In this phase you will create a new subdirectory within your personal public_html directory. You will open that new subdirectory for public viewing so that others can view the web pages you create for the course.

Next, you will create the basic foundation of a web page.

Preliminary Step

Throughout this assignment you will be using SSH (the acronym stands for Secure Shell). SSH is a program that encrypts data as it passes from one computer to another. It allows you to securely log onto the UH servers to manage your personal directory, create web pages, and transfer files. SSH is already available on most University of Hawai`i computers. If you wish to work at home, however, you will need to download and install SSH from the UH ITS website.

If you are working on a pc you can download a free version of SSH from the UH website: http://www.hawaii.edu/askus/778

For Mac users:

SSH is already present on your computer. When the instructions say to click on the SSH Secure Shell Client icon you should open your Macintosh HD and go to the Applications folder. Within the Applications folder open the Utilities folder. Within the Utilities folder you should see Terminal. Click on Terminal to open a terminal session.

A prompt should appear. This may take the form of a % sign. To the right of the prompt type ssh username@uhunix.hawaii.edu. (Substitute your UH user id for "usernmame." My UH user id is donnab so I would type ssh donnab@uhunix.hawaii.edu.) If the system asks you if you wish to proceed type yes. When prompted to do so type in your password. The instructions from then on should be the same as those for pc users.

Step One: Connect to the UH server

First establish a connection to your ISP or use a computer with a permanent Internet connection.

Click on the icon marked SSH Secure Shell Client.

You should get a screen that looks something like this:

From the File menu select Connect.

For Host Name type: uhunix.hawaii.edu.

For User Name type in your UH user id, the same one you use to read your UH e-mail. (Mine is donnab).

Click on the Connect button.

The first time you log onto the UH server it may ask you if you wish to save the key. The answer is yes.

When requested to do so type in your UH password. Then press Enter.

When a % prompt appears you are connected to the system.

Step Two: Create an Infocomm Directory within Your public_html Directory.

First, to see what files and directories are already present in your home directory type: ls -l.

You should already have a directory named public_html. If you do not have such a directory, use the command mkdir public_html to do so. (Be sure to include the underscore between public and html. Remember that UNIX cannot handle file or directory names with spaces in them.)

If you have not already done so for a previous course open up your public_html directory for public viewing by typing: chmod 755 public_html.

Now you need to move into your public_html directory. Do so by typing: cd public_html.

Check to see if you have successfully changed directories by typing: pwd. It should indicate that you are in your public_html directory.

Create an infocomm subdirectory by typing: mkdir infocomm.

Open this subdirectory for public viewing by typing: chmod 755 infocomm.

Check to see if you have successfully opened your new subdirectory for public viewing by typing ls -l.

On the left-hand side of the infocomm listing you should see the following coding:
drwxr-xr-x

This means that 1) infocomm is a directory; 2) the owner of the directory (you) can read, write, or execute items in the directory, and 3) the public can read (view) files in the directory. This is an appropriate setting for your web files.

If the settings do not match the ones above, repeat the procedure.

Move into your new subdirectory by typing: cd infocomm.

Step Three: Using Pico to Start Your Web Page.

Pico is a text editor. This means it is like a word processor but it only creates text files, files encoded in a universally-recognized system of coding called ASCII.

In the following steps the name Galadriel will be used as an example. You should substitute the name of the character you have selected. For example, if you have chosen Morwen then for galadriel_experiment.html you should type morwen_experiment.html instead. Note that I use all lower case letters in the file name even though galadriel is a proper name. UNIX is case sensitive. Using all lower case letters in file names makes life much easier.

Start the process by typing: pico galadriel_experiment.html. (Remember to substitute your character for galadriel.) Then press the Enter key. You should get a screen that looks like this.

The empty area in the middle is where you will type in the text and coding for your web page.

The most basic tags for your web page are the html tags. These identify your document as a HyperText Markup Language document.

Type in the following:

<html>


</html>

When you're working in Pico, your mouse can only be used to highlight text. It cannot be used to place the cursor on the screen. To move your cursor you must use your arrow keys.

Use your arrow keys to move the cursor between the two html tags. Type Aloha! between the two tags:

<html>

Aloha!

</html>

Now you need to exit and save the file. Do so by holding down the Control Key and hitting x (Ctrl + x). When the system asks you if you would like to save the file type y. The system should then present you with the name of your file, checking to see if that is how you want to save it. Simply hit the Enter key to accept the proferred name if it is correct.

Step Four: Open Your File for Public Viewing

When you see the % prompt open up the file for public viewing by typing: chmod 755 galadriel_experiment.html. (Remember to substitute the name of your character for galadriel.)

You should now be able to see your web page using your browser. Open up your favorite browser. (I prefer Firefox.) Substituting your user id for mine (mine is donnab, the preceding ~ indicates that this is a personal directory) and your Tolkien character for galadriel, in the address box type:
http://www2.hawaii.edu/~donnab/infocomm/galadriel_experiment.html.

Step Five: Add Head and Body Tags

A web file is divided into two main parts: the head and the body. These are delineated by using paired head and body tags. Material between the head tags will not appear in the main viewing window of the Web page. This area is used primarily for metadata about your page. Material between the two body tags will appear as the contents of your Web page.

Open up your file for editing. To do this at the % prompt type pico galadriel_experiment.html and hit the Enter key.

Use your down arrow key to move the cursor below the first html tag. Now add some extra line spaces using your Enter key to give yourself some room.

Below the first <html> tag enter a <head> tag. This is a paired tag so hit the Enter key a couple of times then enter the ending </head> tag. Remember to include the slash. Material between the head tags will not appear in the main viewing window of the Web page.

Now beneath the ending head tag enter the first <body> tag. Then move your cursor below the word Aloha! and add the ending </body> tag. Material between these two body tags will appear as the contents of your Web page.

<html>

<head>

</head>

<body>

Aloha!

</body>

</html>

Step Six: Add a Browser Bar Title

When you look at this Web page notice that at the very top of the screen there is a colored bar bearing the words: "Getting a Web Page Indexed by an Internet Search Engine Phase One." This is the title of the web page. To add a title we use our title tags. These must be placed between the head tags.

Use your arrow key to move your cursor up between the two head tags. Enter a <title> tag. Leave an intervening line space, then add the ending </title> tag. Again, remember to include a slash.

<html>

<head>
<title>

</title>
</head>

<body>

Aloha!

</body>
</html>

Now you are ready to add your title. Use your arrow key to move the cursor between the two title tags. Type your title: "Galadriel's LIS 694 Experiment Page" (substitute the name of your character for Galadriel. Do not bother about any diacritical marks like accents.)

<html>

<head>
<title>
Galadriel's LIS 694 Experiment Page
</title>
</head>

<body>

Aloha!

</body>
</html>

You can save your file without exiting it. Hold down the Control key and press the letter o (Ctrl + o). Then hit Enter. The system should then present you with the name of your file, checking to see if that is how you want to save it. Simply hit the Enter key to accept the proferred name if it is correct.

Now it is time to view your file again. Return to your browser. In order to see the changes you have made you must refresh (reload) the web page. If you are using Firefox open the View menu. Select Reload. (Or you can click on the little circular arrow.) If you are using Internet Explorer open the View menu. Select Refresh. Your title should appear in the colored band at the top of your screen.

Step Seven: Add a Header

Now it is time to add a header. Headers come in various sizes. The largest header is h1. The next largest is h2, and so forth. Header tags are paired. To avoid the problem of a missing end tag, it is best to type both beginning and ending tags, then add the material that goes between them. In this exercise we will use level 2 headers.

Use your arrow keys to place your cursor within the body tags, above your "Aloha!." Add your header tags: <h2> </h2>

<html>

<head>
<title>
Galadriel's LIS 694 Experiment Page
</title>
</head>

<body>

<h2> </h2>

Aloha!

</body>

</html>
Now add the text of your header: Galadriel's LIS 694 Experiment Page. (Substitute the name of your character for Galadriel.)
<html>

<head>
<title>
Galadriel's LIS 694 Experiment Page
</title>
</head>

<body>

<h2>Galadriel's LIS 694 Experiment Page </h2>

Aloha!

</body>

</html>

Again save your file by holding down the Control key and pressing the letter o (Ctrl + o). Then hit Enter.

View your file again. Return to your browser. Remember that in order to see the changes you have made you must refresh (reload) the web page. Your header should be clearly visible. Your page should now look something like this:

Galadriel's LIS 694 Experiment Page

Galadriel's LIS 694 Experiment Page

Aloha!

Step Eight: Add Paragaphs to Your Web Page

This is the last step in constructing your web page for this phase.

Paragraph tags (now paired, although they were not paired previously) are used to format text with lines spaces between paragraphs. We will add two sets. The first set will surround the Aloha! you already typed. The second will be used to format a description of our indexing experiment.

Place beginning and ending paragraph tags before and after your Aloha! line as seen below.

<html>

<head>
<title>
Galadriel's LIS 694 Experiment Page
</title>
</head>

<body>

<h2>Galadriel's LIS 694 Experiment Page </h2>

<p>
Aloha!
</p>
</body>

</html>

Now let's add another pair of paragraph tags and some text describing our experiment:

<html>

<head>
<title>
Galadriel's LIS 694 Experiment Page
</title>
</head>

<body>

<h2>Galadriel's LIS 694 Experiment Page </h2>

<p>
Aloha!
</p>
<p>
This web page is part of an experiment being undertaken by the students in the LIS 694 course entitled "Seminar on Information Communication Policy Issues." In this experiment students will create similar web pages that link to the pages created by other students. Each web page will include metadata in the form of Dublin Core meta tags. Effects on indexing by search engines will be observed.
</p>

</body>

</html>

Save your file. Refresh your browser. Your web page should look now like this:

Galadriel's LIS 694 Experiment Page

Galadriel's LIS 694 Experiment Page

Aloha!

This web page is part of an experiment being undertaken by the students in the LIS 694 course entitled "Seminar on Information Communication Policy Issues." In this experiment students will create similar web pages that link to the pages created by other students. Each web page will include metadata in the form of Dublin Core meta tags. Effects on indexing by search engines will be observed.

Step Nine: Close Your File and Log Out of UNIX

If everything looks okay, close the file by holding down the Control key and hitting x (Ctrl + x). If the system asks you if you would like to save any changes made (the system will only do this if you have made changes since your last save), be sure to say yes (y).

At the % prompt log out of unix by typing logout and pressing the Enter key.

Step Ten: Let Us Know That Your Web Page is Ready for Viewing

Send a message to our course listserv letting us know that your page is ready for viewing (and soon, linking). In the To: line you should type: lis694-infocomm-l@lists.hawaii.edu. Your message should include the URL for your page. Be sure to include the protocol at the beginning (http://). Your URL should look something like http://www2.hawaii.edu/~donnab/infocomm/galadriel_experiment.html.

Once you have sent your message, you have completed Phase One of the experiment!


Return to main "Getting a Web Page Indexed by an Internet Search Engine" page.