Library of Congress Rule Interpretations


Appendix A: Capitalization



A.2.  Headings for Persons, Places, and Corporate Bodies


A.2A.  General rule   

Neither AACR2 nor the Chicago Manual of Style provides detailed guidance on capitalization of "little words" in English corporate names.  The Chicago Manual of Style rule for titles (7.123) is also applied by the University of Chicago Press to corporate names.  The list below, derived from the same rule, is provided in order to maintain consistency for certain common words.  In other cases, use judgment.


Pronouns: capitalize


Forms of the verb "to be": capitalize


"To" in infinitives: lowercase


Coordinating conjunctions ("and," "but," "or," etc.): lowercase


Subordinating conjunctions ("although," "as," "if," etc.): capitalize


Articles: lowercase


Prepositions: lowercase


On revising a heading that does not conform to these guidelines, update the name authority record and any MARC bibliographic records.



A.4.  Title and Statement of Responsibility Area


A.4A. Title elements (general rule)



When the title begins with an introductory word used in apposition to the noun or noun phrase that follows it, capitalize both the introductory word and the word following.


Série Ecrivains du XXe siècle

Serie Estudios de literatura y pensamiento hispánicos

Reihe Deutsche Vergangenheit

Collana La sfera

Collection "L'aventure spirituelle"


A.4D. Titles proper beginning with an article


A.4D1.  [Formerly A.4F1]   

Introductory Word

If the title of the part begins with an introductory word used in apposition to the noun or noun phrase that follows, follow the guidelines in LCRI A.4A1.


Publicaciones estadísticas.  Serie Estudios económicos

Bibliothèque française. B, Série Etudes littéraires



A.7.  Publication, Distribution, Etc., Area  


A.7A.  General rule   


If the entity named in the publisher statement is the title of a serial, capitalize it according to the rules for corporate bodies although elsewhere in the record (e.g., in an added entry) it is capitalized according to the rules for titles.


A.15. Place Names


A.15A.  Geographic features, regions, etc.   

The scope of the term "West" in rule A.15A1 is repeated below with additional examples.

West; the Occident; Western world; occidental (adjective); western Europe (but Western Europe when referring to the political division); the West, Far West, Middle West, Midwest (U.S.); western, far western, Midwestern


Zoogeographic Regions

Capitalize the names of the following zoogeographic regions:









A.20. Names of Documents   


1)  For collections of laws, it is sometimes difficult to tell whether the title used in the publication represents a single legislative act or is only a publication title formulated by an editor, publisher, etc.  In these cases, consider that a formal or conventional name of a legislative act is not involved (whether or not it actually is) and use routine upper- and lower-casing.


2)  For documents such as plans or statements of policy, use routine upper- and lower-casing if there is any doubt about the formality or conventionality of the name.



A.25. Scientific Names of Plants and Animals   


When two names are given enclosed within parentheses and separated by a colon, generally, capitalize both names since this method of presentation usually indicates names of divisions that are capitalized.  (In transcription, retain the colon but without a space on either side.)


Systematics of the Neotropical characoid genus Curimatopsis (Pisces:Characoidei) / by …



A.31. Hyphenated Compounds   


If the rules require the capitalization of a hyphenated compound that begins with "Anti- ," "Inter- ," "Trans- ," etc., apply A.31B and lowercase the second element (unless some other rules require its capitalization).












A.33. General Rule    


Below are some languages not specifically dealt with in rules A.34-A.52 nor in LCRI A.53-A.54, for which a guide for capitalization is needed.


Breton: Follow the rules for French


Galician : Follow the rules for Spanish


Georgian: Follow the rules in appendix A.34 for languages without a capitalization system


Occitan: Follow the rules for French


Mongolian: Follow the rules for English


Non-Slavic, Cyrillic languages: For all such languages except Azerbaijani, Moldavian, and Mongolian, follow the rules for Russian.  For Azerbaijani, Moldavian, and Mongolian, follow the rules for English


Vietnamese: For Vietnamese corporate bodies, capitalize the first word and all proper nouns in the name



A.34. Capitalization of Romanized Headings and Titles   


For Hebrew, always lowercase the initial letter of the article when it is romanized.