the Divine Law to help man to follow the Straight Path, and therefore may be put aside in times of crises.
  4. Following the Straight path will lead one to Paradise.
  5. Deviance from the Straight path will lead one to hell.
  6. Only God fully comprehends the Sharia.
  7. There is more than one way to water.


The Sufi way


Intended for or understood by only a particular group: an esoteric cult


"Orthodox" Muslims who accept the succession of the first three Caliphs

They support Ali and his descendents and argue for the right for leadership and their interpretations of the Qu’ran and Fiqh


What is the Umma? What is Christendom?