IN-CLASS: Using one of your quotes for the essay, change the formatting on

the quote to reflect the various styles shown below:

1. Quotation with a comma, using a more original verb than "says" or "argues" (demonstrates, iterates, explains, underscores, emphasizes, reveals, etc).

Carl Sagan, the eminent astrophysicist, iterates, "Think of the rivers of blood spilled by all those generals and emperors so that in glory and triumph, they could become. . . masters of a fraction of a dot," suggesting that violence is futile (06).


2. Revision of sentence one, using the quotation to start the sentence.

"Think of the rivers of blood spilled by all those generals and emperors so that in glory and triumph, they could become... masters of a fraction of a dot," exhorts Carl Sagan, feeling contempt for conquerors and destroyers of civilization (06).


3. Revision of sentence one, or a new sentence, introducing a relative clause beginning with "that" without any punctuation. Do not include author in the main text; save it for the citation.

Horrified by the violent cruelties inflicted by warmongers, the eminent astrophysicist reminds us that would-be despots massacred millions just to "become the momentary masters of a fraction of a dot" (Sagan 06).

4. Quotation formally introduced with a colon, making a strong point about speaker or theme.

Sagan's sardonic musings on the violent nature of humanity is underscored by a great sense of compassion for our species, compassion instigated when looking at the Earth from space: "it [the image of our planet] underscores our responsibility to deal more kindly with one another, and to preserve and cherish the pale blue dot, the only home we've even known" (07).


5. Other samples: Unknown author (useful for Internet) -According to a noted astrophysicist on Astrophysics. com, "our posturings, our self-importance, or the delusion that we have some privileged position in the universe is challenged by our tiny planer ("Reflections" 06).

6. Another author cited in the source: "The cosmos is very vast," argues astrophysicist Miriam Fouts, a student from the University of Maine. To Fouts, "Darkness and chaos seem to reign in every quadrant of space, showing us how tiny we really are" (qtd. in Sagan 06}.

HOMEWORK: Since M.L.A. documentation is an essential skill for your

academic careers, I want you to continue to practice it until you are comfortable

with the format.


Assignment: Choosing 3 (THREE) of the quotes below, write a sentence or two for your selected quotes using proper MLA-style in-text citation. Consider each source below to be one of several sources cited in the papers. It might also be helpful to summarize or comment on the quote in a few sentences afterwards. Remember that you do not necessarily have to USE the quote in its entirety.


Quote 1: "Perhaps the most important problem in business management since the first industrial revolution began in Britain more than two centuries ago has been the coordination of manufacturing and marketing."

Author: Richard S.Tedlow

Source: New and Improved p. xvii


Quote 2: "How, then, is it possible to think new? How can new thoughts be crafted or cobbled out of material-words, sentences-itself 'pre-stressed' and irreparably secondhand (we think in words). How is any new philosophy conceivable when its only executive form is that of linguistic discourse, shuffling counters which have served already a billionfold?"

Author: George Steiner

Source: Grammars of Creation p.122


Quote 3: "No one, repeat, no one is interested in athletes who can sing or play musical instruments. We already have people to perform these tasks. They're called singers and musicians, and, at last count, it would seem we have quite enough of them. The fact that someone with an IQ triple his age has mastered a few simple chords is unimportant and of monumental disinterest. Play ball!"

Author: George Carlin

Source: Brain Droppings p.55


Quote 4: "More recently, Wind-up made a deal to distribute Evanescence's album at Christian stores. 'I'm not ashamed of my spiritual beliefs, but I in no way incorporate them into this band,' says Moody. 'We're actually high on the Christian charts and I'm like, What the f- are we even doing there?" Adds Lee, 'I guarantee that if the Christian bookstore listened to some of those songs, they wouldn't sell the C.D."

Author: Chris William
Source: Entertainment Weekly 18 Apr. 2003, p.41.