Constitution of the International Association for Lichenology

Last Updated: 8 April 1996
1. Name: The name of the Association shall be the International 
   Association for Lichenology (IAL).

2. Goals: To promote and encourage communication throughout the world  
   among those interested in the  study of lichens. In furtherance of 
   these aims but not otherwise, to:
    a) Organize field meetings, conferences, and exhibitions.
    b) Publish news, views, and activities of lichenologists.
    c) Encourage and actively support the conservation of lichen flora.

3. Membership: The Association (IAL) shall have two types of membership: 
   individual and institutional. Individual members are those whose dues 
   have been paid. They shall receive all Association  publications,  
   shall have voting rights, and shall be eligible for  attending  
   IAL-sponsored meetings and  excursions. Institutional members are 
   those whose subscriptions have been paid. They shall receive all  
   Association publications.

4. Power to raise Money: To further the goal, the Association (IAL) has 
   the power to raise money by dues,  subscriptions, or other means as 
   approved by Council. The purpose of raising such money is purely for 
   scientific purposes and shall not be used for financial profit.

5. Dues and Subscriptions: Upon the advice of Council, the membership 
   dues and subscriptions rates shall  be determined at a General Meeting 
   of the Association (IAL) by a majority vote of those present. A  
   schedule of payment for dues and subscriptions shall be established 
   by Council and published in the Newsletter. The Council has power to 
   suspend any member who is more than one year in arrears in  payment. 
   Members who have paid are entitled to receive the  Associations 
   publications issued during the calendar year in which payment is made.

6. Officers and Council: The elected officers of the Association (IAL) 
   shall be a President,  a Vice-President, a Secretary, a Treasurer, an 
   Editor, and two Council Members-at-large. These seven officers  will 
   form the Council. Additional officers may be appointed at the 
   discretion of Council.

7. Election of Officers: Election of officers shall take 
   place at meetings of the association (IAL) convened for the purpose, 
   normally every 4 years, or held at regular IAL Symposia, or ar a regular 
   International Mycological Congress, or at a regular International 
   Botanical Congress, unless circumstances require a special meeting. 
   Nominations for the Council may be made by any individual member and 
   must be submitted to the  Secretary in writing at least two months 
   before the election with the written consent of the person  nominated. 
   Members of Council are not eligible to serve consecutive  terms. If 
   there is more than one  nominee for each Council officer, an election 
   by majority vote on a closed ballot shall be held to  determine the 
   Council membership.

8. Duties of Council and Officers: The Council shall administer the 
   affairs and funds of the  Association (IAL). The President, or in his 
   absence the Vice-President, shall preside at all meetings of  the 
   Association and the council. In the absence of both the  President and 
   Vice-President, a presiding  officer shall be determined in the 
   following order: Secretary, Treasurer, Editor or officer specially 
   designated by Council. When votes on motions are taken during  
   meetings, the presiding officer shall  only cast a vote in the case of 
   a tie. The Secretary shall keep minutes  of all General Meetings and 
   Council Meetings and shall conduct correspondence as requested by 
   Council. He or she shall provide  the Editor with a summary of the 
   proceedings of all General Meetings and the results of formal  
   decisions for publication in the forthcoming issue of the Newsletter. 
   The Treasurer shall keep an  account  of all receipts and expenditures 
   and shall have a statement presented at General Meetings of  the 
   Association. The Editor shall prepare for publication  the 
   International Lichenological Newsletter (ILN). The content and format 
   of the Newsletter shall be at the editors discretion subject to 
   review and recommendation of Council.

9. Meetings: " The Association (IAL) shall normally 
   hold General Meetings at Symposium meetings of the IAL, at 
   International Botanical Congresses and at International 
   Mycological Congresses. Additional meetings may be held at the  
   discretion of Council. The Council shall hold meetings at the  
   Congresses and as requested by the  President. Notice of General Meetings 
   shall be sent to members at least four weeks before the date of  the 
   meeting. The procedure and order of business at meetings shall be 
   decided by the presiding officer.
      Additional General Meetings of the Association (IAL) shall be 
   convened on the request of Council or of twenty members. The request 
   shall be addressed to the Secretary and shall specify the purpose for 
   which the meeting is called. A convening notice stating this purpose  
   shall be communicated to every  individual member of the Association 
   at least six weeks prior to the meeting date.
      When votes are taken during General Meetings, a quorum of thirty 
   individual members shall be required. In the case of Council 
   decisions, approval of at least four Council Members is required.

10. Change of Constitutional Rules: Changes in these Rules may be made 
    only at General Meetings of the  Association (IAL) and must be 
    approved by not less than two-thirds of the members present at the 
    meeting. Proposals of changes in the Rules must be detailed in the 
    convening notice sent to every  individual member, at least four 
    weeks prior to the meeting.
	The Association (IAL) exists solely for non-profit and no rule change 
    shall be allowed which will change the non-profit status.