THINKING ABOUT THINGS:
GREEK AND CHINESE PHILOSOPHIES
- modes of rationality:
- philosophy versus religion
- human _________ versus divine _________
- love of _________
Three Ways of Thought in China *
- Chinese worldview:
- Confucianism: "_____ness"
- Daoism: "_____ness" Lao-tzu
- legalism: "_____ness" Qin empire
- Confucius [Alt Confucius]
- K'ung fu-tzu 551-479 B.C.E.
- Lun-yu (Analects): What is the right thing to do?
- redefined: gentleman, li, Dao: ________
- Silver Rule
- benevolent government, by __________
- Meng-tzu 372-289 B.C.E.
- anecdotal book, Meng-tzu
- Mandate of Heaven:
- c. 300-235 B.C.E.
- book: Hzun-tzu
- human nature
- 7 Confucian Propositions
- universe and humans governed by impersonal, but
willful Heaven (t'ien).
- Heaven wants people happy, orderly, in accord with
cosmic harmony (dao).
- way to do so: ethical and virtuous life.
- virtue (de) is developed by and in proper conduct (li).
- in some crises, Heaven's will is hard to know--hard to choose betw conflicting values.
- need wisdom to choose proper conduct in important
matters; wisdom acquired thru study and cultivation of self.
- individuals and society as a whole can be made
- Confucian Values
- external: 5 key reciprocal relationships
- internal: ethical absolutes
- Greek context: polis
- human reason
- early Greek thinkers
- __________ versus __________
- Thales of Miletus c. 625-540s B.C.E.
- Pythagoras c. 530-510 B.C.E.
- Democritus late 5th cen. B.C.E.
- Classical Philosophers
- Socrates 469-399 B.C.E.: dialectic (Socratic dialogue)
- Plato c. 429-347 B.C.E.:
- Aristotle 384-322 B.C.E.:
- Hellenistic Philosophers
- mystery religions: Orphism
- Compare Confucianism and classical Greek philosophy
- Compare philosophies and religions