"The Convention is intended as a human rights instrument with an explicit, social development dimension. It adopts a broad categorization of persons with disabilities and reaffirms that all persons with all types of disabilities must enjoy all human rights and fundamental freedoms. It clarifies and qualifies how all categories of rights apply to persons with disabilities and identifies areas where adaptations have to be made for persons with disabilities to effectively exercise their rights and areas where their rights have been violated, and where protection of rights must be reinforced."
Article 9(g): "To promote access for persons with disabilities to new information and communications technologies and systems, including the Internet..."
"In 1998, Congress amended the Rehabilitation Act to require Federal agencies to make their electronic and information technology accessible to people with disabilities. Inaccessible technology interferes with an individual's ability to obtain and use information quickly and easily. Section 508 was enacted to eliminate barriers in information technology, to make available new opportunities for people with disabilities, and to encourage development of technologies that will help achieve these goals. The law applies to all Federal agencies when they develop, procure, maintain, or use electronic and information technology. Under Section 508 (29 U.S.C. 794d), agencies must give disabled employees and members of the public access to information that is comparable to the access available to others."
This Website includes the 508 standards.
"The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) works with organizations around the world to develop strategies, guidelines, and resources to help make the Web accessible to people with disabilities."
Search on the word "censorship" then narrow by country using filters on the right.
"As Google considers withdrawing from China, the BBC looks at the highs and lows of internet access and freedom in the most populous country in the world."
"... While the right to communicate, according to Dr. Hamadoun Toure, Secretary-General of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), cannot be ignored, the situation in Pakistan is very strange where any website can be blocked by Pakistan Telecom Authority (PTA) without telling any reason or communicating with the webmaster. ..."
"The ACLU is our nation's guardian of liberty, working daily in courts, legislatures and communities to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties that the Constitution and laws of the United States guarantee everyone in this country."
"Established December 1, 1967, the Office for Intellectual Freedom is charged with implementing ALA policies concerning the concept of intellectual freedom as embodied in the Library Bill of Rights, the Associations basic policy on free access to libraries and library materials. "
"Amnesty International is a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights for all."
"From the Internet to the iPod, technologies are transforming our society and empowering us as speakers, citizens, creators, and consumers. When our freedoms in the networked world come under attack, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is the first line of defense. EFF broke new ground when it was founded in 1990 well before the Internet was on most people's radar and continues to confront cutting-edge issues defending free speech, privacy, innovation, and consumer rights today. From the beginning, EFF has championed the public interest in every critical battle affecting digital rights."
"EPIC is a public interest research center in Washington, D.C. It was established in 1994 to focus public attention on emerging civil liberties issues and to protect privacy, the First Amendment, and constitutional values."
"European Digital Rights was founded in June 2002. Currently 27 privacy and civil rights organisations have EDRi membership. They are based or have offices in 17 different countries in Europe. Members of European Digital Rights have joined forces to defend civil rights in the information society. The need for cooperation among organizations active in Europe is increasing as more regulation regarding the internet, copyright and privacy is originating from European institutions, or from International institutions with strong impact in Europe."
"...THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction."
"The Digital Opportunity Index is an e-index based on internationally-agreed ICT indicators. This makes it a valuable tool for benchmarking the most important indicators for measuring the Information Society. The DOI is a standard tool that governments, operators, development agencies, researchers and others can use to measure the digital divide and compare ICT performance within and across countries."
This website gives global overviews of telecommunication penetration and detailed reports for individual countries. To access a country report, scroll down to the bottom of the Website to the Country reports section. Select the country of interest.
"The second edition of the World Information Society Report: Beyond WSIS, published by ITU [International Telecommunication Union] and UNCTAD [United Nations Conference on Trade and Development], looks beyond WSIS [World Summit on the Information Society] to the creation of an inclusive, people-centred and development-oriented Information Society, open to all."
Introduction. Talks about the WSIS, how one measures the Information Society, and creating a composite index of information communication development. It also gives an overview of the contents of the following chapters.
Bridging the Digital Divide.
The Digital Opportunity Index (DOI)
ICT Growth Strategies. Case studies on Korea, Estonia, Vietnam, Nigeria, Guatemala, Tunisia, Netherlands, and Pakistan.
Established by the Hawai`i State Legislature in 2007, the Task Force was charged with making recommendations "to remove barriers to broadband access, including gaining wider access to public rights-of-way; identify opportunities for increased broadband deployment and adoption, including very high speed broadband services; and enable the creation and deployment of new advanced communication technologies in Hawaii."(HB310 CD2) Chaired by David Lassner, Vice President for Information Technology of the University of Hawai`i, the Task Force submitted its report on December 31, 2008. As required by the law establishing it, the Task Force disbanded. The report of the task force is available online via this site.
A discussion among Representative Gene Ward, David Lassner, and Lawrence M. Reifurth (all three members of the task force) of the findings of the Task Force that aired on television is available in six parts on YouTube. Click here to view Part 1.
"The Machine That Changed the World is the longest, most comprehensive documentary about the history of computing ever produced... Jointly produced by WGBH Boston and the BBC, it originally aired in the UK as The Dream Machine before its U.S. premiere in January 1992." Andy Baio, http://waxy.org/2008/06/the_machine_that_changed_the_world/.
"The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent United States government agency. The FCC was established by the Communications Act of 1934 and is charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable. The FCC's jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. possessions."
" The information and communication technology (ICT) sector is in the midst of remarkable transformation fuelled by a combination of technological, market, policy and regulatory developments. These changes include unparalleled numbers of voice telephone subscribers, the rise of IP-enabled networks and Voice over IP (VoIP) services, initial - yet promising - deployment of fixed-line broadband and broadband wireless access (BWA) services and intelligent radio devices. The market and technological developments are exerting pressure on the current regulatory framework. How will regulation change?
One of the core functions of BDT is the collection, analysis and dissemination of information on telecommunication regulatory trends and practices, collectively known as the Regulatory Knowledge Centre. This site is an online one-stop-shop for the latest ICT regulatory information. The data is drawn from an annual regulatory survey, which dates back to 1994. Each year the survey is adapted in order to reflect changes in the sector. "
"The National Telecommunications and Information Administration is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that serves as the executive branch agency principally responsible for advising the President on telecommunications and information policies. In this role, NTIA frequently works with other Executive Branch agencies to develop and present the Administration's position on these issues. Since its creation in 1978, NTIA has been at the cutting edge of critical issues. In addition to representing the Executive Branch in both domestic and international telecommunications and information policy activities, NTIA also manages the Federal use of spectrum; performs cutting-edge telecommunications research and engineering, including resolving technical telecommunications issues for the Federal government and private sector; and administers infrastructure and public telecommunications facilities grants."
Deals with both "common carrier" topics and radio and spectrum allocation. Licenses all radio and television in the United Kingdom. "Guidance for communications companies, setting out details of the general authorisation regime, general conditions of entitlement, telephone numbering allocation and other regulations." "Information for communications companies about industry working arrangements in areas such as network interoperability, network charge controls, metering and billing and the Telecommunications Adjudication Scheme."
"OFTA's work ... includes licensing and regulation of services; setting equipment and network connection standards; type-approving telecommunications equipment; administering the numbering plan; handling determinations and mediations to resolve industry disputes related to interconnection and sharing of facilities; handling issues concerning access to land and provision of physical facilities for the installation of networks, including the coordination of access to buildings by operators and laying of ducts for telecommunication cables in public roads; and investigating complaints pertaining to suspected breach of relevant provisions in the Telecommunications Ordinance and licence conditions. ... OFTA enforces the provisions in the Telecommunications Ordinance concerning anti-competitive practices and misleading conduct. ... OFTA's responsibilities include the management of radio frequencies, investigation into radio interference complaints, licensing private telecommunications services, prosecution of illegal use of telecommunications equipment, and coordination with the frequency management authorities outside Hong Kong to prevent interference between radio services."
"The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has served in its capacity as administrator and coordinator of the United States private sector voluntary standardization system for more than 90 years. Founded in 1918 by five engineering societies and three government agencies, the Institute remains a private, nonprofit membership organization supported by a diverse constituency of private and public sector organizations.ANSI facilitates the development of American National Standards (ANS) by accrediting the procedures of standards developing organizations (SDOs). These groups work cooperatively to develop voluntary national consensus standards. "
"The IEEE is a leading developer of international standards that underpin many of today's telecommunications, information technology and power generation products and services. ... This includes the prominent IEEE 802 standards for wireless networking."
"ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 159 countries, one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system.
ISO is a non-governmental organization that forms a bridge between the public and private sectors. On the one hand, many of its member institutes are part of the governmental structure of their countries, or are mandated by their government. On the other hand, other members have their roots uniquely in the private sector, having been set up by national partnerships of industry associations. "
"ITU is the leading United Nations agency for information and communication technology issues, and the global focal point for governments and the private sector in developing networks and services. For nearly 145 years, ITU has coordinated the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promoted international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, worked to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, established the worldwide standards that foster seamless interconnection of a vast range of communications systems and addressed the global challenges of our times, such as mitigating climate change and strengthening cybersecurity."
"ITU's standards-making efforts are its best-known and oldest activity. Working at the coalface of the world's fastest changing industry, today's Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) continues to evolve, adopting streamlined working methods and more flexible, collaborative approaches designed to meet the needs of increasingly complex markets."
"The IAB is chartered both as a committee of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and as an advisory body of the Internet Society (ISOC). Its responsibilities include architectural oversight of IETF activities, Internet Standards Process oversight and appeal, and the appointment of the RFC Editor. The IAB is also responsible for the management of the IETF protocol parameter registries."
"The mission of the IETF is make the Internet work better by producing high quality, relevant technical documents that influence the way people design, use, and manage the Internet."
"The Research Groups work on topics related to Internet protocols, applications, architecture and technology."
The Internet Society (ISOC) is a nonprofit organisation founded in 1992 to provide leadership in Internet related standards, education, and policy. With offices in Washington D.C., USA, and Geneva, Switzerland, it is dedicated to ensuring the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of people throughout the world.
The Internet Society provides leadership in addressing issues that confront the future of the Internet, and is the organisational home for the groups responsible for Internet infrastructure standards, including the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Architecture Board (IAB).
"The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international community where Member organizations, a full-time staff, and the public work together to develop Web standards. Led by Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee, W3C's mission is to lead the Web to its full potential."
Paul Baran was the person who first conceived of highly redundant packet-switched networks, thus paving the way for the Internet. This is the 1964 document that basically started it all. (It is a .pdf file. File size 1.5 MB).
An earlier version of the document first appeared as a Request for Comment document (RFC 2235) at the Internet Engineering Task Force site.
"In this paper, several of us involved in the development and evolution of the Internet share our views of its origins and history."
"The European Competitive Telecommunications Association was founded in 1998, and supports the regulatory and commercial interests of new entrant telecoms operators, ISPs and suppliers of products and services to the communications industry. We work for a fair regulatory environment which allows all electronic communications providers to compete on level terms in order to multiply investment and innovation throughout an effective European internal market. The association represents the telecommunications industry to key government and regulatory bodies and maintains a forum for networking and business development."
"The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is the leading trade association representing the global information and communications technology (ICT) industries through standards development, government affairs, business opportunities, market intelligence, certification and world-wide environmental regulatory compliance. With support from its 600 members, TIA enhances the business environment for companies involved in telecommunications, broadband, mobile wireless, information technology, networks, cable, satellite, unified communications, emergency communications and the greening of technology. TIA is accredited by ANSI."