last updated Tue May-03-2011  12:17
 
DIACRITICS USED IN CJK and PACIFIC LANGUAGES
 
Hawaiian and Polynesian language titles
 
Our local policy will be to follow rule 0G1.1 (Letters and diacritics) in Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials: Books (DCRM(B)) instead of AACR2 for Hawaiian and Polynesian languages.
 
DCRM(B): 0G1.1. Letters and diacritics. In general, transcribe letters as they appear. Do not add accents and other diacritical marks not present in the source.
 
Hawaiian:
Use ayn and macron only.
When both ayn and macron are present, put the ayn first.
 
UH decision: Transcribe the `okina with ayn, even when the font or typeface on the chief source uses the apostrophe to indicate the `okina.
 
Same practice applies to all Polynesian languages.
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Chinese:
Use Umlaut Only [pinyin].
 
In the former romanization system, Wade-Giles, ayn and umlaut were used.
 
Japanese:
Use alif and macron only.
Alif is used to show syllable division for syllables ending in "n" and followed by a vowel sound, such as: ken'an, ten'un, Shin'ichi. (See explanatory message below.)
Korean:
Use alif after consonants.
Use ayn after vowels.
Use apostrophe instead of alif or ayn in Korean records (04⁄25⁄2011). Toolkit's diacritic button can be used to change alif or ayn to apostrophe.
The character modifier breve is still used over 'o' and 'u'
May see macron if transliterating foreign Japanese words in a Korean record.
 
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Portuguese versus Spanish:
 
Portuguese uses tilde over vowels
 
Spanish uses tilde only over "n"
======================
 
This message from an LC officer, posted to OCLC-CJK e-list, explains the discrepancy in Japanese romanization standards for diacritic to be used to separate final "n" from a vowel following.
 
From: Randall K. Barry [mailto:rbar@loc.gov]
Sent: Monday, March 17, 2003 11:51 AM
Subject: Alif⁄apostrophe in Japanese romanization
I've done some research on the use of the alif and apostrophe in
machine-readable cataloging for Japanese.  I can confirm that LC uses the
special character alif (hex AE) in romanizated Japanese, not the
apostrophe.  The specification of the apostrophe as the correct character
in the ALA-LC Romanization Tables is in error.  The error is the result of
the ALA-LC Romanization Tables having been based on the printed page from
the Cataloging Service Bulletin, which at the time it was written was
meant to guide catalogers using manual typewriters.  When LC staff began
using RLIN for input of Japanese records, RLIN documentation instructed
them to use the "alif" character as the special separator, not the
apostrophe.  I won't comment on the wisdom of this choice, but it appears
that we have been consistent in using the alif character.
I will note, however, that when LC changed from Wade-Giles to Pinyin
romanization for Chinese, we decided to stop using the alif character (hex
AE) and switched to the apostrophe, which is much more widely understood
and displayed.  I wish the same were true for Japanese and
Korean.  Perhaps, it we ever make some kind of global change to Japanese
romanization we can consider using the apostrophe instead of alif, but for
now, OCLC's "tables" appear to be consistent with what LC is doing for
Japanese.  Hopefully, we can get the ALA-LC Romanization Tables in sync
with the practice.  Sorry for the confusion.  The tables were reviewed
prior to publication, but clearly not all inaccuracies were caught.
Sincerely,
Randy Barry
--------------------------------------------------
Randall K. Barry
Library of Congress
Network Development and MARC Standards Office