The Symposium will be published in the International Political Science Review using papers prepared for an ENMISA Panel at the Toronto ISA Conference in March 1997, augmented by a glossary designed to link related concepts and terms in the different papers. A follow-up double session is being planned for ISA Minneapolis, March 1998: see plan and discourse links .
Editor: Fred W. Riggs, University of Hawaii
Introduction: Henry Teune, University of Pennsylvania. See draft
The whole world system is, today, involved in a grave crisis of insecurity and violence reflecting the outcome of long-term historical processes which appear to have cyclical characteristics. The dynamics of this crisis, with special reference to the role of conflicts between ethnic nations and states, following the collapse of all the world's modern empires (both capitalist and communist in character) and the emergence of a large number of weak multi-national states, will be viewed in a perspective that considers both the recent past (two or three centuries) and the long-term past (two or three millenia).
This paper deals with the formation of new sodalities and solidarities in an era of increasing disorder in the world system. It attempts to show the way in which declining hegemony is linked to these new phenomena. Transnational movements of people are not of course particularly new and migration itself is no explanation for the increasing stablishment of diasporas, for ethnification and ethnic/national conflict. Rather it might be hypothesized that these phenomena are related to re- identifications that cross national boundaries, to sub as well as transnational identity formations that challenge national identities as well as causing them to activate themselves. The result is a serious escalation of identity politics that has risen to alarming proportions.
Migration has not led to ethnification. Rather migration has become ethnified in a period in which assimilation and weaker forms of integration has failed. This is not, of course, a mere question of identity, but is also a re-ordering of political and economic relations in the world arena.
BIOGRAPHICAL: Thomas D. Hall is Lester M. Jones Professor of Sociology and Director of Conflict Studies at DePauw University. He is author of _Social Change in the Southwest, 1350-1880 (1989, Kansas) and along with Christopher Chase-Dunn he is author of _Rise and Demise: Comparing World-Systems (1997 Westview). email: firstname.lastname@example.org; URL: http://www.depauw.edu/~thall/hp1.htm
Ibn Khaldun, a 14th century Islamic historian and perhaps the first world system theorist, viewed history as a continuing struggle for hegemony between sedentary and nomadic populations. He thus provided an ingenious explanation for the rise and fall of successive dynasties in the Islamic world. This essay argues that with some modification, his perspective may also explain some of the major trends of our own times, namely globalization, localization, and mobilization cum migration.
The rise of National Capitalism led to large-scale immigration to the New World and colonization of many parts of the Old World. Similarly, Global Pancapitalism has been creating two new types of nomadic populations. At the top of the social structure, there are millions of overseas corporate managers and professionals whose careers, identities, and loyalties no longer reside in one country. At the bottom of the social structure, there are currently some 27 million world refugees who have fled their countries because of famines, civil wars, religious persecutions, or ethnic cleansing policies. These new nomads have to reconstruct their material lives and cultural identities in order to adjust to their new environments.
Just like the old nomads, the new ones also often prove themselves to be more resilient in pursuit of their objectives than the local, sedentary populations. This kind of globalism has, in turn, led to the rise of a new kind of localism grounded in nationalist, religious, or ethnic prejudices. The anti- immigrant policies in Western Europe and the United States as well as the militant Hindu, Jewish, Islamic, and Christian movements may be considered as localist reactions to the globalist threats to jobs, identities, and opportunities. Reconciling authentic cultural identities with the rights and responsibilities of global citizenship is a great challenge facing the 21st century.
Majid Tehranian is professor at the University of Hawaii and director of the Toda Institute for Global Peace and Policy. His latest book is Globalism and Its Discontents: International Communication and Modernization in a Fragmented World (1998). Email: email@example.com
Widespread apprehension and fear of catastrophe pervade the world at the close of the 20th century. The Cold War finale, paradoxically, has not brought an end to history or opened an era of universal peace and democratic capitalism. Instead, we see violent conflicts between weakened states and rebellious ethnonational communities. An explanation cannot be found in primordialist theories or current expediency -- instead, we must look to historical forces rooted in modernity and the rise and fall of industrial empires. From their ashes a host of newer states and mobilizing ethnic nations have arisen, all hoping to experience the fruits of modernization: notably industrialization, democracy and nationalism.FRED W. RIGGS is professor emeritus of Political Science at the University of Hawaii. His research interests in comparative government include the analysis of constitutional democracy, development in third world countries, and the problems caused by ethnic nationalism. He is the author of Administration in Developing Countries; the Theory of Prismatic Society and many articles and books on related subjects. In recent years he has devoted much time to semantic analysis, especially in the context of IPSA's Committee on Conceptual and Terminological Analysis. An extensive bibliography can be found in Who's Who in the World.
Updated: 21 Nov. 1997
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