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Home > Modules > Module 01: Mise en Place > Lesson 05: Organization of Kitchen > Lecture Notes

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LECTURE NOTES
Module 01: Mise en Place
Lesson 05:Organization of Kitchen: Brigade and History
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BRIGADE SYSTEM



The Organization of the Classical kitchen and the Modern Kitchen

"The purpose of kitchen organization is to assign or allocate tasks so that they will be done efficiently and properly and so that all workers will know their responsibilities."

 

Organization based upon:
- Menu
- Type of establishment (hotel, institutional, caterer, fast food, carry-out, full service)
- Size of operation (volume of food served & # of guests)
- Physical facilities (equipment)


Classical Brigade and the Organization of the Modern Kitchen

- Modern kitchens are downsized, requiring additional skill levels;
- Supervisory and technical positions are created: Chef, Executive Chef , or Chef de Cuisine, etc.


Chef
- The Chef is the person responsible for all kitchen operations. Those responsibilities include all aspects of food production, ordering, supervision, menu planning, costing, scheduling, etc.

 

• Sous Chef
- The Sous Chef is second in command within the brigade. The Sous Chef answers to the chef and is responsible for scheduling, fills in for the chef, assists station chefs and in charge of all phases of production.

 

Station Chef or Chef de Partie
- The Station Chef is assigned and charged with specific areas of production within the kitchen.

 

Sauté or Sauce Chef or Saucier (so-see-ay)
- The Sauté or Saucier is responsible for all sautéed items and sauces. The Saucier position is one of the most demanding positions.

 

• Fish Chef or Poissonier (pwah-so-nyay)
- The Fish Chef or Poissonier is responsible for all fish item. Those responsibilities include butchery and related sauces. There are times within a classic brigade that this position is combined with that of the Saucier.

 

Roast Chef or Rotisseur (ro-tee-sur)
- The Roast Chef or Rotisseur is responsible for all roasted foods and related jus or sauces.

 

Grill Chef or Grillardin (gree-ar-dan)
- The Grill Chef or Grillardin is responsible for all grilled and broiled foods. This position may be combined with the duties of the Rotisseur.

 

Fry Chef of Friturier
- The Fry Chef or Friturier is responsible for all fried foods. This position may be combined with the duties of the Rotisseur.

 

Vegetable Chef or Entremetier (awn-truh-met-yay)
- The Vegetable Chef or Entremetier is responsible for hot appetizers, soups, vegetables, pastas, and other starches and egg dishes.

 

Roundsman or Tournant (toor-nawn)
- The Roundsman or Tournant is considered a swing cook in the brigade and works as needed throughout the kitchen.

 

Cold-Foods Chef or Garde Manger (gard-mawn-zhay)
- The Cold-Food Chef or Garde Manger is also known as the Pantry Chef. The Garde manger is responsible for preparation of all cold foods, salads, dressings, appetizers, pates, etc.

 

• Butcher or Boucher
- The Butcher or Boucher is responsible for butchering meats, poultry, and fish. The Butcher may also be responsible for breading fish and meats as well.

 

Pastry Chef or Patissier (pa-tee-syay)
- The Pastry Chef is responsible for baked items, pastries and desserts. The Pastry Chef is also responsible for overall supervision of the baking and pastry department.

Confisseur
- The Confisseur prepares candies, petit fours, etc.

Boulanger
- The Boulanger prepares breads, rolls, and unsweetened breads.

Glacier
- The Glasier prepares frozen and cold desserts.

Decorateur
- The Decorateur prepares showpieces and wedding cakes.

 

Expediter or Announcer or Aboyeur
- The Expeditor or Announcer or Abouyeur accepts the orders from dining room and relays them to the various station chefs. The Expeditor is the last person to see plate before leaving the kitchen. In many operations the Expeditor is actually the Chef.

 

Communard
- The Communard prepares the daily meal which is served to the staff.

 

Commis or Apprentice
- The Commis or Apprentice works under a station chef in order to learn the respective responsibilities of the brigade.

 

HISTORICAL PROGRESSION
LEADING TO MODERN COOKERY

First Restaurant in Paris (1765)
  • M. Boulanger, was a tavern keeper , served a dish of sheep's feet in white sauce.ntil this point food servers were separate from tavern keepers.
  • Until the end of the 1700's working with food only involved art
  • At the turn of the century science was introduced as a component of culinary development.

Modern Food Service thought to have begun during late 1700's, around the time of French Revolution (1789-99)

  • Because of the revolution, many chefs who worked for nobles classes fled France to escape the guillotine.
  • Restaurants became very refined operations, earlier only frequented by men.
  • French kitchen considered the beginning of modern dining in the western world.




HISTORICAL FIGURES   
                        

Taillevent (1300's) 

  • Taillevent was a chef during an era known as the medieval period. 
  • During medieval times many foods were pureed and pounded and were served with heavy sauces to disguise flavors.

Caterina de Medici (1519-1589)            

  • Caterina de Medici was an Italian Princess from Florence, Italy who married Henry II of France.
  • With the marriage of the Princess to Henry II, came the move to France. In the move the Princess brought her Italian cooks, regional foods, cuisine and the culture of Italy.  
  • Chefs of Italian nobility used combinations of fruits and vegetables and experimented with pastry making.
  • •The refinements of Italian cooking and dining became the basis for changes in the French kitchen.                       

Examples of Refinement:
-
Introduction of the FORK and NAPKIN during the dining experience.
-
Introduction of SPINACH to French cuisine, an example of regional produce from Florence, Italy. Centuries later in menu writing and when describing dishes made with spinach, the menu item is described as "Florentine."

 

Anne of Austria (1601-1666)            

  • Anne of Austria was a descendent of Spanish royalty when she married Louis XIII of France.
  • Her chefs introduced SAUCE ESPAGNOLE and  ROUX.

 

Francois-Pierre De La Varenne (1615-1678)           

  • La Varenne was the author of first cookbook, published in 1651, summarizing the cooking practices of French nobility.

 

Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarinne (1755-1826)           

  • Savarinne was a French politician, a gourmet, a writer. His most notable writing was titled, The Physiology of Taste. 

 

Marie Antoine Careme (1784-1833)             

  • Careme was the founder of Grande Cuisine.
  • Careme works included systemizing culinary techniques.
  • Careme was nicknamed the "Chef of Kings, King of Chefs".
  • Careme was a profound influence on Auguste Escoffier.

 

Charles Ranhofen (1836-1899)           

  • Ranhofen was the first internationally renowned chef of an American Restaurant, Delmonico's  and author of The Epicurean.

 

Georges Auguste Escoffier (1847-1935)           

  • Escoffier was considered to be the greatest chef of modern history.
  • Escoffier was a renowned chef, teacher and author.  Le Guide Culinaire is one of his most famous writings.
  • Escoffier simplified the classic menu.
  • Escoffier Initiated the modern brigade system.
  • Escoffier had a profound influence on professionalism within the industry, introducing uniforms as a requirement for his cooks and chefs.
  • Escoffier also had a commitment to education and he insisted on a level of professionalism through education.
  • Escoffier worked throughout his life to make the profession of a chef that of a noble profession.

 

Fernand Point (1897-1955)           

  • Point was Chef-owner of La Pyramide restaurant, Vienne, France
  • Point had gone further in changing and modernizing cooking styles than anyone in history.
  • Point was responsible for laying the foundation for Nouvelle Cuisine.

 

•Paul Bocuse and Jean & Pierre Troigros (20th century)           

  • Bocuse and Troigos were the innovators and popularizes of Nouvelle Cuisine, leading to what we know today as "Contemporary Cuisine"

 

Two opposing forces throughout history which are still at the forefront today:
  • Simplification and emphasizing natural and fresh ingredients.
  • Creativity and the urge to invent, highlighting the creativity of the chef.

Both continually renew and refresh the art of cooking. 

 

It is with this perspective that we focus on the basics, so that you can develop into chefs with a solid foundation.  In order to be innovative, you have to know from where you are starting, in order to run you must first learn to walk. You are "the future" and you are "history in the making".


 

 

For information contact: Frank Leake

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