SPECIFIC IMMUNITY (See Tortora, page 443, Fig. 17.18, pg. 428, fig. 17.3)

CELLULAR IMMUNITY:

HUMORAL IMMUNITY:

ANTIGEN = any molecule to which a specific immune response can be generated:

microbes / cells are a composite or aggregate of antigens. each antigen on a bacterial cell will provoke a unique specificity of antibody. See page 428 Tortora.

moreover, somtimes antigens on different (unrelated) cells are similar enough so that an antibody made to one will react with another. this is a cross-reaction.

an antigen is actually composed of multiple antigenic determinants or EPITOPES. Antibodies are made to the epitopes. A hapten is like a free epitope. Look at the pictures on pgs 428 - 430; figs.17.4 , 17.5 and 17.6.


ANTIBODIES

There are FIVE CLASSES OF ANTIBODIES, the molecules of each class have the same basic structure. See fig 17.6 (pg430) and table 17.1 (page 431).

The molecule shown in fig 17.6 is called a MONOMER.


FUNCTIONS OF ANTIBODY - SEE Pg. 434, Fig. 17.9:


CLINICAL (DIAGNOSTIC) TESTS WHICH USE ANTIBODY

The binding of antibody to antigen forms the basis of the clinical tests described in chapter 18.

In diagnosing many diseases it is important to determine if a person has antibodies.

Some important Serological tests include: