PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG TREATMENTS

 

= Legal, prescribed substances that act to alter mood, thought processes, and/or behavior

 

1. Anti-anxiety

 

2. Stimulants

 

3. Anti-depressants

 

4. Anti-Manic

 

5. Anti-psychotic

 

 

 

 

PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG TREATMENTS

1. Anti-anxiety (e.g., benzodiazepine/Valium );

Increases neurotransmitter GABA

 

Short-term effects: reduction of fear and anxiety

Muscle tension

Worry

Apprehension

Helplessness

Headache

Nausea

Diarrhea

Rapid heart rate

Rapid breathing

Tremors

Restlessness

Fatigue

 

 

 

 

 

 

PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG TREATMENTS con'd

Side effects of anti-anxiety drugs:

Sedation

Drowsiness

Lethargy

Mental confusion

Motor impairments (ataxia; poor coordination)

Cognitive impairments

Disorientation

Slurred speech

Amnesia (forgetting and failure to learn)

Sleep disturbance

Dependence and withdrawal

Withdrawal symptoms from anti-anxiety drugs:

Insomnia

Restlessness

Agitation

Irritability

Unpleasant dreams

Hallucination

Psychosis (out of touch with reality)

Seizures

 

PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG TREATMENTS con'd

2. Stimulants (Amphetamines/Ritalin;); Increases neurotransmitters dopamine & norepinephrine

Short-term effects: reduces attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

Increase in alertness

Euphoria and feeling of power

Fatigue reduction

Improved task performance (but reduced dexterity)

Relief of boredom

Side effects of amphetamines:

Decrease appetite and weight loss

Anxiety

Insomnia

Irritability and aggression

Psychosis (out of touch with reality); paranoid delusions

Blood pressure and glucose increase

Stereotypies (ritualized purposeless motor behaviors)

Pupil dilation

Blood flow shifts from skin & internal organs to muscles

Dependence and withdrawal

 

PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG TREATMENTS con'd

 

Withdrawal symptoms from amphetamines:

Increased appetite and weight gain

Decreased energy

Increased need for sleep

Depression

Suicide

 

PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG TREATMENTS con'd

 

3. Anti-depressants

Tricyclics [e.g., imipramine/Tofranil] increases neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin

MAO (monoamine amine oxidase) inhibitors [e.g., nefazodone/Serzone] increases neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin

SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)

[e.g., fluoxetine/Prozac] increases neurotransmitter serotonin

 

Short-term effects: reduces depression for 60 - 70% (vs. 40 - 50% placebo) :

Mood elevation

Increase in physical activity

Increase in appetite

Improved sleep

 

PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG TREATMENTS con'd

Side effects of anti-depressants [varies by type]

Anxiety

Restlessness

Decreased sexual functioning

Nausea

Dry mouth

Confusion

Memory and attention impairments

Blurred vision

Drowsiness

Insomnia

Impaired motor speed and dexterity

Headache

Gastrointestinal discomfort

Sweating

Cardiac arrhythmia

Cardiac arrest

Delirium

Convulsions

Seizures

Psychosis

Motor tremors

Coma

Death

Suicide

PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG TREATMENTS con'd

4. Anti-Manic (lithium/Divalproex , a nonorganic alkali metal similar to sodium)

? may decrease neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine

Short-term effects: reduces bipolar disorder (manic-depression) among 40 - 60%

Stabilizes mood

Reduces sense of euphoria/happiness

Reduces irritability

PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG TREATMENTS con'd

Side effects of lithium (50% do not comply):

Nausea and vomiting

Diarrhea

Abdominal pain

Motor tremor

Fatigue and lethargy

Impaired concentration and memory

Dizziness

Slurred speech

Impaired motor coordination

Abnormal motor movements such as rigidity

Muscle weakness

Cognitive slowing

Weight gain

Thyroid enlargement and goiter

Skin rash

Increased urine output and increased thirst

Kidney damage and renal failure

Decreased creativity

Seizures

Psychosis

Stupor

Coma

Cardiac arrhythmias

Death

PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG TREATMENTS con'd

5. Anti-psychotic or major tranquilizers (neuroleptics/Haloperidol/Clozapine); numerous types that affect numerous neurotransmitters, such as reducing dopamine and serotonin

 

Short-term effect: reduction of some schizophrenic symptoms, such as

Hallucinations

Delusions

Bizarre motor behaviors

But less effective with other symptoms, such as:

Fragmented thoughts

Incoherence

Blunted affect

 

 

PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG TREATMENTS con'd

Side effects of anti-psychotic medications:

Parkinsonism (motor tremors and loss of control)

Extrapyramidal movement disorders

Endocrine disorders

Sexual performance dysfunctions

Menstrual changes

Blurred vision

Glaucoma

Dry mouth

Constipation

Urinary retention

Memory impairment

Sedation

Drowsiness

Weight gain

Dizziness

Rapid heart rate

Postural hypotension

Pigmentation of skin

Pigment deposits in the retina

Impaired vision

Decreased pituitary function

Allergic reactions

Liver dysfunction

Blood disorders (e.g., reduced white blood cells count)

PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG TREATMENTS con'd

Side effects of anti-psychotic medications CON'D:

 

Hypotension

Fever

Exacerbation of diabetes mellitus

Agitation

Anxiety

Insomnia

Headache

Nausea

 

* many side-effects are not reversible