Selected Library of Congress Rule Interpretations for Chapter 1

 

1.0. General Rules 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  • What Is Being Cataloged?
  • Type of Issuance
  • Monograph vs. Serial
  • Situations Requiring Further Consideration

1)      Electronic resources

2)      Resources issued in loose-leaf format

3)      Conference publications

4)      Supplements

5)      Republications

6)      Printed travel guides

7)      Certain other printed resources

  • Edition or Copy of Monograph
  • Initial Articles

 

 

 

What Is Being Cataloged?

 

This section represents LC/PCC practice.

Before creating a bibliographic record, determine what is being cataloged. Answer these two questions:

 

1) What aspect of the bibliographic resource will the bibliographic record represent?

 

   a) A resource may not be part of a larger resource and so the bibliographic record can represent only that resource.

  

b) A resource may be part of a larger resource (one part of a multipart item, one

analytic of a monographic series, one of several separate resources on a Web site, etc.). The bibliographic record could represent the "smaller" or the "larger" resource.

 

   c) A resource may not be part of a larger resource but local cataloging policies may specify creating a bibliographic record for a made-up larger resource of materials that are not published, distributed, or produced together

 

 

2) What is the type of issuance of that aspect?

 

a) See both the definitions from AACR2 appendix D and the diagram "Type of Issuance"

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

b) If the situation is still not clear, then consider the guidelines given in two other

sections of this LCRI: "Monograph vs. Serial" and "Situations Requiring Further

Consideration."

 

   c) See the section "Edition or Copy of Monograph" for guidelines about creating separate records for monographs.

 

 

Type of Issuance

 

This section represents LC/PCC practice.

"Type of issuance" refers to how the bibliographic resource is published, distributed, or

produced and, if it is updated, how it is updated. There are three types of issuance:

monograph, serial, and integrating resource. (See the definitions from AACR2 appendix D and diagram above.)

 

Monograph: A bibliographic resource that is complete in one part or intended to be completed in a finite number of parts. The separate parts may or may not be numbered.

Use rules in chapter 1 and the chapter(s) representing the carrier.

 

Serial: A continuing resource issued in a succession of discrete parts, usually bearing

numbering, that has no predetermined conclusion.

Use rules in chapter 1, chapter 12, and the chapter(s) representing the carrier.

 

Integrating resource: A bibliographic resource that is added to or changed by means of

updates that do not remain discrete and are integrated into the whole. Integrating resources can be finite or continuing.

Use rules in chapter 1, chapter 12, and the chapter(s) representing the carrier.

 

In case of doubt about type of issuance, apply the following guidelines:

 

If the decision has been narrowed down to "serial vs. integrating resource" and there is no

information about the type of issuance but the resource has wording that refers to "

edition," determine if that wording represents a numeric designation or an edition

statement. If it is a numeric designation, catalog the resource as a serial; if it is an

edition statement, catalog it as an integrating resource.

 

If the decision has been narrowed down to "monograph vs. integrating resource" and there is no information about the type of issuance, catalog the resource as an integrating resource if there is a likelihood the resource will be updated (i.e., assume the updates will not be discrete); catalog as a monograph if there is no indication that the resource will ever be updated.

 

 

Monograph vs. Serial

 

 

This section represents LC/PCC practice.

If the bibliographic resource to be cataloged and/or other bibliographic records in the

database indicate that the resource has been or will be published in more than one part that will remain discrete or be published more than once, consider the combination of

characteristics below in deciding whether to catalog the resource as a single-part/multipart monograph or as a serial. Note the exception for publications of limited-duration activities at the end of this section.

 

1) Frequency of publication

 

a) If the resource has a stated frequency of publication (in the title proper, in the

preface, etc.), catalog as a serial.

 

b) If the resource is published in new editions, catalog as a serial if the frequency of the editions is one to two years; give greater consideration to continuing to catalog as monographs if the editions are published three or more years apart.

 

2) Presence and type of numbering. Although the presence of numbering is no longer part of the definition of a serial, most serials except for unnumbered monographic series will have numeric, alphabetic, and/or chronological designations.

 

a) If the resource has a numeric/alphabetic (e.g., volume 1; tome 3; Heft A) or

chronological designation (e.g., 2001; June 2002; 2002-1) in the title proper or elsewhere in the resource and it is likely that the resource doesn't have a predetermined conclusion, catalog as a serial.

 

b) If the resource has acquired a numeric, alphabetic, or chronological designation after the first issue, recatalog as a serial.

 

c) If the resource is published in frequent editions (see 1)b) above), it must have a

designation (e.g., date, numeric edition statement) that could be used as numbering in order to be cataloged as a serial.

 

 

3) Likelihood of no predetermined conclusion. If the resource indicates that there is no

predetermined conclusion, catalog as a serial. If the resource doesn't have such

information, assume that a resource that has either of the following characteristics is a

serial if it also meets the criteria given above for frequency and numbering.

 

a) Title proper implies continuing publication. If the title proper includes words that imply continuing publication (e.g., "Advances in ...;" "Developments in ...;" "Progress in ..."), catalog as a serial. If the issues also have analyzable titles, analyze the issues.

 

b) A subscription can be placed for the resource.

 

Publications of limited-duration activities: Also use the serial rules in chapter 12 for the

cataloging of certain resources related to limited-duration activities provided that these

resources have some characteristics of serials: successive issues, numbering, and perhaps

frequency. Examples include a daily bulletin issued during a non-recurring meeting, a

quarterly activities report of a project, and an annual report of an expedition. Do not

recatalog records for such resources created before Dec. 1, 2002.

 

 

Situations Requiring Further Consideration

 

 

This section represents LC/PCC practice.

 

1) Electronic resources. If the resource was/is published in print, make the decision to

catalog the electronic resource as a serial, integrating resource, or monograph based on the electronic resource itself, not on how it was issued in print. Information about the planned type of issuance may be given in the resource's "read me" files, etc.

 

a) Catalog as serial:

 

i) Remote access resource: a resource having material added as discrete, usually numbered issues (an "issue" can consist of a single article). The resource might contain a listing of back volumes, back issues, images of journal covers for sequential issues; only current issue may be available as a separate issue.

 

ii) Direct access resource: a resource whose carrier is issued successively (this situation is analogous to a print serial whose latest volume supersedes any earlier volumes). Note that such resources can be mounted on networks such that the successive issuance of the carrier is not observable to the cataloger or end user; when contributing cataloging in a shared environment (e.g., bibliographic utility), the record should reflect

the carrier and type of issuance as published.

 

b) Catalog as an integrating resource:

 

i) Remote access resource: a resource having material added, changed, or deleted via updates that do not remain discrete (e.g., might contain articles from more than one journal).

 

ii) Direct access resource: no direct access resource can be issued as an integrating resource (assumption that would be changed if proven incorrect).

 

c) Catalog as a monograph:

 

Remote or direct access resource: a resource complete in one part or intended to be complete in a finite number of parts, including those resources that are corrected via "errata" information.

 

2) Resources issued in loose-leaf format. When deciding to catalog a bibliographic resource issued in loose-leaf format as a serial, an integrating resource, or a monograph, make the decision based on the type of issuance of the primary component. If there is a stated frequency, determine if the frequency applies to the primary component or to any updates. Note that a bibliographic resource issued in loose-leaf format is not automatically to be cataloged as an updating loose-leaf.

 

a) Catalog as a serial:

 

i) Resource otherwise meeting definition of serial whose issues remain discrete even though they are to be stored in a binder (as successive sections in the binder or subdivided/filed into separate sections in the binder)

 

ii) Resource whose binders are issued successively even though the contents filed into each binder may be updated in integrating fashion until the next binder is issued

 

b) Catalog as an integrating resource:

 

Resource consisting of a binder or binders in

which pages are added, removed, or replaced until the next edition of the resource is published or until complete

 

c) Catalog as a monograph:

 

Resource complete as issued or intended to be complete in a

finite number of parts

 

3) Conference publications. Conference publications typically consist of the minutes,

proceedings, etc., of a regularly-held meeting of one or more corporate bodies or are

publications that contain the proceedings, etc., of ongoing topical conferences, symposia,

or colloquia.

 

a) Catalog as serials ongoing conference publications that are being cataloged for the first time, unless they are covered by the exclusions in paragraph b) below. Consider a conference publication to be "ongoing" if words such as "first" or "annual" appear in conjunction with the name of the conference or the title of the publication or if multiple successive issues show that the publication is continuing in nature.

 

b) Catalog as monographs those conference publications that are not ongoing or that:

 

i) have a title that is unique to each issue appearing on the chief source,

 

and/or

 

ii) are issued as part of a numbered monographic series.

 

Once the decision to catalog as a monograph or as a serial is determined based on the first —or earliest held—issue of a conference publication, prefer to retain that decision. When there is a change in the main entry for a conference publication cataloged as a serial, consider the publication to be "new" and decide whether to catalog it as a monograph or as a serial according to the above criteria.

 

4) Supplements. If the supplement can be used independently from the main resource, create a separate bibliographic record for it based on its type of issuance. For other situations, give a note about the material on the record for the main resource.

 

525 ## $a Kept up-to-date by supplements.

 

Do not catalog a dependent supplement as a serial just because it has a stated frequency (e.g., an annual supplement to a monograph).

 

5) Republications.

 

a) Republication of a serial:

 

Generally, catalog a republication of a serial as a serial. However, catalog the following as a monograph:

 

·        A republication of a single issue or a limited number of issues

·        A collection of bibliographically unrelated serials or articles.

 

b) Republication of a monograph:

 

Catalog as a monograph.

 

c) Republication of an integrating resource:

 

Catalog as a monograph or as an integrating resource based on the type of issuance of the republication.

 

6) Printed travel guides. LC practice since 2001: When deciding whether to catalog a printed travel guide as a serial or as a monograph and there is no information about the likelihood that it will be continued indefinitely, apply the following guidelines:

 

a) Generally, catalog a travel guide as a serial if it is general in scope because such guides usually are continued indefinitely. "General in scope" means the guide contains a variety of current information, e.g., about where to go, where to stay, and what to do.

Apply this policy to state, region, or country guides for the United States, to region or country guides for other countries, and to guides for major cities. If a numeric or chronological designation is not available, supply a chronological designation based on the publishing or copyright date (cf. LCRI 12.3C1).

 

b) In case of doubt, catalog as a monograph.

 

7) LC practice: Certain other printed resources

 

After determining that the printed bibliographic resource

 

  • is published in successive parts, and
  • there is no information that the resource will be complete in a finite number of parts,
  •  

and

 

·        it isn't one of the resources noted in 1)-6) above,

 

generally follow the decision to catalog as a monograph or as a serial for the specific categories in the two lists below. If the printed resource isn't represented by one of the categories below, catalog as a serial.

 

a) Catalog as monographs:

 

o       books "issued in parts" (fascicles)

o       cartographic materials

o       censuses

o       encyclopedias

o       hearings

o       publications of five-year plans

 

b) Catalog as serials:

 

o       alumni directories

o       college catalogs

o       court reports

o       sales/auction catalogs

o       session laws

 

 

 

Edition or Copy of Monograph

 

This section represents LC/PCC practice.

 

When a new manifestation of an item reaches the cataloger, the question arises as to whether this is a copy of an earlier manifestation or an edition separate from the earlier

manifestation needing its own bibliographic record. Consult the definition of "Edition" in

Appendix D. If, according to this definition, two items are known to be two different

editions, create separate records for each.

 

Also, consider that a new edition is involved whenever

 

1) there is an explicit indication of changes (including corrections) of content; or,

 

2) anything in the following areas or elements of areas differs from one bibliographic record to another: title and statement of responsibility area, edition area, the extent statement of the physical description area, and series area. (For an exception relating to CIP items, see below.)

 

Whenever the question relates to the publication, distribution, etc., area or to ISBNs,

consider that the item is a copy if the only variation is one or more of the following:

 

1) a difference in the printing or copyright date when there is also a publication date;

 

2) a minor variation in an entity's name. There are relatively few examples of this

phenomenon, which arises when a publisher uses multiple forms concurrently. For example, "Duckworth" and "G. Duckworth" and "St. Martin's" and "St. Martin's Press" have been used at the same time by these publishers. A genuine name change, even if minor, should not be considered as a variation;

 

3) the addition, deletion, or change of an ISBN;

 

4) a difference in binding; or,

 

5) a difference in the edition statement or the series whenever the item is a CIP book issued by the publisher in both a hardbound and a softbound version.

 

For variations in the publication, distribution, etc., area not covered by the preceding

statements, consider that the item is a new edition. Noteworthy examples for the

publication, distribution, etc., area are variations involving different places or entities

transcribed or any difference in an entity's name that is suggestive of either a name change or a different entity. Examples of the latter case are the many instances of a sequence of names used, with one used for some time and another at some point replacing the first. For example, "Harper & Brothers" becomes "Harper & Row"; "Doubleday, Doran" becomes "Doubleday." N.B. Rare books in general follow the same policy, with exceptions as necessary.

 

 

 

Initial Articles

 

This section represents LC/PCC practice.

Transcribe initial articles as found: in the title and statement of responsibility area (see

LCRI 21.30J for the guidelines on setting the non-filing indicator in relation to the title

proper on MARC records), edition area, series area, and note area. For the publication,

distribution, etc., area, generally do not transcribe articles preceding the name of the

publisher, distributor, etc.

 

 

 

1.0A. Sources of information

 

 

1.0A3. Chief source of information   

When the item is a bilingual dictionary or other work not involving "original language" or translation or it is a work that does not contain words (e.g., some music), select the

source in the language or script of the issuing body. This means using the criterion of the

issuing body after considering sections ii)(a) and ii) (b) of paragraph a), but before

considering section ii) (c) of paragraph a).

 

 

 

1.0C. Punctuation/Spacing   

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS for LCRI 1.0C

 

Introduction

 

1) General

2) Manual mode

3) Computerized mode

4) Application

 

Access Points in Name Authority and Bibliographic Records (General)

 

1) Punctuation/spacing within headings

a) Spaces following periods

b) Ampersand

c) Parenthesis

d) Quotation mark

e) Open date

 

2) Ending mark of punctuation

a) Name authority records

b) Bibliographic records

 

Personal Name Heading Access Points in Name Authority and Bibliographic Records

 

1) Initials/letters

 

a) Name portion of heading

Periods

Spaces

 

b) "Additions" to name headings

Periods

Spaces

 

2) Names with portions abbreviated or missing

 

3) Surnames alone including prefixes/particles

 

4) Bibliographic description

 

Corporate Name Heading Access Points, Including Meetings, in Name Authority and

Bibliographic Records

 

1) Quotation marks

2) Initials

3) Abbreviations

4) Place name at end

5) Numerical or alphabetical designation

6) Dash or hyphen

7) Year in conference name

8) Series of words

 

Bibliographic Linking Entries

 

Other Parts of the Bibliographic Record (General)

 

1) Elements that are not initials, etc.

2) Initials, etc.

3) Year in the name of a conference

4) Dash in a title

5) Variant title

 

Punctuation in Titles Proper that is also ISBD Punctuation

 

Punctuation at the End of Fields 245, 250, 260, 300, 310/321, 362

 

1) Fields 245, 250

2) Field 260

3) Field 300

4) Fields 310/321

5) Field 362

 

Punctuation in Notes

 

1) Additional information expected

2) Ending mark of punctuation (5XX)

 

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Introduction

 

1) General. This is an overall statement related to punctuation/spacing conventions. For

convenience, it addresses in one place conventions applicable to access points in

bibliographic and name authority records and those applicable to other parts of the

bibliographic record. Also as a matter of convenience, statements on punctuation/spacing are being retained at their relevant location throughout the LCRIs. As appropriate, there are references to these other LCRIs; in the other LCRIs there are references to this LCRI.

 

2) Manual mode. In the card catalog environment there were spacing and punctuation

conventions appropriate to that environment. Blank spaces were used when it was thought data would be written in, for example following an open date. In general, two spaces were used between data elements in the "body of the entry" and to separate the units of headings. Double punctuation was to be avoided.

 

3) Computerized mode. The computerized environment calls for a different set of conventions. Much of the data in a MARC record are explicitly identified by content designation (tags, indicators, subfield codes). Upon output or display, the content designation is used to determine various display conventions including spacing.

 

Internally there is often no spacing at all but instead content designation, particularly subfield codes. In displays that do not show content designation, spacing is substituted. How much spacing is at the discretion of a particular system. In the displays illustrated in this LCRI, one space is substituted for a subfield code. However, for data that are not subfielded (e.g, the constituent elements of a corporate name serving as a qualifier, the unsubfielded units in a linking entry field (hereafter "linking entry"), unsubfielded statements or data in the title and statement of responsibility area), it is necessary to establish the spacing to be input. The computerized environment is oriented to a single-space convention throughout authority and bibliographic records.

 

Note that some systems display a space on either side of a subfield code to aid the

comprehension of subfielded data. Such "spaces" are also a function of display, i.e., they

are not carried internally. In the examples in this LCRI, no spaces are used on either side

of a subfield code to insure that there is no confusion about the spacing convention being

illustrated.

 

 

110 1# $aCalifornia.$bDept. of Water Resources.

 

display: California. Dept. of Water Resources.

 

130 #0 $aBulletin (California. Dept. of Water Resources)

 

display: Bulletin (California. Dept. of Water Resources)

 

490 1# $aBiblioteca de arte hispánico ;$v8.$aArtes applicadas ;$v1

 

display: Biblioteca de arte hispánico ; 8. Artes applicadas ; 1

 

700 1# $aEliot, T. S.$q(Thomas Stearns),$d1888- 1965.$tCocktail party.

 

display:  Eliot, T. S. (Thomas Stearns), 1888-1965. Cocktail party.

 

780 00 $aLibrary of Congress. Division for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.$tNews

 

display: Library of Congress. Division for the Blind and Physically Handicapped. News

 

785 00 $tJournal of polymer science. Part A, General papers

 

display: Journal of polymer science. Part A, General papers

 

The examples show a display form meant only to illustrate suppression of subfields on

display. How data are actually displayed is at the discretion of individual systems and

agencies.

 

 

4) Application. To the extent that a particular system allows, apply the conventions stated

in this and other LCRIs in lieu of any other explicit or implicit instructions in the rules

(e.g., 1.1G3 regarding spacing following a period for certain cases of items without a

collective title).

 

 

 

Access Points in Name Authority and Bibliographic Records (General)

 

Follow these general conventions applicable to MARC 21 fields 1XX, 4XX, 5XX in authority records and fields 1XX, 240, 246/247, 4XX, 6XX, 70X-75X, and 8XX in bibliographic records.

 

For bibliographic linking entries (MARC 21 fields 76X-78X) see the section: Bibliographic Linking Entries.

 

1) Punctuation/spacing within headings. Use internal punctuation to set off unambiguously the units of headings or reference tracings (including name/title portions of name/title fields). The marks of punctuation for this purpose are a period ( . ), a comma ( , ), a quotation mark ( " ), a question mark ( ? ), an exclamation mark ( ! ), and a hyphen ( - ).

 

a) Spaces following periods. Leave one space after a period or other mark of ending punctuation (see 1) immediately above) that serves to separate units of access points. If the period or other mark of ending punctuation is followed by a subfield code, the space can be generated on display. If no subfield code follows, e.g., as in units of parenthetical qualifiers, input the space. See the examples above in the Introduction.

 

b) Ampersand. Input one space on either side of an ampersand or an ampersand equivalent used in a heading.

 

130 #0 $a R & D report (University of Texas at Austin. Research and Development Center for Teacher Education)

(Heading on name authority record)

 

130 0# $a America's favorite inns, B & Bs & small hotels. $pMiddle Atlantic.

(Heading on bibliographic record)

 

c) Parenthesis. If a unit of a heading or reference tracing other than the last ends in a closing parenthesis, input after the closing parenthesis the same punctuation, usually a period, that would be used if there were no parenthesis.

 

110 1# $aNew York (State).$bGovernor (1929-1932 : Roosevelt)

(Heading on either a bibliographic or name authority record)

 

110 2# $aCatholic Church.$bPope (1978- : John Paul II).$tRedemptor hominis.$lEnglish

(Heading on a name authority record)

 

400 1# $aSmith, A. G.$q(Albert Gray),$d1945-$tDiscovering Canada

(Reference on a name authority record)

 

d) Quotation mark. Use American-style double quotation marks instead of other forms of quotation marks. If a unit of a heading or reference tracing other than the last ends in a quotation mark, input a period or other mark of ending punctuation inside the quotation mark.

 

110 2# $aCasa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana "Benjamín Carrión."$bNúcleo de Bolívar

(Heading on a name authority record)

 

111 2# $aSimposio "Antropólogos y Misioneros: Posiciones Incompatibles?"$d(1985 :$cBogotá, Colombia)

(Heading on either a bibliographic or name authority record)

 

130 #0 $aCollection "Bibliothèque des matières premières."$pSérie "Energie"

(Heading on a name authority record)

 

710 2# $aName with "quote (qualifier and question mark)?"$tTitle.

(Heading on a bibliographic record)

 

e) Open date. Leave one space between an open date and any data that follow it within the same subfield.

 

110 1# $aVirginia.$bGovernor (2002- : Warner)

(Heading on either a bibliographic or name authority record)

 

When a subfield code immediately follows an open date do not leave a space

 

600 10 $aCapote, Truman,$d 1924-$tBreakfast at Tiffany's.

(Open date followed by a subfield code)

 

2) Ending mark of punctuation. For heading access points, an ending mark of punctuation is a period ( . ), closing parenthesis ( ) ), closing bracket ( ] ), quotation mark ( " ), question mark ( ? ), exclamation mark ( ! ), hyphen ( - ; usually used at the end of an open date).

 

a) Name authority records. Do not end headings or reference tracings with an ending mark of punctuation except when it is part of the data (e.g., a period in an abbreviation) or is called for by the cataloging rules (e.g., a parenthetical qualifier).

 

100 1# $aSmith, John

100 1# $aSmith, John A.

100 1# $aSmith, J. A.$q(John A.)

100 1# $aSmith, John,$db. 1648?

100 1# $aSmith, John,$d1924-

110 2# $aLibrary of Congress

110 1# $aNew York (State).$bGovernor (1929-1932 : Roosevelt)

110 2# $aMoskovskiĭ fotoklub "Novator"

130 #0 $aCollection "Bibliothèque des matières premières."$pSérie "Energie"

 

b) Bibliographic records. Except for a uniform title (field 240), a variant title (field 246), a former title (field 247), and 4XX series fields, end access points with either a period or other ending mark of punctuation. End a 240 uniform title, 246 variant title, 247 former title, and 4XX series with an ending mark of punctuation only when such a mark of punctuation is part of the data. Note that these guidelines relate to punctuation at the end of the data constituting an access point itself. Under certain circumstances, a field may actually end with MARC 21 subfield $4 (Relator code) or $5 (Institution to which field applies), in which case there is no punctuation at the end of the field.

 

100 1# $aSmith, John.

100 1# $aSmith, John A.

100 1# $aSmith, John,$db. 1648?

100 1# $aSmith, John,$d1924-

110 2# $aLibrary of Congress.

110 1# $aNew York (State).$bGovernor (1929-1932 : Roosevelt)

700 1# $aBrett, Jan,$d1949-$e ill.

700 1# $aDemus, Jorg,$d1928-$4prf

710 2# $aBeecham Choral Society.$4prf

710 2# $aRaymond Foye Editions,$edonor.$5DLC

 

Note that, as the last example shows, when a heading ends in a designation of function, it may also be followed by subfield $4 or $5 and the field itself does not end with punctuation.

 

When a heading ends in a quotation mark, place any mark of final punctuation that is also part of the data inside the quotation mark. Otherwise, place a period inside the mark of punctuation.

 

710 2# $aName with "quote (qualifier and question mark)?"

710 2# $aMoskovskiĭ gorodskoĭ klub "Kontakty-1."

830 #0 $aCollection "Bibliothèque des matières premières."$pSérie "Energie."

 

 

Personal Name Heading Access Points in Name Authority and Bibliographic Records

 

 

These guidelines appear also in LCRI 22.1B.

 

1) Initials/letters

 

a) Name portion of heading

 

Periods:

 

If the name of a person consists of or contains initials, input a period after an initial if it is certain that the letter is an initial. In case of doubt, do not input a period.

 

100 1# $aEliot, T. S.

100 0# $aH. D.

 

If the name consists of separate letters that are presumed not to be initials, omit or include periods according to the predominant usage of the person.

 

100 0# $aX Y Z

 

Spaces:

 

If the name contains two or more forenames represented by initials, consists entirely of initials, or consists entirely of separate letters that are not initials, input a single space between the initials/letters in all cases.

 

100 1# $aEliot, T. S.

100 0# $aH. D.

100 0# $aX Y Z

 

b) "Additions" to name headings

 

Periods:

 

With initials, include periods unless the author's predominant usage makes it clear that the author omits them.

 

Spaces:

 

Do not leave spaces between single initials/letters.

 

100 1# $aBrown, G. B.,$cF.I.P.S.

 

Treat an abbreviation consisting of more than a single letter as if it were a distinct word, separating it with a space from preceding and succeeding words or initials/letters.

 

100 1# $aBrown, G. B.,$cPh. D.

 

 

2) Names with portions abbreviated or missing. If a part of a name is abbreviated (two or more letters present as opposed to a single letter used as an initial) or if a forename is

missing from a name entered under surname, do not leave open space after the abbreviation or missing forename. Instead, insert, as appropriate,

 

a period:

 

100 1# $aTissot

(Add period at end in bibliographic record, but not in authority record)

 

100 1# $aCorpeleijn, W. F. Th.

100 1# $aJunager, Sv.-Aa.

(The hyphen reflects the usage of the language of the name)

 

a period and one space:

 

100 1# $aEnschedé, Ch. J.

 

a period and a comma:

 

100 1# $aJones, Th.,$d1910-

100 1# $aCalles Ll., Alfonso

100 1# $aDahlan Aman, Mohd.,$cHaji

(For these names, add period at end in bibliographic record, but not in authority record)

 

 

3) Surnames alone including prefixes/particles. If a name heading consisting entirely of one or more surnames also contains a separately written prefix/particle, see instructions in LCRI 22.5D.

 

4) Bibliographic description. Note that the spacing and punctuation conventions applied to personal names used in access points differ from those used in the descriptive portion of a bibliographic record; for the latter, see the section below: Other Parts of the

Bibliographic Record (General).

 

 

 

Corporate Name Heading Access Points, Including Meetings, in Name Authority and Bibliographic Records

 

These guidelines appear also in LCRI 24.1.

 

1) Quotation marks. If the form of name selected as the heading includes quotation marks around an element or elements of the name, retain them (cf. example in rule 24.7B4). Use American-style double quotation marks in the heading instead of other forms of quotation marks.

 

2) Initials. If the form of name selected as the heading consists of or contains initials,

regularize the spacing and put one space after an initial that is followed by a word or

other element that is not an initial and no space after an initial that is followed by

another initial consisting of one letter.

 

source: F&H Denby

heading:  110 2# $a F & H Denby

 

source: U. S. D. A. Symposium ...

heading:  111 2# $a U.S.D.A. Symposium ...

 

source: B B C Symphony ...

heading:  110 2# $a BBC Symphony ...

 

3) Abbreviations. Precede or follow abbreviations consisting of two or more letters with a

space, e.g., "Gauley Bridge (W. Va.)," "Ph. D. Associates."

 

4) Place name at end. If the form of name selected as the heading includes a place name at the end and the place is enclosed within parentheses or is preceded by a comma-space, retain in the heading the punctuation as found.

 

110 2# $aCalifornia State University, Northridge

 

5) Numerical or alphabetical designation. When the name of a body consists of both a

numerical or alphabetical designation and words indicating the body's function, include both in the heading for the body. Separate the two parts with a dash (two hyphens).

 

source: Abteilung V - Vermessungswesen

heading:  110 2# $a[Parent body].$bAbteilung V--Vermessungswesen

 

source: Social and Economic Sciences (Section K)

heading:  110 2# $a[Parent body].$bSocial and Economic Sciences--Section K

 

source: Sub-task Force I, Gas Dissolved in Water

heading:  110 2# $a[Parent body].$bSub-task Force I--Gas Dissolved in Water

 

6) Dash or hyphen. If the form of name selected as the heading includes a dash or a hyphen that sets off a data element (usually a place name), regularize the punctuation by using a dash (two hyphens) without spacing on either side.

 

source: University of NebraskaLincoln

heading:  110 2# $aUniversity of Nebraska--Lincoln

 

source: Centro abruzzese di ricerche storiche - Teramo

heading:  110 2# $aCentro abruzzese di ricerchestoriche--Teramo

 

7) Year in conference name. If the form of name of a conference selected as the heading

contains an abbreviated or full form of a year, regularize the spacing by insuring that one

space precedes the year regardless of the configuration of the year (e.g., use of an

apostrophe or other character as a substitute for a portion of the year; the full form of a

year combined with another element without spacing).

 

source: CDS2000

heading:  111 2# $aCDS 2000 ...

 

source: CP 2000

heading:  111 2# $aCP 2000 ...

 

source: CP98

heading:  111 2# $a CP 98 ...

 

source: ECOOP'99 SCM-9 Symposium

heading:  111 2# $aECOOP '99 SCM-9 Symposium ...

 

8) Series of words. Add a comma to a series of words appearing in an English-language name except before an ampersand.

 

Exceptions:

 

a) For British headings, follow the punctuation in the publication, which normally will not include a comma before the conjunction in the series of words, e.g.,

 

110 1# $aGreat Britain.$bMinistry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food

 

not  

 

110 1# $aGreat Britain.$bMinistry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food

 

b) For Canadian headings, follow the punctuation provided by the National Library of Canada.

 

 

 

Bibliographic Linking Entries

 

For linking entries (MARC 21 fields 76X-78X), in general follow the conventions in the

sections above with respect to punctuation/spacing. Note, however, unlike name authority

headings and references, the individual components of names in subfields $a (Main entry

heading), $s (Uniform title), and $t (Title) are not subfielded.

 

Subfields $a and $s end with a period or other mark of ending punctuation. Subfield $t does not end in a mark of ending punctuation except when such a mark is part of the data.

 

When subfield $b (Edition) follows subfield $t, subfield $t ends in a period or other mark of ending punctuation. Exception: The National Library of Canada inputs a period at the end of subfield $t. LC/CONSER and PCC practice is to retain the period when using these records.

 

Subfields $x (ISSN) and $g (Relationship information) are not preceded by a comma.

LC practice: In subfield $w (Record control number) LC does not, for system reasons, supply the blank (space) at the end of a two-digit year LCCN called for by MARC 21.

 

 

Other Parts of the Bibliographic Record (General)

 

1) Elements that are not initials, etc. Leave only one space after a period. If a personal

name consists of separate letters, record the letters without internal spaces, regardless of

how they are presented in the source of information.

 

chief source: X Y Z

(Letters representing a personal name)

 

transcription:  XYZ

 

 

2) Initials, etc. Record initials, initialisms, and acronyms without internal spaces,

regardless of how they are presented in the source of information. Apply this provision also whether these elements are presented with or without periods.

 

·        Pel battesimo di S.A.R. Ludovico ...

·        KL Ianuarius habet dies xxxi

·        Monasterij B.M.V. campililioru[m]

·        J.J. Rousseau

·        $aNew York :$bW.W. Morrow,$c1980.

 

In some cases personal name initials may be presented in a source without periods. When they are known to be initials, regularize the punctuation by inserting a period after each

letter. In case of doubt, do not insert periods.

 

chief source: by T S Eliot

transcription:  by T.S. Eliot

 

but  

 

chief source: Dr. X goes to the movies

transcription:  Dr. X goes to the movies

 

Input one space after an initial that is followed by a word or other element that is not an

initial and no space after an initial that is followed by another initial consisting of one

letter.

 

source: F&H Denby

transcription:  F & H Denby ...

 

source: AT&T Bell Laboratories technical journal

transcription:  AT & T Bell Laboratories technical journal ...

 

source: R&D report

transcription:  R & D report ...

 

source: U. S. D. A. Symposium ...

transcription:  U.S.D.A. Symposium ...

 

source: B B C Symphony ...

transcription:  BBC Symphony ...

 

Treat an abbreviation consisting of more than a single letter as if it were a distinct word,

separating it with a space from preceding and succeeding words or initials.

 

  • Ph. D.
  • Ad bibliothecam PP. Franciscan. in Anger
  • Mr. J.P. Morgan
  • Paratiyum camukamum /$cMa. Pa. Periyacamit Turan
  • $aCharleston, W. Va. :$b[s.n.],$c1980.
  • ... by Wm. A. Brown

 

If two or more distinct initialisms (or set of initials), acronyms, or abbreviations appear

in juxtaposition, separate each from the other with a space.

 

M. J.P. Rabaut

(i.e., Monsieur J.P. Rabaut)

 

par R.F. s. d. C. Paris ...

(i.e., par Roland Fréart, sieur de Chambray ...)

 

3) Year in the name of a conference. When transcribing the name of a conference that

contains an abbreviated or full form of a year, regularize the spacing by insuring that one

space precedes the year regardless of the configuration of the year (e.g., use of an

apostrophe or other character as a substitute for a portion of the year; the full form of a

year combined with another element without spacing).

 

source: CDS2000

transcription:  CDS 2000

 

source: CP 2000

transcription:  CP 2000

 

source: CP98

transcription:  CP 98

 

source: ... ECOOP'98 workshop reader ...

transcription:  ... ECOOP '98 workshop reader ...

 

source: ECOOP'99 SCM-9 Symposium

transcription:  ECOOP '99 SCM-9 Symposium

 

4) Dash in a title. When transcribing a title that contains a dash and it is to be retained

because the data element(s) following the dash are part of the title proper, transcribe the

dash as two adjacent hyphens, with no space on either side of the hyphens.

 

source: Bridge reinspection report[dash]phase I ...

transcription:  Bridge reinspection report--phase I ...

 

source: Byrd family in Indiana[dash]1880-1990

transcription:  Byrd family in Indiana--1880-1990

 

5) Variant title. Do not end a variant title (field 246) with a mark of ending punctuation

except when it is part of the data (e.g., a period in an abbreviation).

 

 

Punctuation in Titles Proper that is also ISBD Punctuation

 

For the very particular treatment of punctuation occurring in titles proper that is also

ISBD punctuation, see LCRI 1.1B1.

 

 

 

Punctuation at the End of Fields 245, 250, 260, 300, 310/321, 362

 

As rule 1.0C indicates, the ISBD punctuation between areas (period-space-dash-space) is

omitted only when the next area is paragraphed. By long-standing practice, fields 245, 250, and 260 constitute a paragraph as do fields 300-4XX. That same long-standing practice treats MARC 21 5XX as individual paragraphs. Thus, the period-space-dash-space would not be used to separate the physical description area from the publication, distribution, etc., area or to separate the first note of the note area from the physical description or the series areas.

 

1) Fields 245, 250. If either field 245 or 250 does not end in a period, add one. Such a

period is needed to generate the period-space-dash-space separator in a potential

paragraphed display. In the following examples of paragraphed displays, the period of the

period-space-dash-space separator is in the record but the "space-dash-space" is not; it is

generated by the display software.

 

245 00 $aWhy me?.

260 ## $aBirmingham, Ala. :$bWesting Co.,$c1982.

 

display:

 

Why me?. -- Birmingham, Ala. : Westing Co., 1982.

 

 

 

245 00 $aWestlake's A study of "Singin' in the rain".

260 ## $aBridgeport, Utah :$b[s.n.],$c1983.

 

display:

 

Westlake's A study of "Singin' in the rain". -- Bridgeport, Utah : [s.n.], 1983.

 

 

 

 

250 ## $a[1st ed.].

260 ## $aChicago, Ill. :$bPogner Corp.,$c1984-

 

display:

 

. -- [1st ed.]. -- Chicago, Ill. : Pogner Corp., 1984-

 

 

2) Field 260. Field 260 ends with a period, a closing parenthesis, a closing bracket, a

question mark, or a hyphen). Exceptionally, when no date is present in a serial or

integrating resource description, the field does not end in a mark of ending punctuation

unless it is part of the name of the publisher (i.e., in the absence of a date, no

punctuation is added).

 

3) Field 300. Field 300 ends in a period or a closing parenthesis. When field 300 is

followed by a 4XX field, ensure that it ends in a period. In the following examples, the

parentheses surrounding the series statements are not in the record; instead, they are

generated by the display software.

 

300 ## $a271 p. ;$c21 cm. +$e1 atlas (37 p., 19 leaves ; 37 cm.).

490 1# $aResearch series

 

display:

 

271 p. ; 21 cm. + 1 atlas (37 p., 19 leaves ; 37 cm.). -- (Research series)

 

 

 

 

300 ## $a96 p. :$bill. ;$c18 cm.

440 #0 $aR & D publications

 

display:

 

96 p. : ill. ; 18 cm. -- (R & D publications)

 

 

4) Fields 310/321. These fields do not end in a period unless it is part of the data. They

can end in a hyphen (open date), a right parenthesis (qualifying information), or an angle

bracket (LC/CONSER practice for temporary data).

 

5) Field 362. For the ending mark of punctuation, apply the convention stated below in

2) Ending mark of punctuation (5XX) in the section Punctuation in Notes.

 

 

Punctuation in Notes

 

 

1) Additional information expected. When additional information is expected, precede or

follow a hyphen with one space.

 

246 1# $iIssues for Oct. 1975- have title:$aCrime & delinquency

500 ## $aVol. 9- edited by G. Svehla has title ...

500 ## $aVols. -10 translated by ...

500 ## $aVols. for -1979 also have additional section called ...

 

2) Ending mark of punctuation (5XX). For 5XX notes, an ending mark of punctuation is a period ( . ), quotation mark ( " ), question mark ( ? ), exclamation mark ( ! ), hyphen ( - ; used at the end of an open date, etc.), and (LC/CONSER practice) angle bracket ( > ). End each note with a period or other mark of ending punctuation.

 

504 ## $aIncludes bibliographical references (p. 310-325).

 

Note that these guidelines relate to punctuation at the end of the data constituting a note

itself. Under certain circumstances, a field may actually end with MARC 21 subfields as

follows:

 

a) $5 (Institution to which field applies), in which case there is no punctuation at the end of the field.

 

500 ## $aLC set incomplete: v. 12 wanting. $5DLC

 

b) $u (Uniform Resource Identifier), in which case the last character in the field is

whatever is the last character of the URI.

 

530 ## $aElectronic version also available to purchase at:$u http://www.thelearner.com

 

but

 

530 ## $aAvailable online at the U.S. Census Bureau Web site (http://www.census.gov).

 

c) $7 (Fixed-length data elements of reproduction) defined for used in field 533; when used, there is no punctuation at the end of the field.

 

533 ## $aMicrofilm.$m1962-1966.$bAnn Arbor, Mich. :$cUniversity Microfilms International,$d 1988.$e1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm.$7d19621965miuuua

 

 

EXCEPTIONS:

Incomplete 505 field, fields 510, 535, 536, 583, 586. These fields do not end in a period

or other mark of ending punctuation unless it is part of the data, e.g., a period that is

part of an abbreviation or a hyphen at the end of an open date, etc.

 

 

 

LC/CONSER Practice for Temporary/Uncertain Data

 

1) General. Indicate that data are temporary or uncertain by enclosing them within angle

brackets ( < > ). Such data display in all cases. Treat angle brackets as regular

characters, applying normal spacing conventions preceding and following them as illustrated in the examples.

 

When a date is enclosed within angle brackets, do not use spacing to show that it is an open one: "<1981->" When an open date occurs outside angle brackets, use normal spacing preceding or following a hyphen unless preceded or followed by a temporary date enclosed within angle brackets, e.g., "1979-<1980>" or "<1979>-1980."

When spans of beginning and/or ending dates or numbers include temporary data, give the hyphen within or outside the angle brackets as shown in the following examples:

 

  • <1966->
  • <-no. 47>
  • <May 2001-v. 3, no. 2>
  • 1998-<fall 2001>
  • <Bd. 4>-Bd. 12

 

When holdings are enclosed within angle brackets, do not use spacing to show that they are temporary.

 

300 ## $av. <1>

505 1# $a-– v. 2. La foto-restituzione grafico-numerica. pt. 1. Generalita (2 v.). pt. 2. Fotographie oblique <v. 1>

 

 

 

1.0E. Language and script of the description   

 

When applicable, apply these guidelines, including the use of brackets, to headings.

 

Pre-Modern Forms of Letters

In general, transcribe letters as they appear in the source. However, convert earlier forms

of letters and earlier forms of diacritical marks into their modern form, as specified

herein. Separate ligatures that are occasional stylistic usages (Œdipus, alumnæ, etc.)

rather than standard usages in the modern orthography of the language, e.g.,œ in French (as in œuvre) or æ in Danish (as in særtryk). If there is any doubt as to the correct conversion of elements to modern forms, transcribe them from the source as exactly as possible. (See also the section on Special Letters, Diacritical Marks, and Punctuation Marks.)

 

The following represent a special case: u/v, uu or vv/w. When these letters are used in

Latin and some other languages without regard to their vocalic or consonantal value, so that "u" is used for a "v," etc., the transcription should be regularized. This means that for

the bibliographic description of items published after 1800,

 

1) use v for consonants, e.g., vox, Victoria;

2) use u for vowels, e.g., uva, Ursa Major;

3) use w for consonantal uu or vv, e.g., Windelia.

 

Follow this guide also for publications of any date when the case is not one of

bibliographic description, e.g., headings or citations from reference works.

 

The letters i/j should be handled differently. For the bibliographic descriptions of items

published after 1800, transcribe "i" and "j" as they appear; do not attempt any

regularization. Follow this stipulation also for uniform titles for series. For any other

case of headings, citations from reference sources, etc.,

 

1) use j for consonants, e.g., jus, Julius;

2) use i for vowels, e.g., iter, Ilias.

 

N.B. For the transcription of any of these letters in bibliographic description for pre-1801

publications, apply Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books (DCRB). For the use of uniform titles, so that DCRB titles file properly (i.e., together with the titles of post-1800

publications), see LCRI 25.2A.

 

Matter That Cannot Be Reproduced by the Typographical Facilities Available

The rule, in effect, requires as much fidelity to the source as the capacity for printing,

typewriting, database-inputting, etc., within the cataloging agency will allow. It

recommends a "cataloguer's description in square brackets" for any "matter that cannot be

reproduced by the facilities available." Generally, this is a practicable solution, but

there are special instances in which doing other than describing the matter is appropriate.

 

The main purposes of these instructions are to categorize all the methods to be employed,

including a "cataloguer's description," and to give specific directions for each in terms of

the particular character set phenomenon encountered.

 

In the context of machine-readable catalog records note that as used in 1.0E and in the

preceding paragraph, "facilities available" means the totality of characters that can be

represented in machine-readable form and displayed/printed (known as the "MARC character set"; referred to hereafter as the "character set"). Conventions appropriate to particular character set situations have been developed as follows:

 

  • Super/subscript characters
  • Greek letters
  • Special marks of contraction (e.g., older printed Latin)
  • Special letters, diacritical marks, punctuation marks
  • Signs and symbols

 

Apply the appropriate conventions described in the sections below. As judged appropriate, use notes to explain and added entries to provide additional access. In the special provisions below, notes are suggested as possible models for form, not to require the use of the note.

 

 

Super/Subscript Characters

If the super/subscript placement of a character is not essential to avoid serious distortion

or loss of intelligibility (e.g., no, 2e, Ma), record the super/subscript character on the

line in the regular manner (e.g., no., 2e). If a period is associated with the super/

subscript letter (e.g., M.a) and the characters are the abbreviation of a single word,

record the period as the last element (e.g., Ma.). In case of serious distortion or loss of

intelligibility, record the character in super/subscript position for all such characters

available in the character set, namely, Arabic numerals (0-9), the minus sign (-),

parentheses ( () ), and the plus sign (+). In all other cases use the double underscore

convention described in the section on Special Letters, Diacritical Marks, and

Punctuation Marks. Give the letter being represented in upper or lower case according to the source.

 

chief source: The Severus scroll and 1Qisa

transcription: 245 14 $a The Severus scroll and 1Qisa

suggested note:  500 ## $a On t.p. "a" is superscript

 

chief source: Separation of 59FeIII and 59FeII in neutron ...

transcription: 245 10 $a Separation of 59FeIII and 59FeII in neutron ...

suggested note:  500 ## $a On t.p. "III" and "II" are superscript

 

chief source: Estimating Lx(1)

transcription: 245 10 $a Estimating Lx(1)

suggested note:  500 ## $a On t.p. "x" is subscript

 

chief source: ENDOR hyperfine constants of Vk-type centers

transcription: 245 10 $a ENDOR hyperfine constants of Vk-type centers

suggested note:  500 ## $a On t.p. "k" is subscript

 

chief source: The structure of 1f 7/2 nuclei

transcription: 245 10 $a The structure of 1f 7/2 nuclei

suggested note:  500 ## $a On t.p. "/" is subscript

 

Greek Letters

Romanize all occurrences of Greek letters regardless of the typographical facilities

available (the intent is to assist filing (by persons or machines) and searching (machine)

although there are characters for alpha, beta, and gamma in the character set) and although certain Greek capital letters are identical to their roman equivalents. If the context shows that a Greek letter or letters is used to represent a letter in the International Phonetic Alphabet, however, see the section on Special Letters, Diacritical Marks, and Punctuation Marks.

 

If the letter appears separately, give the name of the letter in the language of the context

(if unknown in the language of the context, use English) enclosed within brackets. For

searching purposes, insure that the bracketed interpolation is not connected with other

letters. Thus, if no space appears in the source on either side of the Greek letter, put a

space on either side of the bracketed interpolation, except when this interpolation is

already distinct from adjacent letters by the presence of characters that serve as

separators. N.B. This provision is necessary, because brackets do not serve as

separators for searching purposes.

 

chief source:   a-, b-, and g-spectroscopy

transcription:   245 10 $a [Alpha]-, [beta]-, and [gamma]-spectroscopy

(A hyphen is a separator)

 

chief source:   Poly-a-amino acids …

transcription:   245 10 $a Poly-[Alpha]-amino acids …

 

chief source:   A history of p (pi) …

transcription:   245 12 $a A history of [pi] (pi) …

(Parentheses are separators, but a space precedes "(pi)" in the source.)

 

chief source:   … at infinity of certain subclasses of L1WA(R)

transcription:   245 10 $a ... at infinity of certain subclasses of L1[Omega]A(R)

(The omega in the source is a capital letter)

 

chief source:   A catalogue of the Connecticut Alpha of the FBK, August 1847

transcription:   245 12 $a A catalogue of the Connecticut Alpha of the [Phi Beta Kappa], August 1847

 

chief source:   The cos pl theorem …

transcription:   245 14 $a The cos [pi lambda] theorem ...

 

chief source: … materials lists for high-power 10.6 m windows …

transcription: 245 10 $a ... materials lists for high-power 10.6 [mu] windows

 

chief source:   The bias in dT/d D calculated …

transcription: 245 14 $a The bias in dT/d [Delta] calculated ...

 

chief source: Z

transcription: 245 10 $a [Zeta]

(The title consists solely of the Greek letter zeta)

 

When a Greek letter is used in a word that is otherwise in the roman alphabet in the source, use the romanized form of the letter (instead of its name) in brackets.

 

chief source: Zaraqustra and Filo

transcription: 245 10 $a Zara[th]ustra and [Ph]ilo

 

transcription: 245 10 $a Oie wowapi wan Lakota-Ieska

(The letter in this example is from the International Phonetic Alphabet; therefore, the double underscore convention is used (cf. the section on Special Letters, Diacritical Marks, and Punctuation Marks)

 

 

Special Marks of Contraction

When special marks of contraction have been used by the printer in continuance of the

manuscript tradition, expand affected words to their full form, enclosing supplied letters

within brackets.

 

on source: Breuiarium monasticū s'm ritum z morem monachol Ordinis S. Benedicti de obseruā tia Casinēsis Cōgregationis …

transcription: 245 10 $a Breuiarium monasticu[m] s[ecundu]m ritum [et] morem monacho[rum] Ordinis S. Benedicti de obserua[n]tia Casine[n]sis Co[n]gregationis ...

 

Do not expand conventional abbreviations in which a period follows a letter or letters.

However, when an abbreviation standing for an entire word appears in the source, record

instead the word itself, enclosing it in brackets, e.g., "… amico[rum] [et] …" When the

meaning of an abbreviation or contraction cannot be determined, substitute a question mark within brackets for each element in question, e.g., "… amico[?] [?] …" When the meaning of an abbreviation or contraction is conjectural, use the question mark after the supplied letters or word within the same set of brackets, e.g., "… amico[rum?] …"

 

When titles are "expanded," title added entries may be expressed in the tracing by means of the word "Title." The added entry will be exactly the same as the title proper (including the brackets around letters). To express a title added entry in any other form, it is necessary to trace it explicitly.

246 30 $a Breviarium monasticum secundum ritum et morem monachorum Ordinis Sancti Benedicti de observantia Casinensis Congregationis.

 

 

Special Letters, Diacritical Marks, and Punctuation Marks

Use the double underscore () as the conventional means of signaling special letters (

including superscript and subscript letters), diacritical marks, and punctuation marks for

which there is no exact representation in the character set. Use the double underscore with the nearest roman equivalent in cases in which the roman equivalent is obvious, e.g.,

 When the nearest roman equivalent is not obvious or there is doubt that it is obvious, it is necessary to establish the equivalent, after which the list of equivalencies will be updated. The equivalencies below have been established to date, mostly from the International Phonetic Alphabet. Note that the IPA uses some Greek letters; when it is judged by the context (usually some form of linguistic study) that the Greek letter probably derives from its use in the IPA, use the double underscore convention or the equivalency indicated below, not the convention for Greek letters given above.

 

 

 

Note that the use of the double underscore convention does not always insure a one-for-one equivalency; the intent, instead, is to signal those cases in which the character used in

the catalog record is not an exact replication of the character in the source.

 

Exception 1: Do not use the double underscore convention in the following cases; use instead the equivalent indicated:

 

Old German small "e" = umlaut (Fürsten)

"Scharfes s" or "ess-zet" (ß) written as ligature = ss (Ausslegung)

"Scharfes s" or "ess-zet" (<¿) written as two letters = sz (Auszlegung)

Schwa (ǝ) = ä (e.g., as found in roman alphabet Azerbaijani)

Degree symbol (600°) = superscript zero (6000)

Inch/inches, second/seconds = hard sign, double prime (tvërdyĭ znak) (")

Foot/feet, minute/minutes = soft sign, prime (mÂgkiĭ znak) (´)

Superscript or subscript period = dot above ( . ) or dot below ( . )

IPA character for glottal stop (?) = ayn (´)

 

Exception 2: Do not use the double underscore convention for the inverted question mark and exclamation point in Spanish; instead, do not transcribe the inverted form of these marks at all.

 

 

Signs and Symbols

The objective in treating signs and symbols not represented in the character set is to

render or convey the intention without undue time and effort and with a minimum of

interpolation, using one of the techniques described in this section. Note that a minimum of interpolation is wanted because those searching the machine catalog cannot very often be expected to "second-guess" the cataloger in this respect, i.e., users will normally

formulate search queries that necessarily do not take interpolations into account. As judged appropriate, use notes to explain and added entries to provide additional access; the examples below are illustrative, not prescriptive.

 

1) If the symbol is judged not to be an integral or essential part of the title, do not

intervene in the transcription. Instead, omit the symbol; explain its presence in a note if

it is judged worth mentioning.

 

transcription: 245 10 $a "W" today! Tomorrow?

(On the title page the traditional female symbol appears under the letter "W" but the preface makes it clear that the symbol is not intended to form part of the title and gives the full title)

suggested note: 500 ## $a On t.p. the symbol for female appears under the letter "W"

added entry: 246 30 $a Women today! Tomorrow?

 

 

2) Use existing characters when this can be done without serious distortion or loss of

intelligibility.

 

 

transcription: 245 10 $a Rx for tomorrow

 

chief source: When I was your age

transcription: 245 10 $a When I was your age STOP

suggested note: 500 ## $a On t.p. "STOP" appears as a stop sign

 

 

3) Use the double underscore convention (cf. the section on Special Letters, Diacritical

Marks, and Punctuation Marks.)

 

chief source: Yell-q pages : environmental resources

 

chief source: Where to stay USA from 50¢ to $9 a night

 

 

4) Substitute in the language of the context the word, phrase, etc., that is the obvious

spoken/written equivalent (if unknown in the language of the context, use English); bracket the interpolated equivalent. If the element in the source is not preceded or followed by a space, in general precede or follow the bracketed interpolation by a space unless the preceding or following character in the source is itself also a separator or unless the use of a space would create an unintended result for searching.

 

chief source: Registering for ©

transcription: 245 10 $a Registering for [copyright]

suggested note: 500 ## $a On t.p. "[copyright]" appears as the copyright symbol

 

chief source: I © a piano

transcription: 245 10 $a I [love] a piano

suggested note: 500 ## $a On t.p. "[love]" appears as a heart

 

chief source: A study of the

transcription: 245 12 $a A study of the [ankh]

suggested note: 500 ## $a On t.p. "[ankh]" appears as the ankh symbol

 

chief source: Poe and free verse

transcription: 245 10 $a Poe[try] and free verse

(The interpolation is not preceded by a space because that would create two words for searching (brackets are not separators))

suggested note: 500 ## $a On t.p. "[try]" appears as an illustration in the form of a tree

 

chief source: Tinglysningslovens §38

transcription: 245 10 $a Tinglysningslovens [paragraf] 38

 

chief source: Dokumentation der politischen Geschichte zur Reform des §144 STG

transcription: 245 10 $a Dokumentation der politischen Geschichte zur Reform des [Paragraphen] 144 STG

 

chief source: … proposed rules governing §2255 proceedings …

transcription: 245 10 $a ... proposed rules governing [section] 2255 proceedings ...

 

chief source: Roman Opalka : 16 Details aus dem Werk 1965/ 1-µ

transcription: 245 10 $a Roman Opalka : 16 Details aus dem Werk 1965/ 1-[unendlich]

suggested note: 500 ## $a On t.p. "[unendlich]" appears as the infinity symbol

 

chief source: Opalka 1965/1-µ : 9 juin-9 juillet 1982

transcription: 245 10 $a Opalka 1965/1-[l'infinité] : 9 juin-9 juillet 1982

suggested note: 500 ## $a On t.p. "[l'infinité]" appears as the infinity symbol

 

chief source: The added mass coefficient of a cylinder oscillating in shallow water in the limit K––––> 0 and Kµ

transcription: 245 10 $a The added mass coefficient of a cylinder oscillating in shallow water in the limit limit K --> 0 and K [infinity]

(The arrow is input as two hyphens and an angle bracket)

suggested note: 500 ## $a On t.p. "[infinity]" appears as the infinity symbol

 

Exception 1: Do not transcribe characters that indicate birth (e.g., an asterisk) or death

(e.g., a dagger) even if such characters are in the character set. Do not use a mark of

omission; instead, explain the omission in a note.

 

chief source: In honor of Saint Basil the Great †379

transcription: 245 10 $a In honor of Saint Basil the Great 379

suggested note: 500 ## $a On t.p. "379" is preceded by a dagger

 

chief source: Walter : *19261945 an der Ostfront

transcription: 245 10 $a Walter : 1926 1945 an der Ostfront

suggested note: 500 ## $a On t.p. "1926" is preceded by an asterisk; "1945" is preceded by an Iron Cross

 

Exception 2: Ignore symbols indicating trademark (registered or otherwise), patent,

copyright, etc. These include a superscript or subscript "R" enclosed in a circle (®) (

ignore although included in the character set), the superscript or subscript letters "TM" (

TM), and a "c" enclosed within a circle (©) (copyright symbol). Do not explain their

presence in a note. (Ignore such symbols also when they appear with elements used in

headings.)

 

chief source: The Gumby® books of letters

transcription: 245 14 $a The Gumby books of letters

 

If the spoken/written equivalent is not obvious or if there is doubt that it is obvious or

if it is unknown, give an explanation or a description in the language of the context (if

unknown in the language of the context, use English).

 

chief source: Ñ-structures

transcription: 245 10 $a [Inverted triangle]-structures

 

chief source: Poluprovodnikovye soedien AI2BVI

transcription: 245 10 $a Poluprovodnikovye soedien AI2BVI

suggested note: 500 ## $a On t.p. "I" appears over "2" and "VI" is superscript

 

chief source: Some elementary properties of the category TopM| B

transcription: 245 10 $a Some elementary properties of the category TopM | B

suggested note: 500 ## $a On t.p. "M" is subscript

 

If a title consists solely of a sign or symbol or one or more marks of punctuation, provide

an equivalent in all cases, even if the particular symbol is itself in the character set.

 

chief source:  / Gregory Corso

transcription: 245 10 $a [Ankh] / Gregory Corso

suggested note: 500 ## $a The title consists solely of the ankh symbol

 

chief source: + : [novellaciklus] / Czakó Gábor

transcription: 245 10 $a [Plusz : novellaciklus] / Czakó Gábor

("+" is in the character set)

suggested note: 500 ## The title consists solely of a plus sign

 

chief source: © / Free Spirits, Inc.

transcription: 245 10 $a [Copyright] / Free Spirits, Inc.

suggested note: 500 ## The title consists solely of the the copyright symbol

 

chief source: ---- / Edvardas Gudavičius

transcription: 245 10 $a [Keturi brūkšniai] / $c Edvardas Gudavičius.

suggested note: 500 ## The title consists solely of four hyphens

 

but

 

chief source: ????? Steele's answers, by Daniel Steele ...

transcription: 245 10 $a ????? Steele's answers / $c by Daniel Steele ...

(Although the title begins with marks of punctuation, it also contains indexable data and no special intervention is required)

 

 

 

 

1.0G. Accents and other diacritical marks   

 

In French, Portuguese, and Spanish do not transcribe or add accent marks over letters that

are transcribed in their capitalized form. (Note: The Spanish letter Ñ is transcribed as

found since it is a separate letter of the Spanish alphabet.) For books published before

1801, retain an accent found in the source being transcribed, but do not add one not

present. Apply these guidelines also to headings, as appropriate.

 

 

 

1.1. Title and Statement of Responsibility Area

 

1.1B. Title proper

 

1.1B1.   

Use cataloger's judgment in applying the second paragraph; note that the situation of words serving as an introduction rather than being intended as part of the title proper occurs primarily with moving image materials (the Library of Congress uses the cataloging manual Archival Moving Image Materials rather than AACR2 chapter 7 for its cataloging of moving image materials), electronic resources, and popular journals. Look at other sources in the resource and consider the presentation, differences in typography, etc. If in doubt, give the longer form as the title proper and give a title added entry for the shorter form.

 

Punctuation

1) AACR2 does not mention the problem that arises when data being transcribed for the

bibliographic description include punctuation that is also used as ISBD punctuation: a

colon, a slash, or the equals sign. Do not transcribe any of these three marks unless,

according to normal practice, the space may be closed up on both sides. Usually, a comma or a dash (with space closed up on both sides) can be substituted for a colon.

 

245 10 $a Proceedings / $c Symposium—Fine Arts in the 80's

 

or  

 

245 10 $a Proceedings / $c Symposium, Fine Arts in the 80's

 

(On source: … Symposium: Fine Arts …)

 

but  

 

245 10 $a Dinner at 8:00 / $c ...

 

It is difficult to imagine a case in which it would be impossible to close up the space on both sides of the slash or the equals sign.

 

245 10 $a Study/workbook for knitting ...

245 10 $a 2 x 2=5 : $b a farce in one act ...

 

None of these statements applies when one is considering the form of a name heading in an access point, which should generally follow the punctuation found in the source.

 

X11 2# $a Symposium: Fine Arts in the 80's ...

X10 2# $a World Council of Might = Wrong

(Both of these are corporate headings)

 

2) When replacing the mark of omission ("...") in the title proper with a dash ("—,") leave

a space after the dash, unless the dash is at the beginning.

 

245 10 $a Getting around— in Germany

 

not  

 

245 10 $a Getting around—in Germany

 

but   

 

245 10 $a —and then there were none

 

 

 

1.1C. Optional addition. General material designation   

 

Amendments 2001 to AACR2 revised rule 1.1C1. Under "List 1," the general material designation (GMD) "electronic resource" has replaced "computer file." Under "List 2," the GMD "electronic resource" has replaced "computer file" and the GMD "cartographic material" has replaced "globe" and "map."

 

LC practice: Apply the following GMDs:

 

  • electronic resource (applicable to materials cataloged after November 2001; "computer file" was used for materials cataloged 1989-November 2001)
  • filmstrip (applicable to materials cataloged before 1992)
  • graphic (applicable to materials cataloged according to Graphic Materials)
  • microform
  • motion picture (applicable to materials cataloged according to Chapter 7 of AACR2; not applicable to materials cataloged according to Archival Moving Image Materials)
  • slide (applicable to materials cataloged before 1992)
  • sound recording
  • transparency (applicable to materials cataloged before 1992)
  • videorecording (applicable to materials cataloged according to Chapter 7 of AACR2; not applicable to materials cataloged according to Archival Moving Image Materials)

 

Do not apply the options in 6.5B1, 7.5B1, and 11.5B1 that permit specific material designations to be shortened when they are repetitious of GMDs.

 

 

1.1D. Parallel titles

 

1.1D2.   

LC practice. Record parallel titles in accord with the provisions for a second-level description, including items issued in the United States.

 

1.1E. Other title information   

 

If subordinate titles (e.g., appendices or other subsidiary texts) appear before a statement(s) of responsibility, record them as other title information.

 

They sought a country : Mennonite colonization in Mexico : with an appendix on Mennonite colonization in British Honduras / Harry Leonard Sawatzky

 

If such subordinate titles appear after a statement(s) of responsibility, record them as subsequent statements of responsibility whether or not they actually name a person or body. If they are very lengthy, record them in a note.

 

High life below stairs : a farce / by James Townley ; with a variety of German notes explanatory of the idioms … alluded to by John Christian Huttner

 

If subordinate titles are given equal prominence with the first work in the item, however, apply 1.1G.

 

 

1.1E5.   

Option Decision

LC practice: Apply the optional provision of the rule on a case-by-case basis.

 

Single Other Title Information

If there are two or more titles that are parallel but other title information for only one of them, transcribe the other title information directly after the corresponding title, no matter the actual order in the source.

 

Main Title-Section Title

LC practice: When cataloging a section title, give other title information that is appropriate for the section title in the title and statement of responsibility area. Give other title information that is appropriate for the main title in a note (cf. rule 1.1B9).

 

source: Butterworths forms and precedents//Estates//Administration of estates, donations, estate planning, trusts and trustees, wills ...

 

transcription: 245 00 $a Butterworths forms and precedents. $p Estates : $b administration of estates, donations, estate planning, trusts and trustees, wills ...

 

 

 

source: Recreation information//Opportunities for people with intellectual disability//News sheet ...

 

transcription: 245 00 $a Recreation information. $p News sheet ...

500 ## $a "Opportunities for people with intellectual disability."

 

 

 

 

 

1.1F. Statements of responsibility

 

1.1F1.   

 

Objective

In determining what statements to record in a statement of responsibility, bear in mind that the objective is to record only those statements that are of bibliographic significance: significant from the point of view of the intellectual and artistic content of an item. (In many cases such names are also likely candidates to be searched under in a catalog when looking for the particular item with which they are associated.)

 

Guidelines for Recording Statements of Responsibility

To achieve the objective stated above, observe the following guidelines:

 

1) Include in statements of responsibility the names of those whose contributions are judged to be of bibliographic significance if such names appear prominently.

Judge bibliographic significance as follows:

 

   a) Editors. Bibliographic significance in this context encompasses that portion of the definition of the term "editor" in the glossary stating that the editorial labor includes "… revision (restitution) or elucidation of the text, and the addition of an introduction, notes, and other critical matter."

    Human walking / Verne T. Inman, Henry J. Ralston, Frank Todd ; edited with a preface by Jean C. Liberman

 

   Cross-country skiing : racing techniques and training tips / by Sigi Maier and Toni Reiter ; translated by Mark Goldman ; edited by Don A. Metivier

 

Excluded from this category and, therefore, not candidates for transcription are credits for "in-house" editors, editorial supervisors, publications editors, managing editors, photo-editors, sponsoring editors, and the like.

 

b) Others. Bibliographic significance in this context equates to the definition of statement of responsibility in the glossary, namely "… persons responsible for the intellectual or artistic content of the item … or performance of the content of the item." Excluded from this category and, therefore, not candidates for transcription are statements of technical credits, often performed by in-house staff members of publishing firms, such as:

 

·        book design

·        consultant

·        cover and page design

·        cover artist

·        cover designer

·        cover photographer

·        designer

·        graphic designer

·        layout designer

·        page make-up

·        production manager

 

Note that statements of technical credits are often elsewhere than the chief source in a manner similar to the following:

 

   "The editors for this book were Jeremy Robinson, Robert L. Davidson, and Susan Thomas, the designer was Mark E. Safron, and the production supervisor was Paul A. Malchow."

 

2) If there is doubt whether a statement is of bibliographic significance, proceed as follows:

 

a) If the statement is in the chief source, transcribe it.

 

b) If the statement is not in the chief source, do not transcribe it.

 

title page: The complete Van Gogh : paintings, drawings, sketches / Jan Hulsker

 

verso of title page: Editor: Phyllis Freeman

 

c) Do not routinely transcribe the names of in-house editors listed on CIP data sheets. Instead, apply 2)a) and 2)b) above; if for any reason this is not applicable, do not transcribe the name.

 

 

Added Entries

After transcribing statements of responsibility, taking into account the above guideline, apply the rules for making added entries.

 

 

1.1F4.      

If the recording of multiple corporate bodies with their hierarchies in a statement of responsibility leads to confusing results, add "and" (or its equivalent in foreign languages) in brackets to separate the names.

 

… / prepared by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service [and] Soil Conservation Service [and] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Region 2

 

not

 

… / prepared by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Region 2

 

 

1.1F6.   

See LCRI 1.1E. Other title information.

 

 

1.1F7.   

If an added entry is required for a corporate body and the only prominently named source for the body's name on the item is its appearance in conjunction with a personal name being recorded in a statement of responsibility, apply one of the following methods:

 

1) Enclose within parentheses the corporate name following the personal name(s) (e.g., "prepared by Morton J. Schussheim, Joshua M. Kay, Richard L. Wellons (Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress)").

 

2) Give the corporate name in a quoted note (e.g., "Building Economics and Regulatory Technology Division, Center for Building Technology, National Engineering Laboratory, National Bureau of Standards.").

 

 

1.1F11.   

Option Decision

LC practice: Do not apply the optional provision of the rule.

 

 

1.1F15.   

When illustration statements such as "117 photogravure plates, 26 colour plates," "with 115 illustrations," "illustrated with 10 woodcuts," etc., appear in the chief source, omit them unless

 

1) an artist or illustrator is named in the phrase, or

2) the phrase is inseparable from the title proper or other title information.

 

 

1.1G. Items without a collective title.

 

1.1G1.   

Most such titles should be recorded as they appear (cf. "Le prince" example in 1.1G3). Generally restrict the application of this rule to cases in which the secondary titles do not appear in the same source as the predominant title.

 

 

1.1G2.   

Items without a collective title

LC practice: For cartographic materials, microforms, and rare books and other rare materials, describe the item as a unit or make a description for each separately titled work, whichever solution seems better in the particular situation. For other materials, describe the item as a unit.

 

 

1.1G3.   

Punctuation

The final sentence of this rule specifies that two spaces are to follow a period. Instead, see LCRI 1.0C and apply that, which means following the period with one space.

 

Multiple Sources

If there is no single chief source of information for a single part item and it is not possible to say which work is first, second, etc., transcribe them in English alphabetical order.

For materials such as books that normally confine the source for the title and statement of responsibility area to one location within the item, make a note to explain the situation when there is no single chief source for the single part item (e.g., "No collective t.p.; titles transcribed from individual title pages.").

 

Other Title Information

If a single statement of other title information applies to all the titles listed, record it after all the titles if all the titles are by the same person(s) or body (bodies). Precede the statement by a space-colon-space. Otherwise, record it in a note.

 

chief source: Party party // Girlfriends // two short novels by // Ronni Sandroff

transcription: Party party ; Girlfriends : two short novels / by Ronni Sandroff

 

chief source: Henry Esmond // Thackeray // Bleak House // Dickens // Two novels

transcription: Henry Esmond / Thackeray. Bleak House / Dickens

note area: "Two novels."

 

Statements of Responsibility

If a single subsequent statement of responsibility applies to all the titles listed, record it after the final first statement of responsibility if possible. Precede the subsequent statement by a space-semicolon-space.

 

   History of the elementary school contest in England / Francis Adams. The struggle for national education / John Morley ; [both] edited, with an introduction, by Asa Briggs

 

 

 

 

1.2. Edition Area

 

1.2B. Edition statement

 

1.2B4. Optional addition   

LC practice: Do not apply this optional rule to any case of merely supposed differences in issues that might make them different editions. Apply the option for manifest differences where the catalog records would otherwise show exactly the same information in the areas beginning with the title and statement of responsibility area and ending with the series area.

 

LC/PCC practice for updating loose-leafs: Apply the option if the main entry and/or title proper of a resource being cataloged would be the same as that of the resource it continues.

 

 

1.2B5.   

Option Decision

LC practice: Do not apply the optional provision of the rule.

 

 

 

1.2C. Statements of responsibility relating to the edition

 

1.2C4. Optional addition   

Option Decision

LC practice: Do not apply the rule.

 

 

1.2C5.   

Option Decision

LC practice: Do not apply the optional provision of the rule.

 

 

 

1.2E. Statements of responsibility relating to a named revision of an edition

 

1.2E3. Optional addition   

Option Decision

LC practice: Do not apply the rule.

 

 

1.4. Publication, Distribution, Etc., Area.

 

1.4A. Preliminary rule

 

1.4A2. Sources of information   

 

If any element of the publication, distribution, etc., area is transcribed from a prescribed

source, do not bracket it even though it is obscurely presented (as in the case of seals,

insignia, logos, etc.) or is found on a stamp or label.

 

Make a note to convey that such information is found on a stamp or label.

 

Imprint stamped on verso of t.p.

Publisher from label on t.p.

 

 

1.4C. Place of publication, distribution, etc.

 

1.4C7.   

Give the address of a publisher, distributor, etc., following the name of the place of

publication, distribution, etc., only for a monograph cataloged according to chapter 2 or

chapter 5 that meets these three conditions:

 

1) it was issued by a U.S. publisher, distributor, etc., whose address is given in the item being cataloged;

2) it was issued in the current three years;

3) it does not bear an ISBN or ISSN.

 

Do not apply 1.4C7 if two or more publishers, distributors, etc., are being recorded in the

publication, distribution, etc., area. Exception: If one of the entities is a U.S.

distributor for a monograph published outside the U.S., give the address of the U.S.

distributor if the item meets these four conditions:

 

1) the U.S. distributor is the only entity being recorded with the distributor's place of publication;

2) the U.S. distributor's address is given in the item;

3) the item was issued in the current three years;

4) the item lacks an ISBN or ISSN.

 

Apply 1.4C7 also to items in which the name of the publisher, distributor, etc., is unknown and the name of the U.S. manufacturer is being given in the publication, distribution, etc., area (1.4G1) if the monograph meets these three conditions:

 

1) the manufacturer's address is given in the item;

2) the item was issued in the current three years;

3) the item lacks an ISBN or ISSN.

 

When applying 1.4C7, routinely repeat the name of the city in the address. For street

addresses, abbreviate such words as "street," "avenue," "place" according to normal usage.

 

Omit unnecessary elements from the address (e.g., the name of the building when the street address or post office box is given). Do not bracket any of the elements given in the

address.

 

 

1.4D. Name of publisher, distributor, etc.

 

1.4D1.   

Government Printers

When a government printer or government printing office is named on the item and there is no evidence that its function is not that of a publisher or distributor, record it as the

publisher. If, however, another body also appears on the item and the government printing office is named only in a less prominent position unaccompanied by a statement of printing or distribution, the likelihood is greater that it functions only as printer and that the body is the publisher.

 

Privately Printed Works

For cataloging purposes, treat privately printed works as published works even if they have been distributed only to a very limited group (e.g., a keepsake for dinner guests or a

Christmas greeting for friends). Treat the person or body issuing the item, whether a

commercial publisher, a private press, or a person or group for whom it may have been

printed, as the publisher. If it is stated in the item that it has been privately printed,

this fact may be expressed in a note, usually quoted. (Note: Private presses should be

considered publishers of the items they print if there is no evidence to the contrary in the

item or in reference sources consulted.)

 

 

1.4D2.   

Option Decision

LC practice: Do not apply the optional provision of the rule.

 

Interpretation

1) Form of name. Shorten the name or not, whichever is more efficient and effective in the particular case--according to judgment. Do not, however, attempt to judge how well the name is known internationally.

 

2) Retention of hierarchy. When the name of a non-commercial publisher is part of a

hierarchy, generally do not omit parts of the hierarchy. In the case of commercial

publications, omit unnecessary elements of the hierarchy or not--according to judgment.

 

source: National Archives & Records Service // General Services Administration

transcription: 260 ## $a National Archives & Records Service, General Services

Administration

 

source: Lexington Books // D.C. Heath

transcription: 260 ## $a Lexington Books, D.C. Heath

 

or

 

260 ## $a Lexington Books

 

3) Retention of terms of incorporation, etc. If "Inc.," "Ltd.," etc., appear after a serial

title being recorded as a publisher, distributor, etc., retain it. Also, when these elements

follow other names, retain them or not—according to judgment.

 

4) Omission of personal names. When a personal name appears in a statement of publishing because of legal requirements of the country (e.g., India), omit this personal name.

 

source: Printed and Published by S.D. Puranik for the National Institute of Bank Management

transcription: 260 ## $a National Institute of Bank Management

 

 

1.4D3.   

Consider the following as another example in 1.4D3a):

 

but:    Published for the Social Science Research Council by Heinemann

not:    For the Social Science Research Council by Heinemann

 

 

1.4D4.   

Choice of Publishers

 

LC practice: Non-CIP and Post-CIP Cataloging

 

Record the names of all publishers appearing on the chief source of information of the

edition being cataloged (or the names appearing on the single source used for the publisher statement when the publisher is not named on the chief source). Record also the name of a U.S. publisher appearing anywhere on the item when a non-U.S. publisher appears on the chief source.

 

t.p.: Clarendon Press Oxford

t.p. verso: Published in the United States by Oxford University Press, New York

transcription:

260 ## $a Oxford : $b Clarendon Press ; $a New York : $b Oxford University Press

If the chief source has on it a "general" imprint name that is shared by associated

 

companies or by parent and branch companies and the specific firm names appear in a

 

secondary position, generally assume that the first of these names represents the publisher

 

of the item and combine the firm's name with the "general" imprint name. If this place is

 

not in the U.S. and a U.S. place is coupled with one of the other firm names, add this place

 

to the "general" imprint name also.

t.p.: Pitman Publishing

t.p. verso:

Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons Ltd.

Pitman House, Parker Street,

Kingsway, London WC2B 5PB

P.O. Box 46038, Banda Street,

Nairobi, Kenya

Pitman Publishing Pty. Ltd.

Pitman House, 138 Bouverie Street,

Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia

Pitman Publishing Corporation

6 East 43rd Street

New York, NY 10017 USA

transcription:

260 ## $a London ; $a New York : $b Pitman

t.p.: Penguin Books

t.p. verso:

Penguin Books Ltd., Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England

Penguin Books Inc., … Baltimore, Maryland

Penguin Books Australia Ltd., Ringwood, Victoria, Australia

Penguin Books Canada Limited, … Markham, Ontario, Canada

Penguin Books (N.Z.) Ltd., … Auckland 10, New Zealand

transcription:

260 ## $a Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England ; $a Baltimore, Md. : $b Penguin Books

If the chief source has on it a specific firm name and a statement about associated

 

companies or a parent organization appears elsewhere in the item, do not include these

 

associated companies or their places in the imprint.

t.p.: Newnes Technical Books

(Information from outside the book establishes that this firm is located in London)

t.p. verso:

   The Butterworth Group

United Kingdom Butterworth & Co (Publishers) Ltd.

London: 88 Kingsway, WC2B 6AB

Australia      Butterworths Pty Ltd.

Sydney: 586 Pacific Highway,

Chatswood NSW 2067

Also at Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth

Canada         Butterworth & Co (Canada) Ltd.

Toronto: 2265 Midland Avenue,

Scarborough

Ontario, MIP 4S1

New Zealand   Butterworths of New Zealand, Ltd.

Wellington: T & W Young Building

77-85 Customhouse Quay, 1, CPO Box 472

South Africa    Butterworth & Co (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd.

Durban: 152-154 Gale Street

USA    Butterworth (Publishers) Inc.

Boston: 19 Cummings Park, Woburn, MA 01801

First published 1978 by Newnes Technical Books

A Butterworth Imprint

transcription:

260 ## $a [London] : $b Newnes Technical Books

t.p.: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd.

t.p. verso:

Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd.

London, Bath, Carlton, Melbourne,

Johannesburg

Associated Companies

Pitman Medical Publishing Company Ltd.

46 Charlotte Street, London

Pitman Publishing Corporation

20 East 46th Street, New York, NY 11105

Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons (Canada) Ltd.

 

381-383 Church Street, Toronto

transcription:

260 ## $a London : $b I. Pitman

 

Distributors

LC practice: If information concerning the distributor is printed or appears on a stamp or

label anywhere in the item, record the distributor in the publication, distribution, etc.,

area. (Ignore distributors given only on the dust jacket.) Record the name of the

distributor if it differs in form from the name of the publisher even though both belong to

the same entity.

 

Exceptions:

 

1) Do not record those distributors that are remaindering an

edition, that are secondhand dealers, or that act in some other capacity as outlets for only

part of an edition. Distributors of these types are of no bibliographic significance. If in

doubt as to the significance of the distributor statement, record it.

 

2) If distribution is

dispersed between publisher and distributor(s) or between distributor and distributor (with one distributing in one area and the other distributing in another area), give only the

distributor that distributes the edition in the U.S. If, in case of dispersed distribution,

there is no distributor in the U.S., give the first-named distributor only when there is no

publisher.

 

3) Do not record distributors found on items older than the current three years.

foot of t.p.: Alfred A. Knopf, New York

 

t.p. verso: Distributed by Random House, New York

transcription:

260 ## $a New York : $b Knopf : $b Distributed by Random House

For items from the United States Government Printing Office (GPO), retain the statement that

 

an item is for sale by the Superintendent of Documents since only a portion of GPO's items

 

is distributed in that manner.

Recording Multiple Entities

When recording the names of two or more publishers, distributors, etc., and the names appear

 

together in the item in a single statement that connects them linguistically, generally give

 

them in a single statement rather than separating them with a space-colon-space. However, if

 

the names need to be transcribed after different places, give each entity in a separate

 

publisher statement in the publication, distribution, etc., area.

260 ## $a New York : $b Foremost Americans Pub. Corp. for Bowker

260 ## $a London : $b National Council for Educational Technology with the Library

 

Association

260 ## $a London : Bodley Head for Mackays

but   260 ## $a New York : $b Garland ; $a Paris: $b Fondation Le Corbusier

(Source: Garland Publishing, Inc., New York and London, and Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris)

Note that if the entities are located in different places, it does not necessarily mean that

 

the item was published, distributed, etc., in those places. Record as places of publication,

 

etc., only the locations of the entities that are actually publishing, distributing,

 

releasing, etc., the item. However, names of places rejected for recording as places of

 

publication, etc., may be retained in the publisher statement if they appear in conjunction

 

with the names of the entities being recorded here.

260 ## $a Riberalta, Bolivia : $b Publicado por el Instituto Lingüístico de Verano en

 

colaboración con el Ministerio de Educación y Cultura

260 ## $a Toronto ; $a Buffalo : $b Published for the Glenbow-Alberta Institute, Calgary,

 

Alta., by University of Toronto Press

260 ## $a Rio de Janeiro : $b Livraria Editora Cátedra em convênio com o Instituto Nacional

 

do Livro, Ministerio da Educaço e Cultura, Brasília

260 ## $a London : $b Published by Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd. for the

 

Institute of Tribology, Leeds University, and the Institut national des sciences appliquées,

 

Lyon

If the names of two or more entities appear in separate statements on the chief source of

 

information of the edition being cataloged (or on the single source used for the publisher

 

statement when the publisher is not named on the chief source), do not routinely give in the

 

publication, distribution, etc., area the entities that are not involved with the

 

publication, distribution, etc., of the item. Generally give them in a quoted noted instead.

foot of t.p.: George Godwin, London and New York

 

middle of t.p.: Published in association with the Plastics and Rubber Institute

transcription:

260 ## $a London ; $a New York : $b Godwin

500 ## $a "Published in association with the Plastics and Rubber Institute."

foot of t.p.: The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville

 

middle of t.p.: Published in cooperation with the Tennessee Historical Commission

transcription:

260 ## $a Knoxville : $b University of Tennessee Press

500 ## $a "Published in cooperation with the Tennessee Historical Commission."

foot of t.p.: Publication of the Hawaii Natural History Association

 

at head of title: Published in cooperation with the National Park Service

transcription:

260 ## $a [Honolulu] : $b Hawaii Natural History Association

500 ## $a "Published in cooperation with the National Park Service."

 

 

1.4D5.   

Option Decision

LC practice: Apply the optional provision of the rule according to LCRI 1.4D4.

 

 

1.4D6.   

For a language whose final cataloging record is not in romanized form, use "s.n." if there

 

is no equivalent abbreviation in the nonroman script.

 

Library of Congress Rule Interpretations

Copyright (c)2004 by the Library of Congress except within the USA.

Copyright (c)2004 NextPage. All rights reserved.

 

 

1.4E. Optional addition. Statement of function of publisher, distributor, etc.   

Apply the rule when there are two entities named, one for publishing and the other for distributing, and the distributing entity's name does not convey an indication of this function. Apply it also when a single entity is named, it is known that this entity performed only a distributing function, and its name does not indicate this function. Do not apply it in other cases.

 

 

1.4E1.   

If the phrase indicating the function of distribution is simple, e.g., "for sale by," record it as it appears. For complex statements from which a succinct phrase cannot conveniently be excised, substitute the word "distributor" as a qualification to the body's name.

 

1.4F2.    Printing Dates

If a publication date is transcribed, e.g., from the prescribed source of information, and the item also contains a later date that represents the date the item was first manufactured, use the date of manufacture as the basis for inferring the true publication date (an item cannot be published until after it is manufactured). Such inferences must be bracketed, even when the inferred year of publication turns out to be the same as the stated date of manufacture. In all cases, introduce the resulting corrected date of publication with "i.e.," the whole enclosed by square brackets.

 

title page: 1986

verso of title page: printed 1987

bibliographic record: 1986 [i.e. 1987]

 

Dates of manufacture are normally indicated by explicit statements. In the case of GPO imprints, dates of printing are indicated implicitly by location:

 

1) dates found in numerical identifiers on signatures in U.S. Congressional documents (e.g., 70-7780-81-2, meaning printed in 1981, at the foot of p. 13 of a document) should be routinely taken as dates of printing.

 

title page: 1980

signature number: 70-7780-81-2

bibliographic record: 1980 [i.e. 1981]

 

2) dates found in GPO colophons should be routinely taken as dates of printing.

title page: 1986

colophon: 1987

bibliographic record: 1986 [i.e. 1987]

 

For the recording of printing dates additional to publication dates-when correction is not involved--see LCRI 1.4G4.

 

Multiple Dates

If the date on the item appears as a multiple date, give it as found. Follow it with the actual or approximate date as a correction within brackets.

 

1978/79 [i.e. 1979]

1978/1979 [i.e. 1978?]

1978/9 [i.e. 1978 or 1979]

 

 

1.4F5. Optional addition   

Option Decision

 

Apply the optional rule to materials other than books and printed serials whenever the copyright date of the item is different from the date of publication etc. (For books and printed serials, do not add a copyright date after the publication date.)

 

If a copyright date is being recorded, transcribe copyright dates other than a phonogram copyright date preceded by a lowercase "c"; transcribe the phonogram copyright date preceded by a lowercase "p."

 

1.4G. Place of manufacture, name of manufacturer, date of manufacture   

If a bracketed date of publication, etc., is followed by a bracketed place of manufacture, disregard 1.0C and put a closing bracket after the date and an opening bracket before the place.

 

Paris : Plans-guides Blay, [1979] ([Paris] : Imprimerie de Montligeon)

 

not   

 

Paris : Plans-guides Blay, [1979 (Paris] : Imprimerie de Montligeon)

 

 

1.4G4. Optional addition   

LC practice: Apply the option on a case-by-case basis. However, for books always include the date of a later impression, qualified by the word "printing" (without brackets), if the date of the first impression of the edition differs in years. If, after cataloging a later impression, the first impression is received for cataloging, revise the record to convert the date from the form "[date] ([date] printing)" (e.g., 1970 (1973 printing)) to "[date]" (e.g., 1970), so that the one bibliographic record can stand for all impressions. If, however, it is an impression other than the first that is received in the second instance, treat this as a copy and do not revise the record.

 

[Note from Mike: in practice, LCRI 1.4G4 is followed only by catalogers who contribute their original cataloging to RLIN (e.g., JACKPHY catalogers), and not by catalogers who contribute their original cataloging to OCLC (i.e., most catalogers, including Western-language catalogers at LC).  This is because of the single-record-per-edition rule followed by all contributors to OCLC, as outlined in “when to input a new record” at http://www.oclc.org/bibformats/en/input/.  You’ll notice if you search the LC online catalog that LC themselves don’t follow this RI, except in their JACKPHY vernacular cataloging.  (JACKPHY=Japanese, Arabic, Chinese, Korean, Persian, Hebrew, Yiddish).]

 

1.7B.  Notes.

 

Prefer the order of notes as specified in the rules unless there are mitigating circumstances that result in a different order (e.g., a policy decision applicable to a particular cooperative enterprise, the requirements of a particular system, an administrative decision not to re-order notes when doing copy cataloging).


1.7B2.  Language of the item and/or translation or adaptation    

General Application

Generally restrict the making of language and script notes to the situations covered in this directive.  (Note:  In this statement "language" and "language of the item" mean the language or languages of the content of the item (e.g., for books the language of the text); "title data" means title proper and other title information.)

If the language of the item is not clear from the transcription of the title data, make a note naming the language unless the language of the item has been named after the uniform title used as or in conjunction with the main entry.  Use "and" in all cases to link two languages (or the final two when more than two are named).  If more than one language is named, give the predominant language first if readily apparent; name the other languages in English alphabetical order.  If a predominant language is not apparent, name the languages in alphabetical order.

 

546 ## $a Articles chiefly in French; one article each in English and Italian.

546 ## $a Arabic and English.

546 ## $a Text in Coptic and French; notes in French.

 

If an item includes a summary in a language other than that of the text, give a note naming the language of the summary. If more than one language is named, give them in English alphabetical order.

 

546 ## $a Text in English with summaries in French, German, and Russian.

 

If an item includes a table of contents in a language other than that of the text, give a note naming the language of the table of contents. If more than one language is named, give them in English alphabetical order.

 

546 ## $a Text in Romanian with table of contents in English, Romanian, and Russian.

 

Special Application

LC practice: In addition to the conditions cited above, record in a note the language of the item being cataloged (whether or not the language is identified in the uniform title or in the body of the entry) in the following cases:

1)  the item is in one or more of the following languages:  Amharic, Georgian, Ottoman Turkish, a non-Slavic language of Central Asia written in the Cyrillic alphabet;

2)  the item is in a language indigenous to one or more of the following:  Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, India, Indonesia (other than Indonesian), Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Tibet;

3)  the item is in a language indigenous to Africa and is in a roman script;

4)  the item is in a language that is not primarily written in one script.  Name both the language and the script in language notes.  (Note: Do not add "script" to the name of a script unless the name is also the name of a language.)

 

546 ## $a In Konkani $b (Kannada script).

546 ## $a In Konkani $b (Devanagari).

546 ## $a In Serbian $b (roman).

546 ## $a In Serbian $b (Cyrillic).

546 ## $a In Syriac $b (Nestorian).

546 ## $a In Syriac $b (Estrangelo).

546 ## $a In Syriac $b (Jacobite).

 

5)  the item is written in a script other than the primary one for the language.  Name both the language and the script in the language notes.

 

546 ## $a In Panjabi.

(For a publication using the Gurmukhi script)

but 546 ## $a In Panjabi $b (Devanagari).

 

546 ## $a In Sanskrit.

(For a publication using the Devanagari script)

but 546 ## $a In Sanskrit $b (Grantha).

 

546 ## $a In Sindhi.

(For a publication using the Persian script)

but 546 ## $a In Sindhi $b (Gurmukhi).

 

546 ## $a In Azerbaijani.

(For a publication using the Cyrillic script)

but 546 ## $a In Azerbaijani $b (Arabic script).

 

546 ## $a In Azerbaijani $b (roman).

 

546 ## $a In Church Slavic.

(For a publication using the Cyrillic script)

but 546 ## $a In Church Slavic $b  (Glagolitic).

(For a publication using the Glagolitic script)

 

Note that more information may be added to language and script notes whenever the case warrants it.

 

546 ## $a English and Sanskrit $b (Sanskrit in roman and Devanagari).

546 ## $a Hebrew, Akkadian (romanized), and German.

(note: the term "romanized" is not subfielded because subfield $a is not repeatable)

 

Form of Language

When naming a language in a note, base the name on the form found in the current edition of the MARC Code List for Languages (and the updates published in Cataloging Service Bulletin and at URL <http://www.loc.gov/marc/languages/>). Note the following when using the MARC code list:

Use the name found in boldface type (e.g., "Frisian," not "Friesian").

Use the name for a specific language rather than the name of a language group (e.g., use "Bunun," not "Austronesian (Other)"). (Language groups are indicated by the term "languages" or by the qualifier "(Other).")

Do not include in the name parenthetical dates that appear with the name (e.g., use "Béarnais," not Béarnais (post-1500)").

Retain other parenthetical qualifiers that appear with the name (e.g., "Afrihili (Artificial language)"; "Luo (Kenya and Tanzania)".

For the early form of a modern language that is found in an inverted form, use the early form in direct order in the note (e.g., for "French, Old (ca. 842-1400,) use "Old French").

Note: Effective June 2000, discontinue using "Serbo-Croatian (Cyrillic)" and "Serbo-Croatian (roman)." Use one of the following: "Bosnian," "Croatian," "Serbian (Cyrillic)," or "Serbian (roman)."

 

Greek

LC practice: For the MARC code list forms "Attic Greek," "Greek, Ancient," and "Greek, Modern," use "Greek."

Exception: If the item is a translation from one specific Greek form into another Greek form, or contains text in two specific forms, and a note naming the language is appropriate, use the specific form(s) in the note.  In specifying the form of the Greek, use only one of the following terms:

Ancient Greek text and Modern Greek translation

"Ancient Greek" for the period before 300 B.C.

"Hellenistic Greek" for the period 300 B.C.-A.D. 600

"Biblical Greek" for the Septuagent and the New Testament

"Medieval Greek" for 600-1453

"Modern Greek" for the period 1453-

 

Norwegian

LC practice: For the MARC code list forms "Norwegian," "Norwegian (Bokmål)," and "Norwegian (Nynorsk)," use "Norwegian."

Languages That Omit Vowels

When a chief source in a nonroman script is vocalized or partially vocalized and this fact is significant, make one of the following notes, as appropriate:

500 ## $a Title page vocalized.

500 ## $a Title page partially vocalized.

 

Translation Note

LC practice: For translations of monographs, generally omit the note giving the original title if the original title is used in the uniform title main entry or is used in the uniform title under a personal or corporate name main entry.

Sign Languages

For items in which a sign language is present (e.g., a book containing pictures of the handshape of each letter of a particular sign system, a videorecording that is signed), give a note stating the particular sign system (e.g., American Sign Language, British Sign Language). Formulate the note to reflect the situation, i.e., use terminology to distinguish between cases in which the content of the whole item is signed, whether as the sole medium of communication or in conjunction with one or more others, and those in which a sign language is present but the whole item is not signed.

For example, for a videorecording in which the sign language is the sole medium of communication, give the note "Signed in [name of sign system]." For a videorecording that includes open signing, i.e., a sign language interpreter appears in a separate frame, give the language note "Open signed in [name of sign system]." For more complex situations (e.g., a dictionary containing both a language and a sign language), give the note "Includes sign language; the sign system represented is [name of sign system]." If it cannot be determined what sign system has been used, give a note indicating that the item is signed but not specifying the sign system; e.g., "Includes sign language."; "Open signed."


1.7B4.  Variations in title    

Variant Titles

A note may be essential to show a variation from the chief source title appearing elsewhere in the item.  Although the source may contain more than one title, record in a note only the needed variant title, not titles already given in the description.  (Always include in the note the source of the variant.)


1.7B13.  Dissertations [Formerly 2.7B13]    

Use the formal thesis note for editions that bear a formal thesis statement naming the institution or faculty to which the thesis was presented and the degree for which the author was a candidate.  (It does not matter whether the edition being cataloged actually is the one so presented.)  When formulating a formal thesis note, apply the provisions of the rule and include in the note the word "thesis," the degree, the institution, and the date.  For details not covered by the rule, use judgment.

Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Toronto, 1974

If the edition lacks a formal thesis statement, state its origin as a thesis in a general note when this information is readily available.  Include in the note only the elements (degree, institution, date) that are present.

Originally presented as the author's thesis (Stockholm) under title: ...

Revision of the author's thesis


1.7B20.  Copy being described, library's holdings, and restrictions on use    

LC practice: Routinely make notes on any special features or imperfections of the copy being described.  Carefully distinguish between such copy-specific notes and other kinds of notes that record information valid for all copies of an edition.  Introduce copy-specific notes with the phrase “LC copy ...” or “LC set ...” or “LC has ...” as appropriate.  Formulate the note according to current cataloging conventions, including those for ending punctuation.  Add the MARC Code List for Organizations (MCLO) code for LC (DLC) in subfield $5 at the end of the field without any ending punctuation.  Generally do not make such notes for serials or integrating resources, use field 590 instead.

 

500 ## $a LC copy imperfect: all after leaf 44 wanting. $5 DLC

500 ## $a LC set incomplete: v. 12 wanting. $5 DLC

500 ## $a LC has 24 parts. $5 DLC

(Item as issued has more than 24 parts)

500 ## $a LC set lacks slides 7-9. $5 DLC

500 ## $a LC has v. 1, 3-5, and 7 only. $5 DLC

500 ## $a LC has no. 20, signed by author. $5 DLC

500 ## $a LC has no. 145. $5 DLC

590 ## $a LC copy not updated.

(Integrating loose-leaf publication)


1.7B21.  "With" notes    

LC practice:  Creating separate bibliographic records and applying the “With” note is generally appropriate in copy-specific situations, i.e., two or more works issued independently have been subsequently placed together under one cover or comparable packaging.  (For an exception to the “subsequently placed together” limitation, see LCRI 1.1G2LCRI 3.1G1 and LCRI 11.1G1.) Additionally, rare books and other rare materials issued universally as one physical volume by the publisher, etc., with separate title pages, separate pagination/foliation, and separate collation (i.e., signatures) for each work included should also be cataloged separately and the “With” note applied (cf., e.g., Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books) (DCRM(B) 7C19).

For each item listed in a "with" note, give the title proper (or uniform title if one has been assigned), the statement of responsibility, and the entire publication, distribution, etc., area.  If there are more than two works, cite all the other works in the record for the first work; in the records for succeeding works, cite only the first work.  Use ISBD punctuation, except omit the period-space-dash- space between areas.  When multiple items are listed, separate them by a space-dash (two adjacent hyphens)-space.

In general cataloging, for all copy-specific (or probably copy-specific) situations, add the statement “Bound together subsequent to publication” or the statement “Probably bound together subsequent to publication” AND add the MARC Code List for Organizations (MCLO) code for LC (DLC) in subfield $5.  For rare book cataloging, adding one or the other of the statements regarding “bound with” or “probably bound with” is optional according to DCRB and Rare Book Team practice.  For universal bound-with situations, do not add subfield $5.

 

Note on first bibliographic record (record for Humiliations follow'd with deliverances):

501 ##   $a With: The Bostonian Ebenezer. Boston : Printed by B. Green & J. Allen, for Samuel Phillips, 1698 —— The cure of sorrow. Boston : Printed by B. Green, 1709.  Bound together subsequent to publication. $5 DLC

 

Note on second and third bibliographic records (for The Boston Ebenezer and for The cure of sorrow):

501 ##   $a With: Humiliations follow'd with deliverances. Boston : Printed by B. Green & J. Allen for S. Philips, 1697. Bound together subsequent to publication. $5 DLC

 

If the works are too numerous to be listed in the "With" note on the first bibliographic record, make an informal note.  Include the MCLO code in a subfield $5 only in the cases of copy-specific notes.

500 ##   $a No. 3 in a vol. with binder's title: Brownist tracts, 1599-1644. $5 DLC


1.7B23.  Item described    

Serials and Integrating Resources

See LCRI 12.7B23.

 

Multipart Items

Include the publication date of the part in the note.

500 ##   $a Description based on:  v. 3, published in 2001.

LC/PCC practice for multipart items: Do not add a "Latest part consulted" note when later parts are received.  When the first part is received, remove the "Description based on" note and modify the description as needed.

LC/PCC practice: When cataloging a part earlier than the part listed in the "Description based on" note but not the first part (e.g., description based on v. 3 and v. 2 is now being cataloged), compare the bibliographic data elements on that part to the description in the record. If there is a difference, modify the description as needed, give notes and access points as needed for information from the later part, and change the part numbering in the "Description based on" note.


 

 

 

1.11. Facsimiles, Photocopies, and Other Reproductions

 

1.11A.   

Non-Microform Reproductions

 

A reproduction is a manifestation that replicates an item (or a group of items) or another manifestation (e.g., a reprint with no changes) that is intended to function as a substitute. The reproduction may be in a different physical format from the original. Reproduction is generally a mechanical rather than an intellectual process. The physical characteristics of the reproduction such as color, image resolution, or sound fidelity are influenced by the particular process used to create it, and therefore may differ from those of the original. Reproductions are usually made for such reasons as the original's limited availability, remote location, poor condition, high cost, or restricted utility.

 

Cataloger judgment will be required to distinguish electronic reproductions from electronic republications or simultaneous publication in analog and digital form (only reproductions are covered by this LCRI). For example, an electronic reproduction produced using scanning techniques that results in a facsimile reproduction may be easily identified as a reproduction. Other non-facsimile electronic reproductions may also be considered under this LCRI when they purport to be a reproduction of the original and can serve as a surrogate for the original. Other cataloging agencies choosing to follow this LCRI may need to develop their own criteria for distinguishing reproductions from manifestations judged not to be reproductions. In cases of doubt, or in cases where there is inadequate information about the original on which to base a description, do not consider the electronic manifestation to be a reproduction.

 

LC practice: Follow these guidelines for reproductions of previously existing materials that are made for: preservation purposes in formats other than microforms; non-microform dissertations and other reproductions produced "on demand"; and, electronic reproductions.

 

These guidelines identify the data elements to be used in the record for the reproduction, separate from the record for the original. For some electronic reproductions, however, LC may delineate details of the reproduction on the record for the original manifestation rather than create a separate record for the reproduction. LC catalogers should consult "Draft Interim Guidelines for Cataloging Electronic Resources" <http://lcweb.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/dcmb19_4.html> for more information (other cataloging agencies may have developed their own guidelines in this regard).

 

1) Transcribe the bibliographic data appropriate to the original work being reproduced in the following areas:

 

title and statement of responsibility

edition

material (or type of publication) specific details

publication, distribution, etc.

physical description

series

 

2) If appropriate, give in the title and statement of responsibility area the general material designation that is applicable to the format of the reproduction (cf. LCRI 1.1C).

 

3) Give in a single note (533 field) all other details relating to the reproduction and its publication/availability. Include in the note the following bibliographic data in the order listed:

 

format of the reproduction

dates of publication and/or sequential designation of issues reproduced (for serials)

place and name of the agency responsible for the reproduction

date of the reproduction

physical description of the reproduction if different from the original

series statement of the reproduction (if applicable)

notes relating to the reproduction (if applicable)

 

 

Apply rules 1.4-1.7 for the formulation of the bibliographic data in the note. Enclose cataloger-supplied data in brackets. Omit the area divider (space-dash-space).

 

4) Use a physical description fixed field (007) applicable to the reproduction. For electronic reproductions, also supply information about the electronic location and access (856 field).

 

Examples (do not necessarily include all applicable data elements):

 

007 st#pmndmb|||||

245 10 $a Barcarolle, op. 10, piano solo $h [sound recording] / $c Sergei        Rachmaninoff. Valse in A , op. 64, no. 3, piano solo / Chopin.

260 ## $a [West Orange, N.J.] : $b Edison, $c [1921]

300 ## $a 1 sound disc : $b analog, 78 rpm, vertical, mono. ; $c 10 in.

511 0# $a Sergei Rachmaninoff, piano.

500 ## $a Recorded at Edison Studios, New York, Apr. 19 (2nd work) and Apr. 23 (1st work), 1919.

500 ## $a Acoustic recording.

533 ## $a Sound tape reel. $b College Park, Md. : $c International Piano Archives at Maryland, $d 1989. $e 1 sound tape reel : analog, 15 ips, 2 tracks, mono. ; 10 in., ¼ in. tape.

 

 

245 10 $a American colorplate books, 1800-1900 / $c by Daniel Francis McGrath.

260 ## $c 1966.

300 ## $a iv, 231 leaves.

500 ## $a Typescript.

502 ## $a Thesis (Ph. D.)—University of Michigan, 1966.

504 ## $a Includes bibliographical references (leaves 226-231).

533 ## $a Photocopy. $b Ann Arbor, Mich. : $c University Microfilms, $d 1970. $e 23 cm.

 

 

 

007 cr||||

245 10 $a Introduction to United States government information sources $h [electronic resource] / $c Joe Morehead.

250 ## $a 6th ed.

260 ## $a Englewood, Colo. : $b Libraries Unlimited, $c 1999.

300 ## $a xxv, 491 p. ; $c 25 cm.

440 #0 $a Library and information science text series

504 ## $a Includes bibliographical references and indexes.

533 ## $a Electronic reproduction. $b Boulder, Colo. : $c NetLibrary,$d 1999. $n Mode of access: World Wide Web. $n Access restricted to NetLibrary subscribers.

856 4# $3 Display record $u http://www.netlibrary.com/summary.asp?ID=11187

 

 

 

007 cr||||

245 10 $a Breeding design considerations for coastal Douglas-fir $h [electronic resource] / $c Randy Johnson.

260 ## $a Portland, OR : $b U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, $c [1998]

300 ## $a 34 p. : $b ill. ; $c 28 cm.

500 ## $a Cover title.

500 ## $a "February 1998."

533 ## $a Electronic reproduction. $b Portland, OR : $c PNW Publications,$d 1998. $n Mode of access: World Wide Web. $n System requirements: Adobe Acrobat reader.

856 4# $u http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/gtr%5F411.pdf

 

 

Notes:

1. Items that are reproductions of materials prepared or assembled specially for bringing out an original edition (e.g., republished for inclusion in a collection, commemorative editions, published with new introductory material) are cataloged as editions, not as reproductions.

 

2. Consider the "agency responsible for the reproduction" to be the agency that selected the material to be reproduced, arranged for reproducing the material, exercised control over production formats, has overall responsibility for quality, etc. If the agency is unknown, give "[s.n.]"; if place and agency are unknown, use "[S.l. : s.n.]." Transcribe also the name of the agency from which to secure copies or the agency that made the reproduction if the agency is named in one of the prescribed sources for the publication, distribution, etc., area of the reproduction

 

3. Other cataloging agencies choosing to follow this LCRI may have compelling local reasons (e.g., data manipulation) for recording notes relating to the reproduction in other than the 533 field (e.g., system requirements (538), restrictions on access (506)).

 

 

 

Note about “produced together”: these guidelines do not address the cataloging of such a made-up larger resource. LC catalogers: See DCM C14 for collection-level cataloging guidelines; see DCM C12.7 for guidelines for 2A cataloging (creation of a collected set record for an unnumbered multipart item.

 

Note about “unique titles”:  Such unique titles are usually dedicated to a particular topic and vary from issue to issue and conference to conference. Use judgment when determining if thematic or slogan-like phrases constitute unique titles and, therefore, warrant monographic treatment.

 

Note about “separators”: "Separators" are defined as characters that divide groups of letters or numbers into multiple words, in the context of constructing search keys. The most frequent examples are the ISBD marks of punctuation, as well as opening and closing parentheses, the hyphen, and double quotes.

 

 

 

Taken from: Library of Congress Rule Interpretations

Copyright (c)2004 by the Library of Congress except within the USA.