Library of Congress Rule Interpretations
Appendix C: Numerals
C.1. General Rule [Formerly C.0]
Form for Arabic Numerals
LC practice: Because the frequency of occurrence of numbers that impacts access is very low, clear searching guidelines reflecting the Library's Integrated Library System (ILS) treatment of Arabic numerals are judged more practical than extensive guidelines for providing alternative access.
In the ILS commas and periods are normalized as spaces. Thus 1,512 is treated as though it were 1 512; 1.512 is treated as 1 512, i.e., the same as it would be if the number were recorded with a space. Since searching guidelines will provide guidance related to the searching of numbers, in general, record Arabic numerals according to the style found on the resource being cataloged or in the usage of any entity, usually a corporate body, being used as a heading.
1) Decimals. Decimals may occur with a period or a comma as the decimal point, in which case record them as found on the source or as used by any entity that is being established.
2) Other numbers given in Arabic numerals. Numbers of one thousand or more may occur with a space, with a comma, or without either. Record them as found on the source or as used by any entity that is being established.
Reminder: Do not use a comma in a year regardless of the number of digits it contains.
1066 and all that ...
If recording a number in a portion of a record for which "found source" or "usage" may not be germane, e.g., in a note, use judgment and record the number in a manner that aims to achieve intelligibility. Do not use a comma in a year regardless of the number of digits it contains.
Do not update existing records to reflect the practice stated in this LCRI.
C.5. Oriental Numerals
Apply C.5C to Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages whenever a vernacular numeral represents a typographic variant of an arabic numeral or constitutes a numerical concept symbolized by an arabic number.
1) Consider that C.5C cannot apply to the following terms:
零,壹,貳,参,肆,伍,陸,柒,捌,玖,拾,一,二,三,四,五,六,七,八,九,十,十一,十二,二十,三十,百, 百二十,千,万,萬,億,兆,廿,卅, etc.
2) Convert the following to arabic numerals when they represent true numbers; otherwise, romanize them as a word:
一０ 一一 二一 五一 一〇〇 一〇一 一九一八 五〇〇〇 一〇 二〇
San ba, fu nü jie
Qi qi shi bian
Note: For the numerals from one to nine that have no equivalent arabic form, follow 1) above, except those used in dates.
1981 nian 7 yue 12 ri
1981-nen 7-gatsu 12-nichi
1981-yon 7-wol 12-il
Exception: When the date is a principal element of a title proper in Japanese, romanize it in word-form with its particular reading.
Hachigatsu futsuka, ten made yaketa
3) Retain arabic numerals as they appear in corporate names or titles.
20 shi ji
If an arabic numeral has a particular reading in Japanese idiomatic usage, however, romanize it in word form.
4a) Apply C.5C to Chinese and Korean ordinal numbers belonging to a sequence.
Di 1 ji xie gong ye bu
Di yi fu shu yi yuan
Di liu gan
Di san xi
4b) Apply C.5C to Japanese ordinal numbers used in headings for divisions or sections of corporate bodies or divisions or branches of armed forces. (For ordinal numbers in titles, follow 1)-3) above.)
Daiichi Shidan Reite Senki
C.7. Alternative Dates
When giving alternative dates of birth or death in headings for persons, apply the following:
1) If the dates are the last year of one century and the first year of the following century, give the complete date for both (e.g., 1899 or 1900).
2) If the dates are the first and second years of the same century, give the complete date for both (e.g., 1900 or 1901).
3) If the dates are the last year of one decade and the first year of the following decade in the same century, give the complete date for the first and the last two digits of the second date (e.g., 1979 or 80).
4) If the dates are any two years within the second decade of the same century, give the complete date for the first and the last two digits of the second date (e.g., 1914 or 15).
5) If the dates are the first two years of a decade (other than the first two years of the first decade of the century), give the complete date for the first and the last two digits of the second date (e.g., 1970 or 71).
6) If the dates are those not covered by 1)-5) above, give the complete date for the first and the final digit of the second date (e.g., 1978 or 9).
C.8. Ordinal Numerals
This LCRI represents LC/PCC practice for languages other than Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. For Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, apply AACR2 C.8C.
Bibliographic Description–Edition Area
Generally accept abbreviations found in records created by other agencies or libraries.
Otherwise, in other records, use the abbreviation on the item, a standard abbreviation in the language of the item (e.g., 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th in English; 1ra, 2a in Spanish; 1e, 2me, 3ème in French), or the regularized form 1., 2., etc.
On source: Second revised edition
250 ## $a 2nd rev. ed.
or 250 ## $a 2d rev. ed.
or 250 ## $a 2. rev. ed.
On source: Primera edición
250 ## $a 1. ed.
or 250 ## $a 1a ed.
or 250 ## $a 1ra ed.
On source: Deuxième édition
250 ## $a 2. éd.
or 250 ## $a 2e éd.
Bibliographic Description–Series Numbering
1) Found abbreviations. If an ordinal number in any language is already abbreviated on the item being cataloged, record that abbreviated form.
On source: 2ème série, numéro 3
4XX $a Dossier de recherche ; $v 2ème sér., no 3
2) Words or roman numerals.
For the numbering of the series (AACR2 1.6G1) and numbering of a serial (AACR2 12.3B1):
a) Record English ordinal numerals as 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.
b) Record non-English ordinal numerals as 1., 2., 3., etc.
Bibliographic Description–All Other Areas
Record the ordinal numeral as found on the item.
245 $a Studies in history. $n Second series, $p Middle Ages
1) Corporate name headings. Use the conventional English form of the ordinal numeral (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) in the addition to a heading for a meeting (AACR2 24.7B2) and in the addition to the heading for a successive legislature (AACR2 24.21D). Otherwise, record the ordinal numeral as found.
2) Uniform titles
a) Use the conventional English form of the ordinal numeral (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) or the conventional form of the non-English ordinal numeral (1., 2., 3., etc.) when the ordinal numeral appears in a dependent title (AACR2 25.6A2).
b) Use the conventional English form of the ordinal numeral (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) in the heading for a numbered book of the Bible (AACR2 25.18A3).
c) In music uniform titles when ordinal numerals are being newly established (cf. LCRI 25.30C2 and LCRI 25.32A1), use the conventional English form (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) or the conventional non-English form (1., 2., 3., etc.) according to the context, except where a pattern of usage of ordinal numerals in a different form already exists. Where such a pattern exists, change existing uniform titles to conform to one of the above conventional forms when most or all of the headings involved are being changed for another reason; otherwise continue to follow the existing pattern.
d) Otherwise, record the ordinal numeral as found.
3) Added entry for alternate form of title proper. Use the conventional English form of the ordinal numeral (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) or the conventional form of the non-English ordinal numeral (1., 2., 3., etc.) when substituting the ordinal numeral for the word or a roman numeral in the title proper (LCRI 21.30J).