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LIS 610
Weekly Group Discussions on Required Readings

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The syllabus shows the readings required for each week. At the beginning of the semester students will be formed into discussion groups of 3-4 members. You will meet with the same discussion group for the first part of the semester, then move to a different group. Some articles are required reading for every member of the group, while some may be assigned to particular members to cover. You will need to read more than what is assigned in the discussion groups to write your papers.

The discussion groups will:

Where to find the readings:

Many of the readings are available through the University of Hawai'i Library electronic reserves. Instructions for retrieving such readings are on the course syllabus. Other readings are available on the Web or on a University of Hawai`i server. Links to these readings have been provided in the online version of the course syllabus. Some readings are found on the shelves of Hamilton Library.

Preparation for Session 2 (January 19, 2016)

Required for all:

Required reading for group:

Discussion questions:

  1. In describing the ERI infrastructure as a process, Rubin delineates five components. The rise of Web 2.0 has blurred the distinctions among the roles of these components. How can libraries leverage this blurring of roles? Describe the roles that you personally have undertaken at times in the creation, dissemination, and use of information in the online environment.
  2. In the past there have been dire predictions regarding the fate of libraries as a result of the rise in popularity of the Internet. Having read sections of ALA's State of American libraries, and taking into account your own experiences, do you expect the importance of libraries and librarians to decrease in the future? Or will our roles be changing? If the latter, in what ways do you see our roles changing in the near future?
  3. Rubin, in his sidebar entitled "Important questions to consider," asks his readers to think about the kinds of LIS professionals needed today and how they are different from the past. Based on your readings for this session as well as your own library experiences, what are your thoughts on this?
  4. It has been said that American libraries must work harder to serve the underclass. Based on the "Outreach and diversity" section of the ALA's State of American libraries, what is currently being done? What do you think can be done in the future to extend services to the underserved?
  5. Public libraries have been an equalizing force in our society, providing access to information resources for those who could not otherwise afford them. However, when librarians encounter decreasing budgets and increasing operating costs they sometimes resort to charging fees for certain materials or services. Is this an appropriate way to deal with a budget crisis? Why or why not?
  6. How do the results in the readings compare to your own survey findings?

Preparation for Session 3 (January 26, 2016)

Required for all:

Required reading for group:

Discussion questions:


  1. The 60 minute video "From Information to Wisdom" presents a societal context for the application and use of information technology that show people in a variety of occupations using the technology. What struck you as the most positive and exciting aspect of the influx of information technology in society?
  2. What are some of the disadvantages of the spread of technology in society? How can these be dealt with in libraries?
  3. What is meant by the statement made in the video, "Learning is the new form of labor."? What implications do you see for libraries and their communities?
  4. How exactly does a person progress "from information to wisdom"? What are the actual steps in this process? Use your own experience as an example. How do these steps relate to library use, information needs, and information seeking?
  5. What role can librarians play in introducing people to information technology, and ensuring that they can access it effectively themselves to address information needs?


  1. Rubin talks about Information Science as "a library without walls; its collection is the entire world of information" (p. 273). Based on your readings thus far, how do you see the relationship between information science and libraries?
  2. Citing Bates, Rubin talked about three "Big questions" addressed by Information Science. Why would these questions be important to a practitioner?
  3. How does Rubin distinguish between an information want and an information need? What implication does this distinction have for the reference interview?
  4. Rubin notes that people prefer personal rather than institutional sources of information, yet see the library rather than the librarian as a source of information. Rubin suggests that emphasizing the librarian rather than the library might increase individual use of the library. How would you suggest doing this?


  1. In the late 1980s and early 1990s a number of scholarly works changed the way we look at information-seeking behavior. Dervin's articles continue to be cited, some over twenty years later. Having now read one of Dervin's articles from that period, why do you think her work is still considered important? What insights did you get from her article that will help you in providing information for your future patrons?
  2. In Dervin's article, she finds that information use studies pretty much confirm that people do not fully utilize information available to them. What reasons for this situation does she infer?
  3. What is the issue described by the bricks and buckets metaphor? Why is such a metaphor problematic?
  4. Dervin notes that neither personality nor demographic variables entirely explain information rejection, so she opts for what kind of approach?

Preparation for Session 4 (February 2, 2016)

Required Readings:

Discussion questions:


You are approached at the Reference Desk by a silver-haired couple. They ask you for information about Kathmandu, Nepal. In response to your preliminary questions they pull from a slightly tattered manila envelope a magazine article about Kathmandu. They explain that for years they have been dreaming about moving to Kathmandu. Now that they are both retired they have decided to make their dream come true.

This question has two parts:

  1. What are the types of information this couple will need in order to follow their dream? (Hint: This would be more than just the type of information found in the CIA World Factbook. For example, which airlines—if any—fly to Kathmandu?) You do not need to find the information for this exercise. Just jot down what they will need to know before they can set out on their adventure.
  2. On p. 284 Rubin, referencing Allen, lists four categories of knowledge that affect the use of an information system. Based on these categories, what questions would you need to ask of the couple described above in order to assist them in meeting their information needs so that they can pursue their dream? Jot these questions down and keep them in mind when responding to question 2 under the Nahl section below.


  1. Nahl states that "to be effective, user-assistance efforts ought to be organized to accommodate user-categories such as the following..." Among the items she lists are:

    Compose a set of questions you could ask a patron that could be used to elicit the above information. If you like you may reference the scenario described in the Rubin section above in formulating your questions.

  2. The author also asks the following questions for the system:

    Imagine a computerized information retrieval system of the future that would incorporate the questions you have composed as well as mitigate the fears and anticipate and facilitate the user's specific tasks. What would it look like?

    Give your creative imagination free reign here. You can utilize the technology already available or technology that is likely to appear in the next decade. If you wish, you can incorporate experimental technology such as the Emotion Mouse, a mouse developed at IBM that monitors skin temperature, heart rate, and sweat to gauge the user's frustration. You can incorporate Web cams or even projected holographic images. Be sure to include a description of the user interface and an explanation of how your system addresses the concerns expressed in the reading.

    During your class-time meeting, the discussion group can either merge the individual designs to create a single system and present this to the rest of the class or present the different designs envisioned by the individuals within the group.

    Have fun!

Preparation for Session 5 (February 9, 2016)

Required for all:

Discussion questions:


  1. At the beginning of Chapter 2 Rubin discusses the three conditions necessary for libraries. One of the conditions is political stability. The world has seen numerous instances recently in which societies entered into periods of conflict (for example, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Iraq, Afghanistan, Egypt). Pick a nation that has recently undergone or is currently experiencing violent conflict. What has happened to libraries there? Are there any organizations, whether within the country you selected or international, that have stepped in to help?

    Living thousands of miles away from these libraries, why should we care about what happens to them? Are we stake holders? In what way?

  2. On pages 38 and 39 Rubin discusses the Library of Alexandria of the ancient world. Please visit the website of the new Biblioteca Alexandrina at http://www.bibalex.org/Home/Default_EN.aspx. How do the mission and objectives of the new Biblioteca Alexandrina compare to those of the ancient one?

  3. The Biblioteca Alexandrina is now a host of the Internet Archive. In your view, how does that fit with the mission of the library?

  4. Rubin notes that from the time of ancient Greece through the Renaissance the centers of scholarship and research shifted a number of times. What are the factors you see as most important in becoming such a center during that period? Are these factors still at work today? Based on the factors you have listed, where would you expect to find the major centers of scholarship and research today?

  5. Rubin talks about the development of the social library in eighteenth-century America. How does the author describe the mission of the social library? In particular Rubin mentions one such social library, the Library Company of Philadelphia, established by Benjamin Franklin. This library still exists. Please visit http://www.librarycompany.org/. How does the mission of the Library Company of Philadelphia today relate to the mission of social libraries in the eighteenth century as described by Rubin? Perusing the descriptions of programs on the library's website, do you feel it is relevant to society today? If yes, how so? If not, why not?


  1. Visit one of the sites mentioned by Barr. Do you find anything of interest to your future career plans? If so, please share this with your group.


  1. What do the findings of the work reviewed by Ozek suggest to you about preparing for your future job search?

Preparation for Session 6 (February 16, 2016)

Required for all:

Required reading for group:

Discussion questions:


  1. Now that you have read about public libraries, school library media centers, academic libraries, and special libraries and information centers, compare the organizational objectives and major issues confronting these different types of libraries. Are there any common threads? If so, what are they?
  2. Rubin notes that certain ethnic and racial groups have been underserved by and underrepresented in the library profession. What types of programs or activities could be used to address this disparity?


  1. Based not only on this article but also on that of Murgatroyd and Calvert, why would acquisitions for the Pacific Collection require trips to Pacific Islands nations? Why are personal relationships so important in acquisitions work in the Pacific?
  2. The Pacific Collection is a valuable resource not only for students and faculty at the University of Hawai`i but for researchers around the world. Why would it also be important for the people of Fiji or Tonga or Pohnpei who may never get to visit the collection?
  3. To whom would the Trust Territory Archives and Trust Territory Photo Archives be important? Why?

Murgatroyd & Calvert

  1. Imagine you are a librarian at the Laucala Campus Library at the University of the South Pacific in Suva. What problems would you face in terms of collection development?
  2. The authors mentioned the development of a regional virtual reference service. What would some of the challenges be in providing such a service?

Preparation for Session 7 (February 23, 2016)

Required for all:

Required reading for group:


  1. On page 225 Rubin refers to the term "hybrid libraries" to designate libraries that "continue to provide traditional print and AV materials, but also e-books and e-journals, remote databases, and electronic collections from outside vendors or databases developed internally but accessible from almost any place." In your opinion, do we really need a special term for this type of library? Or is this really just an extension of what we have been doing for decades? Explain the reasoning behind your answer.
  2. Rubin, citing Zittrain, talked about the concept of "generative capacity." Are libraries as a whole evolving into a global library? What are the advantages? What are the problems to be overcome in providing information in a global environment?
  3. Rubin, on page 236, talks about a competition between search engines and libraries. How do the findings of the de Rosa survey, as described by Rubin, match with your group's informal survey results?
  4. In discussing digital libraries the author, citing Levy, notes that one of the downsides is that digital libraries encourage "hyper-extensive readings...characterized as a frenzy of short bursts of shallow attending to information fragments" and that reading on the Internet makes it hard to remain focused long enough for true reflection and scholarship. Think about the way you access information on an Internet news site. Does the author have a valid point here? What are the potential consequences for society?


  1. Willingham talks about libraries engaging in "community building." What does the author mean by this? What would this look like?
  2. On page 101, referring to the ideas of Robert Martin, the author talks about an enthrallment with science leading to a narrowed definition of the library's mission as being a provider of information or a storehouse of resources. When you entered the LIS program, how did you perceive the mission of the library? Has that perception changed? How?
  3. On page 103, Willingham cites the findings of Richard Harwood that people have retreated from public life, in part because "politics and public life have failed to address people's changing reality, leaving them with the feeling that they are on their own, without the confidence that their concerns will be addressed." Given what you have seen on the news do you feel that the economic crisis has exacerbated this?
    Later on the same page the author notes the possibility that people may in fact be waiting to be asked to participate in civic discourse. How do you see the Occupy movements across the country in relation to this idea? How could the library play a role in re-engaging the people in the public square?


  1. Dewan notes that "it is critical to demonstrate your value to employers and differentiate yourself from the competition." What types of materials do you personally plan to include in your portfolio in order to do this?
  2. Think about activities such as jobs and internships that may have provided you with knowledge and skills your future employer would find valuable. For example, if you were part of a volunteer organization and helped to organize delivery of services or handling of donations that would indicate skills that could be useful in an information profession. What artifacts that represent your activities might be available that would demonstrate the knowledge and skills you acquired? How would you present those in an electronic medium such as a web page?

Preparation for Session 8 (March 1, 2016)

Required reading for group:

Discussion questions:


  1. How does Budd distinguish between "praxis" and "practice"?
  2. Budd states that "libraries, to an extent, contribute to the legitimacy of a cultural orthodoxy." Considering the activities you will undertake as a librarian or other information professional, in what ways can you see that your actions—whether at the reference desk, doing collection development, or even providing links on your institution's Web portal—might contribute to the legitimacy of a cultural orthodoxy?
  3. Budd characterizes Nancy Kranich's statement concerning the issue of filtering software as an effort in cultural production. How have other groups attempted to utilize linguistic/symbolic power to define this issue in different terms?
  4. Has Budd's article changed your view of librarianship? If so, how?


M. Gorman

Additional questions:

How do you describe yourself as a librarian or information professional? Discuss and develop practical, informative, and interesting responses to the following conversational prompts:


δοξα [dóxa]

"Greek term for opinion, belief, or judgment, as opposed to systematic knowledge {Gk. επιστημη [epistêmê] }. According to Plato, this limited awareness of the sensible world encompasses the lower portion of the divided line. In Aristotle's works on logic, the same terms are used to distinguish contingent from necessary truths about the world."

Source: A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names. Online at http://www.philosophypages.com/dy/d9.htm#doxa.

Preparation for Session 9 (March 8, 2016)

Required reading for group:

Suggested reading for group:

Discussion questions:


  1. Bliss cites a definition for international librarianship adopted by the International and Comparative Librarianship Group of the Library Association of the United Kingdom. Through which venues can you envision yourself participating in international librarianship?
  2. What do you see as the benefits for both sides in the dialog between librarians of highly technologically developed and developing nations?
  3. Visit the site of the International Federal of Library Associations and Institutions at http://www.ifla.org. Report back to your group about some of the recent programs, activities, or documents produced by the organization.


  1. In the 1980s many education institutions in the United States, including the University of Hawai`i, were pressured by their members to divest themselves of investments in South African companies in order to support the anti-apartheid movement.
    Kagan discusses the actions of IFLA regarding South Africa during the period. In your opinion, did IFLA have a professional, social, or moral obligation to take a stand on the issue of apartheid? Please give the reasoning for your answer.
  2. How do you think IFLA should have acted regarding the inclusion or exclusion of the South African Library Association at the time? Why?
  3. Kagan discusses the situation regarding Cuba at some length. Do you find his discussion well-balanced? In the section where he discusses the events within the American Library Association, how does the language used by the author affect your analysis of the situation? Please give examples.
  4. In the section on Cuba the author noted that the American Library Association and the Cuban Library Association (ASCUBI) rejected a proposed resolution, wanting to promote partnership rather than engage in criticism. Which approach do you think would probably be more fruitful? Why?
  5. On page 236 Kagan writes: "Just as IFLA members opposed apartheid, it is IFLA's responsibility to oppose torture, war, and military occupation." Do you agree? Please state your reasons.

Preparation for Session 10 (March 15, 2016)

Required reading for all:

Discussion questions:


  1. What debt do we owe to C.C. Williamson? Why was his report so important then? Is it important for us today? In what ways?
  2. What is the crux of the "library versus information" debate? Being currently enrolled in an ALA-accredited Library and Information Science program, weigh in with your thoughts on the debate.

RUSA guidelines and ALA Core competencies

  1. How do you see yourself applying these guidelines and core competencies in your intended information profession?
  2. How confident do you feel at this point in the LIS program that you have the knowledge and ability to put these guidelines and competencies into practice? Where do you feel deficient at this time?

Questions for all

  1. Study several current, entry-level job descriptions for your area of interest in library and information work. (Use periodicals, listservs, or online job lists. There are also a few job descriptions in the LIS 610 drawer of the filing cabinet in the LIS common area.) What are the duties expected for this type of position? What skills and knowledge are expected? How are you preparing yourself for these skills?
  2. Review some typical LIS job interview questions below. Select one of the challenging questions and create a group answer.


Typical Job Interview Questions

Before you interview, prepare these questions in advance. Research the library or organization before the interview and show that you know about their history, clientele, and services.

Be prepared to ask questions of prospective employers, including:

Questionable Questions

What to Expect

Some employers ask for your responses in advance in writing, some conduct telephone interviews, while others ask you to perform demonstrations of your knowledge and skills (e.g., take a cataloging test, prepare and present a mini-library instruction session that includes an automation demonstration and hands-on exercises), and some ask for proof of the quality of your writing (e.g., you write on a topic on demand during the interview process; submit past course papers, published articles, or internal technical reports, sometimes requiring that no co-authored material be submitted). It is a good idea to prepare a e-portfolio including your resume and your accomplishments from internships, courses, and other evidence of your professionalism so that it can be examined remotely by prospective employers. This also demonstrates some of the new technical skills employers value in their efforts to develop Web-based information services. Hence the e-portfolio assignment for this class.

Your References

Because employers are most interested in the quality of your work habits, they value references from librarians you have worked with and for as employee, intern, and volunteer, and from your other employers. References from professors are important, but a strong resume includes professional, employment, as well as academic references. Always include a one-page cover letter tailored to that particular position and institution.

Preparation for Session 11 (March 29, 2016)

Required reading for all:

Required reading for group:


  1. Rubin describes three models that characterize professions: the trait model, the control model, and the values model. He points out that there are ways in which the LIS profession does or does not mesh with each of these models. Which of these three models seems the most useful in characterizing our profession? If you were to explain to an administrator what makes LIS a profession how would you do so?
  2. The author talks about gender disparity in the LIS profession, noting on p. 108 that "women are more likely to serve as children's librarians or in cataloging positions; men are more likely to seek technology-oriented and managerial positions..." The author also notes that "librarians in children's services and cataloging generally receive lower pay than those in other basic service positions." How do you think LIS education could help to promote greater gender equity in the profession?
  3. Rubin also talks about a lack of African American and Hispanic librarians. Here in Hawai`i that lack of diversity also applies to some Pacific-Island ethnicities. How do you think LIS education programs could help to alleviate this lack of diversity?
  4. Rubin writes on page 119 that "What makes library and information science attractive as a profession is not merely satisfying information needs but caring about people, solving human problems, and improving lives." How does this match up with why you wish to become a member of the LIS profession?


  1. How does Mason define the purpose of the information professional?
  2. Mason analyzes seven information professions and finds a key ingredient in all to be—what? How do we achieve it?

[Note: ICT refers to Information and Communications Technology]

  1. The authors say that "One may say applications like automation, the web, the internet, institutional repositories, etc., are old stories. Hence we do not intend to go into these. The scene has advanced much more. Newer trends have set in. We shall discuss below emerging newer trends and their implications for academic librarianship." What are those emerging newer trends?
  2. How do you intend to prepare for them?
  3. Do you agree with the authors' assertion in the first sentence of 2.2.1?
  4. What might be the consequences for the profession if librarians do not get the type of support identified by the authors as necessary from their library associations?

Preparation for Session 12 (April 5, 2016)

Required reading for all:

Required reading for group:

Discussion questions:


  1. How do Rubin's seven values of Library and Information Science related to Ranganathan's Five Laws of Library Science?
  2. On pages 405-406 Rubin states that the purpose of the Library and Information Science field is "to communicate knowledge to people." He goes on to say that this "is more than just 'meeting an information need,' which is often the common parlance for the activities of the modern library." Rubin talks about the betterment of the indivdiual and the community. In your career plans, which community do you wish to serve? How do you think your activities will go beyond simply meeting information needs and serve to better the community?
  3. The author in talking about the second value of "Reading and the Book are Important" on page 411 clearly gives primacy to the written word over images. Do you agree with this? Why or why not?
  4. When talking about the value of Justice Rubin brings up the concepts of equality and fairness. How might these concepts apply to providing service to the economically disadvantaged?

ALA Intellectual Freedom Manual policy on confidentiality

  1. Why is maintaining the confidentiality of patron records important?

Symons & Stoffle

  1. Discuss the difference between a "continuum of values" and a "hierarchy of values" as presented in Symons and Stoffle. Which do you think would be most useful for the profession? Why? What will you do on the job when value conflicts arise?


  1. Gorman wrote his article in 2001. Do you think the issues he raised are of greater or lesser importance today? In what way?
  2. Many of the authors whose works we are reading talk about the importance of libraries to their communities. Is privacy important only to the individual or is it important for democracy? Why?


  1. You are the sole librarian on duty one evening. Two government agents walk in the door. They show you their badges and tell you that they are on an urgent mission to prevent a terrorist attack that they believe is imminent. They request information about the borrowing habits of one of your patrons. They tell you that you must not tell anyone that they have even visited your library let alone what information they requested, that disclosure would mean that you would be prosecuted for aiding and abetting terrorism. What are the issues here? What do you do?

Preparation for Session 13 (April 12, 2016)

Required reading for all:

Required reading for group

Discussion questions (Note: We will having a guest speaker on this date so we will discuss this in the following session.):


  1. On page 310 Rubin talks about the tension between entrepreneurship and democracy. He writes about the legitimate needs of business and industry and the legal ways in which businesses protect proprietary information. Consider the following scenario: A commercial courier service representative arrives with a package for the library. Upon opening it you find many photocopies of documents, including e-mails, that clearly show a local company has been using a loophole in the law to dump toxic waste into a nearby lake. The drinking water for your community is drawn from that lake. The dumping as been going on secretly for many years. Many of your friends and neighbors work for that company. You are aware that they signed non-disclosure agreements when they were hired by this company. This package appears to be in violation of that agreement. There is no return address on the package. What do you do?
  2. On pages 315-318 Rubin talks about the issues commonly referred to as 'Net neutrality. Are we stakeholders in this issue? In what way? There have been debates over the years about libraries being proactive on various social issues. Should the LIS profession take a public stand on this issue? Why or why not?

McCook & Phenix

Preparation for Session 14 (April 19, 2016)

Required reading for all:

Required reading for group

Discussion questions:


  1. On page 333 Rubin talks about a balancing of interests. Taking into account the Doctrine of First Sale and the Doctrine of Fair Use discussed on pages 335-337, how would you envision this balancing of interests to play out in the library or other information environment in which you intend to work?
  2. On page 342 the author talks about the differences between copyright law and contract law. Historically libraries have been "keepers of the culture." In other words, libraries preserve the records of the culture for future generations. When you read Rubin's discussion of contract law as it applies to electronic resources, do you see a conflict with our traditional roles? What would that be?

Weiss & Shelfer

  1. Weiss and Shelfer note that a report on the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DCMA) by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) concluded that the DCMA could jeopardize free speech or impede scientific research. How could a copyright law jeopardize free speech or impede scientific research? Do information professionals have a responsibility to work for a revision of this law?

Preparation for Session 15 (April 26, 2016)

Required reading for all:

Discussion questions:


  1. Walter asks "when access to content is no longer scarce, what are the services that will stand as the "primary measures of quality" and "distinctive signifiers of excellence" in the academic library?" In the library or other information environment in which you plan to work, what types of services do you envision as "primary measures of quality" in the near future?
  2. On page 7 the author talks about partners in the collaborative development of distinctive services. In the information environment in which you plan to work, who might such partners be? How would you engage them in the process?


Jaeger et al.

Preparation for Session 16 (May 3, 2016)

Required reading for all

Required reading for group:

Discussion questions:


  1. On page 786-787 the author notes a prediction by Godin that "once Web 4.0 is constructed, unwanted information like spam emails will disappear and only information needed by users will be provided because, unlike versions of the web in the past where users wander from place to place in a sea of information when searching, Web 4.0 will only provide information suitable for users by integrating all the known data about their identity."
  2. Do you see a problem with this, not only for libraries but for society in general? If so, what would that problem be?
  3. The author, on page 790, reiterates that "many people refer to Web 4.0 as a symbiotic web." In biology, symbiosis refers to a relationship between two dissimilar organisms in which both rely upon the other, such as a parasitic plant that also provides nutrients to the plant on which it grows. Are we there yet with the World Wide Web? If so, in what ways? If not, what would be required to achieve symbiosis? Do you see this as a positive development?
  4. On page 791 the author describes Web 4.0 as an "intelligent web, able to make inference searches, i.e., Web 4.0 uses artificial intelligence to make a decision, using inference and searched content. This decision will be made based on the system learning over time how we live and what we want." While the algorithms Google uses are proprietary information, many have noted that different people searching using the same key words in Google will get different results. For example, if you often search for travel information from home and execute a search on Egypt, you will get results that feature travel opportunities in Egypt. If your neighbor who has been following news reports about unrest in the Middle East searches on Egypt, the results will feature news stories about unrest in Egypt. What does this suggest about Google's way of processing queries? Imagine extending this concept to libraries. If a user has to log onto a library server using his or her user name and password, is it problematic in light of library ethos to track user activities in order to provide Google-style personalized searches? How so? What would be ways to ameliorate potential problems?
  5. In a 2007 article on the National Public Radio site entitled Yahoo Faces Suit over Chinese Operations the opening paragraph reads "A lawsuit from the World Organization for Human Rights USA accuses Yahoo of providing information to the Chinese government that led to the arrest and torture of dissidents. Yahoo, Google, Microsoft and other U.S. technology companies have signed pledges to abide by China's censorship laws. A Yahoo spokesman says the company must comply with those laws or its employees would face civil or criminal penalties." How does this relate to the advanced features of Web 4.0 and Library 4.0 that you are reading about in the Noh article?
  6. In describing the massive data library the author on page 793 lists features of the next-generation digital library (NGDL). What type of user comes to mind as utilizing these features?
  7. How does the context-aware library described on page 793 relate to the concept of "situational relevance"?
  8. Will the new features of the Library 4.0 help to ameliorate or merely continue the digital divide both here in the United States and around the world?


  1. Anderson describes the age of print as "the dark ages of access to information." He goes on to say that "it was a terrible time to be a person who needed information." Why? Do you agree with this?
  2. The author lists problems with the current research library, then makes predictions for the research library ten years from when the article was written. These predictions are presented as fixes for the problems previously delineated. Do you think that the author's predictions are 1) fixes and 2) likely to come to pass in the time frame indicated?
  3. Anderson was focusing on research libraries. Do you see his discussion as applicable to any other types of libraries as well? How so?


  1. Barron, representing Google, mentions controversies concerning the Google Books project. Do you see a problem with a private, profit-making company taking the lead in digitizing the world's books? Why or why not?
  2. Barron mentions the preservation of our culture as one of the benefits of digitization. Preservation of the culture has been a role traditionally served by libraries. Is it problematic for a for-profit institution to take on this role? Do you see any possible drawbacks to this in the future?


  1. Distad makes the case that the "tree-book" will not disappear, that it will not be totally replaced by the e-book. Did you find his argument convincing? When, on page 183, he talks about textbooks being one of the genres that will resist replacement by e-books, did you find yourself in agreement?

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