Qualitative Research in SLS

Christina Higgins
Spring 2010

Welcome! This semester, we will examine the purposes and methods for doing qualitative research in applied linguistics in order to prepare you to design and carry out a qualitative study. We will engage in readings and discussions about ethics, the politics of knowledge, a range of qualitative methodologies, and the writing process. We will also incorporate a focused discussion of social theories into several class meetings in order to deepen our knowledge base of theories and philosophical viewpoints that are pertinent to SLS and applied linguistics. Over the semester, we will examine the following questions: 1) What is qualitative research?; 2) How do social and cultural theories inform second language qualitative studies, and what are their basic principles?; 3) How do researchers actually conduct studies and analyze data?; and 4) What are the principal philosophical and methodological considerations involved in conducting and writing up qualitative studies? To begin to answer these questions, we will read and discuss a wide range of literature concerning qualitative research, including theoretical and methodological overviews, as well as studies that employ ethnography, interviews, and ethnographic discourse analysis. Students will lead presentations, complete two small assignments, and produce a final course paper on a current or future research project.

Mini fieldnotes assignment
Mini interview assignment

Course schedule E = indicates reading is on Laulima
1/11 Introduction to course
1/18 Holiday
  Denzin, N. & Lincoln, Y. 2008. Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In Denzin & Lincoln (eds.), The landscape of qualitative research (pp. 1-44). London: Sage.
  Hatch, J. A. 2002. Deciding to do a qualitative study. Ch. 2 in Doing qualitative research in education settings (pp. 1-35). Albany: SUNY Press.
  E Agee, J. 2009. Developing qualitative research questions: a reflective process. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 22, 431-447.
1/25 Positioning the researcher: Insider/outsider identities, colonial and indigenous perspectives;                     PUPUS: Betchie
Who can speak for whom?
  Discuss IRB procedures and policies
  Bishop, R. 2008. Freeing ourselves from neocolonial domination in research: A Kaupapa Maori approach to creating knowledge. In Denzin & Lincoln (eds.), The landscape of qualitative research (pp. 145-184). London: Sage.
  E Canagarajah, S. 2002. Reconstructing local knowledge. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 1(4), 243-259.
  E Ramanathan, V. 2006. Of texts AND translations AND rhizomes: postcolonial anxieties AND deracinations AND knowledge constructions. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies 3(4), 223-244.
2/1 Ethnography and ethnographic methods: Observations and fieldnotes                                                               PUPUS: Yuka
  E Toohey, K. 2008. Ethnography and language education. In K. A. King and N. H. Hornberger (eds), Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 2nd Ed, Vol. 10, 177-187. Springer.
  Richards, Keith 2003. Observation (Ch. 3). Qualitative inquiry in TESOL. New York and Basingstoke: Palgrave.
2/8 Critical ethnographies in applied linguistics: Examples of analysis                                                                      PUPUS:Meredith
  Canagarajah, S. 1999. Introduction and Chs. 2, 5 in Resisting linguistic imperialism in English language teaching. Oxford UP.
  Paired presentation of additional critical ethnographies
  Kanno, Y. 2003. Negotiating bilingual and bicultural identities: Japanese returnees betwixt two worlds. Erlbaum.
  Mayumi and Yuka
  Menard-Warwick, J. 2009. Gendered identities and immigrant language learning. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  Betchie and Amy
Fieldnotes assignment due by 2/19 (use my mailbox outside my office door - 557 Moore)
2/22 Interviewing - methods                                                                                                                                                   PUPUS: Mayumi
  Kvale, S. & Brinkman, S. 2009. Chs. 7 and 10 in InterViews: Learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing. London: Sage.
E Holstein, J & Gubrium, J. 2004. The active interview. In D. Silverman (ed.) Qualitative research: Theory, method and practice (pp. 140-161). London: Sage.
resource: Atkinson, J. M. & Heritage, J. 1984. Transcript notation in Structures of social action: Studies in conversation analysis. Cambridge UP.
Paired presentation of additional perspectives on transcription
  Ochs, E. 1999 [1979] Transcription as theory. In A. Jaworski & N. Coupland (eds) The discourse reader (pp. 166-182). New York: Routledge.
  Kaori and Andew
3/1 Interviewing - analysis                                         PUPUS: Hikari
E Baker, C. 2003. Ethnomethodological analyses of interviews. In J. Holstein & J. Gubrium (eds.) Inside interviewing: New lenses, new concerns (pp. 395-412). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Charmaz, K. 2001. Qualitative interviewing and grounded theory analysis. In J. Holstein & J. Gubrium (eds.) Handbook of interview research (pp. 675-694). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
E Sarangi, S. 2004. Institutional, professional and lifeworld frames in interview talk. In H. van den Berg, M. Wetherell and H. Houtkoop eds., Analysing race talk: Multidisciplinary approaches to the interview (pp. 64-84). Cambridge UP. available through UH Manoa library ebooks
Paired presentation of additional approaches to interviews
  Wortham, S. & Gadsen, V. (2006). Urban fathers positioning themselves through narrative: An approach to narrative self-construction. In A. DeFina, D. Schiffrin, & M. Bamberg (eds.) Discourse and identity (pp. 314-344).
  Reggie and Marina
3/8 Ethnographic Discourse Analysis (AAAL - reschedule meeting)               
  E Higgins, C. 2009. Chs. 1 and 4 in English as a local language: Post-colonial identities and multilingual practices. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  Rampton, B. 1995. Introduction excerpt and Ch. 5 in Crossing: Language and ethnicity among adolescents. London: Longman.
3/15 Arts-Based Approaches in Qualitative Research            PUPUS: Bal
  E Cahnmann, M. et al. 2009. The art and science of educational inquiry: Analysis of performance-based focus groups with novice bilingual teachers. Teachers College Record 111, 2535-2559
  Goldstein, T. 2004. Performed ethnography for critical language teacher education. In B. Norton & K. Toohey (eds) Critical pedagogies and language learning (pp. 311- 326). Cambridge UP.
Paired presentation of additional approaches to arts-based approaches
  E Nelson, M. 2006. Mode, meaning, and synaesthesia in multimedia L2 writing. Language Learning & Technology 10, 56-76.
  Matthew and Hikari
Interview assignment due by 3/19 (by email)
3/22 Spring break
3/29 Social theories in applied linguistics - Communities of Practice                PUPUS: Reggie
  Wenger, E. 1998. Chs. 1-3 in Communities of practice: learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge UP.
  E Morita, N. 2009. Language, culture, gender, and academic socialization. Language and Education 23, 443-460
4/5 Social theories in applied linguistics: Agency and Structure, Pierre Bourdieu        PUPUS: Marina
  E Collins, J. 2009. Social reproduction in classrooms and schools. Annual Review of Anthropology 38, 33-48.
  E Bourdieu, P. 1977. The economics of linguistic exchanges. Social Science Information 16, 645-668.
  E Lin, A. 2000. Lively children trapped in an island of disadvantage: Verbal play of Cantonese working-class schoolboys in Hong Kong. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 143, 63-83.
4/12 Participatory, Transformative, and Action-based Research           PUPUS: Ying
  Kemmis, S. & McTaggart, R. 2000. Participatory action research. In Denzin, N. & Lincoln, Y. (eds.) Handbook of qualitative research. London: Sage.
  E McDonough, K. 2006. Action research and the professional development of graduate teaching assistants. Modern Language Journal 90, 33-47.
  Paired presentation of additional PAR/action research
  E Moletsane, What can a woman do with a camera? Turning the female gaze on poverty and HIV and AIDS in rural South Africa. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 22, 315-331.
  Meredith and Ying
  E Ajayi, L. 2008. Meaning-making, multimodal representation, and transformative pedagogy: An exploration of meaning construction instructional practices in an ESL high school classroom. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education 7, 206-229.
  Bal and Ryoko
4/19 Social Theories- Transcultural flows and new forms of hybridity             PUPUS: Ryoko
  E Appadurai, A. 1990. Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy. Public Culture 2, 1-24.
  Pennycook, Alastair. 2007. Chs. 2 and 3 in Global Englishes and transcultural flows. New York and London: Routledge.
  EBlack, R. 2009. Online fan fiction, global identities, and imagination. Research in the Teaching of English 43
4/26 Writing up research                   PUPUS: Kaori
  Wolcott, H. 2009. Ch. 4 in Writing up qualitative research (3rd ed.) pp. 65-92. London: Sage.
  Short readings to be led by small groups:
  E Ramanathan, Vaidehi. 2005. Situating the researcher in research texts: Dilemmas, questions, ethics, new directions. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 4, 291-293. Kaori, Betchie
  E Ramanathan, Vaidehi. 2005. Some impossibilities around researcher location: Tensions around divergent audiences, languages, social stratifications. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 4, 293-297. Amy, Yuka
  E Pennycook, Alastair. 2005. Performing the personal. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 4, 297-304. Mayumi, Meredith, Ying
  E Holliday, Adrian. 2005. How is it possible to write? Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 4, 304-309. Andrew, Reggie
  E Canagarajah, Suresh. 2005. Rhetoricizing reflexivity. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 4, 309-315. Hikari, Marina
  E Nelson, Cynthia. 2005. Crafting researcher subjectivity in ways that enact theory. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 4, 315-320. Bal, Matthew, Ryoko
5/3 Writing up research - sample SPs, theses, articles            
5/11 Final projects due by email