When we surf the Web we move from website to website without thought as to the Internet addressing structure that allows us to get the weather report, make donations to aid organizations, or plan our vacations. In this course we make visible that which is normally invisible to the Web user. This facilitates our discussions about the power structures and power brokers behind the technology as well as the issues regarding regulation of these structures and organizations.

In this beginning assignment you will get a glimpse of the addressing system used on the Internet and the technology that facilitates it. You will also be introduced to two major technological power brokers behind the Internet.


Interaction with a Domain Name Server (DNS) is usually done by a computer unseen by the user. The user is only made aware of this service when the DNS cannot locate the address of the requested web server, resulting in an error message.

You can, however, manually query a Domain Name Server. In the first part of this assignment you will use the human-readable addresses of a number of Web servers in querying the University of Hawai`i DNS server for the numerical IP addresses for those servers. In the second part of the assignment you will use numerical IP addresses to locate visit the Websites of two powerful entities that play an integral role in the design and implementation of Internet technology.

Although the assignment sounds technical the instructions below will take you step-by-step through the processes.


For this assignment you will be using a program called SSH. "SSH" is an acronym for Secure SHell. It allows you to log onto a remote computer securely, as it encrypts both what you send to and what you receive from the other machine. SSH has been installed on most public-access computers at the University of Hawai`i. If you wish to do the assignment at home you will need to install the program on your home computer. SSH for the pc is available without charge through the UH ITS website at .

For Mac users:

If you are using a Mac SSH is already present on your computer. For this assignment when the instructions say to click on the SSH Secure Shell Client icon you should open your Macintosh HD (one source said to click on the Finder icon) and go to the Applications folder. Within the Applications folder open the Utilities folder. Within the Utilities folder you should see Terminal. Click on Terminal to open a terminal session.

A prompt should appear. This may take the form of a % sign. To the right of the prompt type ssh (Substitute your UH user id for "usernmame." My UH user id is donnab so I would type ssh If the system asks you if you wish to proceed type yes. When prompted to do so type in your UH password (the same one you use to read your UH e-mail). The instructions from then on should be the same as those for pc users.

Step 1: Connecting to UHUNIX

Step 2: Sample query of the UH DNS

Step 3: Look up the numerical addresses for organizations

    (The Library of Congress Website)
    IP address: _________________________
    (The UH Manoa library Website)
    IP address: _________________________
    (The main UH Website)
    IP address: _________________________
    (The secondary UH Website)
    IP address: _________________________
    (The ICS Department Website)
    IP address: _________________________
    (The UH College of Engineering Website)
    IP address: _________________________

Step 4: Log out of UHUNIX

At the & prompt type logout and press Enter.

Step 5: Analyzing the IP addresses

Step 6: Using a numerical IP address in a URL