22.1B Personal Name Heading Access Points in Name Authority and Bibliographic Records
These guidelines appear also in LCRI 1.0C
a) Name portion of heading
If the name of a person consists of or contains initials, input a period after an initial if it is certain that the letter is an initial. In case of doubt, do not input a period.
100 1# $aEliot, T. S.
100 0# $aH. D.
If the name consists of separate letters that are presumed not to be initials, omit or include periods according to the predominant usage of the person.
100 0# $aX Y Z
If the name contains two or more forenames represented by initials, consists entirely of initials, or consists entirely of separate letters that are not initials, input a single space between the initials/letters in all cases.
100 1# $aEliot, T. S.
100 0# $aH. D.
100 0# $aX Y Z
b) "Additions" to name headings
With initials, include periods unless the author's predominant usage makes it clear that the author omits them.
Do not leave spaces between single initials/letters.
100 1# $aBrown, G. B.,$cF.I.P.S.
Treat an abbreviation consisting of more than a single letter as if it were a distinct word, separating it with a space from preceding and succeeding words or initials/letters.
100 1# $aBrown, G. B.,$cPh. D.
2) Names with portions abbreviated or missing. If a part of a name is abbreviated (two or more letters present as opposed to a single letter used as an initial) or if a forename is
missing from a name entered under surname, do not leave open space after the abbreviation or missing forename. Instead, insert, as appropriate,
100 1# $aTissot
(Add period at end in bibliographic record, but not in authority record)
100 1# $aCorpeleijn, W. F. Th.
100 1# $aJunager, Sv.-Aa.
(The hyphen reflects the usage of the language of the name)
a period and one space:
100 1# $aEnschedé, Ch. J.
a period and a comma:
100 1# $aJones, Th.,$d1910-
100 1# $aCalles Ll., Alfonso
100 1# $aDahlan Aman, Mohd.,$cHaji
(For these names, add period at end in bibliographic record, but not in authority record)
3) Surnames alone including prefixes/particles. If a name heading consisting entirely of one or more surnames also contains a separately written prefix/particle, see instructions in LCRI 22.5D.
4) Bibliographic description. Note that the spacing and punctuation conventions applied to personal names used in access points differ from those used in the descriptive portion of a bibliographic record; for the latter, see the section below: Other Parts of the
Bibliographic Record (General).
22.3. Choice Among Different Forms of the Same Name
Variant Forms Within One Item
If the name of an author appears in two or more forms in one work, apply the following:
1) If the name appears in two or more sources, once in the chief source and one or more times in other sources, choose the form appearing in the chief source.
title page: T.B. Smith
verso of t.p.: T. Basil Smith III
heading: 100 1# $a Smith, T. B. $q (T. Basil)
2) If the name does not appear in the chief source but does appear once in another prominent source (cf. 0.8) and one or more times in other sources, choose the form appearing in the prominent source.
verso of t.p.: R.J. Gottschall
page 239: Robert J. Gottschall
heading: 100 1# $a Gottschall, R. J. $q (Robert J.)
3) In all situations not covered by 1) or 2) above, choose the fullest form of name.
verso of t.p.: Victoria Galofre Neuto
page 1 of cover: Victoria Galofre
100 1# $a
Note: Do not choose for the heading a form
appearing in the following sources if the name appears prominently elsewhere in
the item: 1) the copyright statement; 2) the colophon for items published in the
countries of the former
22.16D. Other persons of religious vocation
Add a title, term of address, etc., to persons of religious vocation entered under given name, etc., only if the title, term of address, etc., appears with the name in the chief sources of information in items by the person or in reference sources if the person is not an author.
Ignore Japanese titles of priests unless they are fixed as an integrated part of the name.
Establishing New Headings That Do Not Conflict
Apply the optional provision. This means adding a date whenever it is known.
Post Nineteenth Century Persons
For persons living in the twentieth or twenty first century or any person who has died since Dec. 31, 1900, the date upon which the heading is based should be a precise one. Specifically, add the date to headings for these persons only if it falls into any of the following categories:
1) The person is still living and the year of birth is known ("1942- ").
2) The person is no longer living and the years of birth and death are known ("1900-1981").
3) The person is no longer living (or there is reasonable doubt that the person is living based on the average life span) and only the year of birth is known ("b. 1900").
4) The person is no longer living and only the date of death is known ("d. 1981").
Note: If a date is a specific non-Gregorian year, add the Gregorian equivalent to the heading even if this means using a date in the form "1921 or 2."
Pre-Twentieth Century Persons
For pre-twentieth century persons, less precise dates may be used. Consult the examples under 22.17A for guidance. Note one detail about the use of "flourished" dates: "Flourished" dates acceptable for addition to headings for pre-twentieth century persons normally express a span of years of activity. A single year "fl." may be used only in exceptional cases, as when a reference source itself designates the date in this way or there is one publication or other event in the person's life known to be the single or at least primary basis for a single year.
***Optionally, add death dates to headings that have open birth dates.***
22.17-22.20. Additions to Distinguish Identical Names
If a personal name heading conflicts with another heading, resolve the conflict as follows, in this order of preference:
1) Add to the heading being established
a) the full form of a name represented by an initial or abbreviation in the form chosen for the heading if the full form is available in the item being cataloged (22.18);
new author: A. Jackson
(New author's full name, Arnold Elrod Jackson, is available)
heading for new author: Jackson, A. (Arnold)
b) the date (22.17) other than a "flourished" or "century" date; do not go beyond making a routine telephone call to a place within the continental U.S. or searching the catalogers' reference collection to determine the date;
established heading: Brue, James E.
new author: James E. Brue
(New author's birth date, 1942, is available)
heading for new author: Brue, James E., 1942-
Note: If both the full form represented by an initial and a date are available, add both.
c) a term of address, etc., that appears with the name in a prominent source (cf. 0.8) in items by the person or with the name in headings in reference sources (22.19B). (For pre-20th century persons, see LCRI 22.19);
established heading: Brown, George
new author: George Brown
(New author's statement of responsibility: by the Rev. George Brown)
heading for new author: Brown, George, Rev.
established heading: Webb, William
new author: William Webb
(New author's statement of responsibility: by William Webb of
heading for new author: Webb, William, of
Note: If either the full form of the name represented in the heading by an initial or a date becomes available later (or both become available), do not change the existing heading just to replace the term of address, etc.
d) a forename or surname or the initials of a forename or surname not represented by an initial in the form of name chosen for the heading;
established heading: Clapper, John
new author: John Clapper
(New author's full name, John Samuel Clapper, is available)
heading for new author: Clapper, John (John Samuel)
established heading: Gelfund, David
new author: David Gelfund
(New author's full name, David A. Gelfund, is available)
heading for new author: Gelfund, David (David A.)
established heading: Smith, Elizabeth
new author: Elizabeth Smith
(New author's full name, Ann Elizabeth Smith, is available)
heading for new author: Smith, Elizabeth (Ann Elizabeth)
established heading: Oliver, Joan
new author: Joan Oliver
(New author's full name, Joan Oliver i Puigdomènech, is available)
heading for new author: Oliver, Joan (Oliver i Puigdomènech)
established heading: Jones, Mrs.
new author: Mrs. Jones
(New author's forenames, Ella Gertrude, are available)
heading for new author: Jones, Mrs. (Ella Gertrude)
Note: If the full form of a name represented in the heading by an initial or a date or a term of address, etc., becomes available later, do not change the existing heading just to replace the unused forename or unused surname.
e) a full forename when the forename chosen for the heading is a nickname;
established heading: Jorgen, Dick
new author: Dick Jorgen
(New author's full name, Richard Clark Jorgen, is available)
heading for new author: Jorgen, Dick (Richard Clark)
Note: If the full form of name represented in the heading by an initial or a date or a term of address, etc., becomes available, do not change the existing heading just to replace the unused full forename.
f) a "flourished" date (22.17);
Note: 1) Do not add "flourished" dates to headings for persons living in the twentieth century even if the heading conflicts. 2) "Flourished" dates acceptable for addition to headings normally express a span of years of activity. A single year after "fl." may be used only in exceptional cases, as when a reference source itself designates the date in this way or there is one publication or other event in the person's life known to be the single or at least primary basis for a single year.
g) a century date (22.17).
Note: Do not add a "century" date to persons living in the twentieth century even if the heading conflict
2) Change the established heading according to the order of preference given in 1) above.
3) Apply 22.20.
Note: If the full form of a name represented by an initial in the heading or a date or a term of address, etc., becomes available later for one of these names, establish this name separately. (Do not establish one of these names separately if only an unused forename or unused forename initial or unused surname or unused full forename becomes available later.)
22.18. Fuller Forms
For names that conflict, see 22.17-22.20.
For references, apply the provisions of LCRI 26.
Apply the optional provision. This means adding within parentheses the full form of an initial or abbreviation used in the heading when the full form is known with certainty. (In some cases of doubt, do not add the full form.) Do not search solely to discover this information if there is no conflict.
When adding the full form, observe the following guidelines:
1) If the initial occurs in the forename portion of the surname-forename heading, give in the parenthetical addition not only the full form but also the other forenames that appear in the forename portion of the heading. However, do not include a particle or prefix that appears in the forename portion. Place the parenthetical addition directly after the forename portion and before any other addition (e.g., date, title).
100 1# $a Flam, F. A. $q (Floyd A.)
100 1# $a Smith, T. B. $q (T. Basil)
100 1# $a Wright, G. H. von $q (George Henrik), $d 1916-
100 1# $a Beruete y Moret, A. de $q (Aureliano), $d 1876-1922
100 1# $a Jaina, Pra. $q (Prākaśa)
("Pra." is the systematically romanized form of a single nonroman initial)
100 1# $a Smith, Arthur D. $q (Arthur Dwight), $d 1907-
100 1# $a Bvindi, Francis A. A. L. $q. (Francis A. A. Lovemore), $d 1955-
2) If the initial occurs in the name entered as a given name, etc., give in the parenthetical addition all the names that appear in the heading. Place the parenthetical addition directly after the given name and before any other addition (e.g., date, title).
100 1# $a A. Samad Said $q (Abdul Samad Said), $d 1935-
100 1# $a M. Alicia $q (Mary Alicia), $c Sister, S.C.N.
3) For names that are represented in the heading by an abbreviation rather than an initial (cf. LCRI 22.1B), give in the parenthetical addition the full name for the particular person.
100 1# $a Brownridge, Wm. $q (William)
100 1# $a Fdez.-Rivera García, Manuel $q (Fernández-Rivera García)
1) Do not apply 22.18A to a name in which the letters of the forename initials used in the heading differ from the letters used in the full forename.
100 1# $a Reḍḍi, Vai. Si. Vi., $d 1926-
100 1# $a Reḍḍi, Vai. Si. Vi. $q (Emmanuru Cinna Venkata), $d 1926-
100 1# $a Jaina, Pi.
100 1# $a Jaina, Pi. $q (Prākaśa)
100 1# $a Ajgaonkar, G. F.
100 1# $a Ajgaonkar, G. F. $q (Gundu Phatu)
2) Do not apply 22.18A to a heading for a married woman that consists of her husband's surname and initial(s).
100 1# $a Renfro, Roy E., $c Mrs.
400 1# $a Renfro, Helen Kay
100 1# $a Renfro, Roy E. $q (Roy Edward), $c Mrs.
22.19. Distinguishing Terms
Term of Address, Etc., for Pre-20th Century Persons
For persons who lived before, or primarily before, 1901 and whose headings conflict, in the absence of firm dates resolve the conflict with one of the following additions:
1) a term of address
2) a descriptive phrase
3) "flourished" date(s) (cf. LCRI 22.17-22.20)
4) "century" date(s) (cf. LCRI 22.17-22.20)
Descriptive phrases may include titles of position or office, initials of an academic degree, and initials denoting membership in an organization, as well as more general phrases describing the person.
In general, prefer terms of address over descriptive phrases, descriptive phrases over "flourished" date(s), "flourished" date(s) over "century" date(s). (BL practice: The British Library will generally use "flourished" or "century" dates in preference to terms of address; do not change such headings to conform to LC practice.) Also, prefer terms of address and descriptive phrases appearing with the name on the chief source of information of the item being cataloged over terms of address and descriptive phrases found elsewhere in the item, and prefer terms of address and descriptive phrases found in the item over those found in reference sources.
When a descriptive phrase is long or complex and would result in an awkward addition to the heading, prefer the "flourished" or "century" date(s).
In general, when choosing terms of address or descriptive phrases to resolve conflicts, use the one that provides the most specific and distinctive identification of the person.
Make the additions to names in which the entry element is a given name, etc. (22.19A), or a surname (22.19B).
When making the addition to a given name, etc., add the term of address or descriptive phrase within parentheses. When making the addition to a surname, use a comma to separate the name and the term of address or descriptive phrase.
a merchant of
signed on p. 7: T.H.
heading: 100 0# $a T. H. $c (Merchant of York)
t.p.: T.L., a person of quality
heading: 100 0# $a T. L. $c (Person of quality)
t.p.: Will Dyer
on p. 12: wool merchant
heading: 100 0# $a Dyer, Will, $c wool merchant
t.p.: William Jones
British Library General Catalogue of Printed Books to 1975: Jones (William) of
100 0# $a Jones, William, $c of
t.p.: Jean Wallace, eldest daughter of the said Alexander Wallace
heading: 100 0# $a Wallace, Jean, $d 18th cent.
Not: 100 0# $a Wallace, Jean, $c eldest daughter of the said Alexander Wallace
When no other means is available for distinguishing between a musician and another person with the same name for whom a heading is already established (including changing the existing heading), a word designating a musician's occupation, such as "violinist," "keyboard player," or "soprano," may be used as a qualifier. The term used should be in English and in the form of an agent noun, e.g., "oboist" for one listed as playing the oboe.
Change a currently undifferentiated heading to one with such a qualifier when it is being used on a new bibliographic record. If a qualifier later appears to give a seriously inaccurate characterization of the musician, change the heading by 1) the addition of a date, 2) the addition of a fuller form of name, or 3) changing the qualifier.
When the heading for a mortal mentioned in the Bible conflicts, and the conflict cannot be resolved by the addition of another qualifier (e.g., 22.8A1, 22.13A), add in parentheses the term "Biblical" plus the designation of the major Biblical category that fits the person (e.g., "(Biblical prophet)," "(Biblical patriarch)." If the person does not fit one of the major Biblical categories, use "(Biblical figure)."
Library of Congress Rule Interpretations
(c)2004 by the Library of Congress except within the