H 870 Interposition of Geographic Subdivisions

 

BACKGROUND: When topical headings are combined with topical subdivisions, place may be expressed by one of two methods: (1) interposing the name of the place between the heading and the subdivision, for example, Construction industry–Poland–Finance, or (2) further subdividing the topical subdivision by place, for example, Construction industry–Law and legislation–Poland. In the past, the practice had been to assign two headings instead of a single heading, as in the following example:

 

650 #0 $a Construction industry $x Finance.

650 #0 $a Construction industry $z Poland.

 

In the 1960s, the first method above was adopted as a replacement for the previous practice of assigning two headings, and the second or alternative method of further subdividing topical subdivisions was reserved for a limited number of exceptional subdivisions. The Subject Subdivisions Conference that took place at Airlie, Virginia, in 1991 recommended that the standard order of subdivisions should be [topic]– [place]–[chronology]–[form]. In 1992, it was decided to adopt that order where it could be applied. Toward achieving the standard order, new topical subdivisions for which geographic orientation is logical are now established with authorization for further subdivision by place. On a case-by-case basis, subdivisions not previously divided by place are being authorized for geographic subdivision. The method of further dividing subdivisions by place is discussed in H 860.

 

This instruction sheet discusses the method of interposing geographical subdivisions between headings and topical subdivisions that are not authorized for further subdivision by place. It also covers interposing geographic subdivisions between headings and chronological subdivisions and between headings and form subdivisions.

 

1. General rule. Bring out place for topical headings with topical subdivisions by interposing the name of the place between the main heading and its subdivision following the guidelines in H 830, provided that the heading is authorized for geographic subdivision and the subdivision is not, for example, Construction industry–Poland–Finance.

 

2. Exceptions. Assign only one heading specified in sec. 1, above, except under the following conditions:

·   If the work being cataloged deals with the general topic as well as with the topic as it applies to a particular place, assign two headings, for example,

 

650 #0 $a Construction industry $x Finance.

650 #0 $a Construction industry $z Poland $x Finance.

 

·   In certain subjects and with particular headings and subdivisions, there are long-standing practices of assigning multiple headings, for example, wars and other armed conflicts (cf. H 1200, sec. 1), the subdivision –Religious aspects (cf. H 1998, sec. 2.a.), and religious denominations or religions as subdivisions (cf. H 2015, sec. 4). Continue to follow these practices.

 

3. Chronological subdivisions.

a. Art and music. Chronological subdivisions are used under headings for national and ethnic art and art forms (cf. H 1148) and musical compositions (cf. H 1160 and H 1916.5) to represent the art and music of those periods. Interpose geographic subdivisions between main headings and chronological subdivisions to represent the art and music of those places in those times. Examples:

 

650 #0 $a Landscape painting, French $z France $z Marseille $y 19th century.

650 #0 $a Pottery, Japanese $z Japan $z Hiroshima-ken $y To 794.

650 #0 $a Art, Aboriginal Australian $z Australia $z Queensland $y 20th century.

650 #0 $a Choral music $z Germany $y 18th century.

650 #0 $a Jazz $z Louisiana $z New Orleans $y 1951-1960.

 

b. –History–[dates]. Interpose geographic subdivisions between headings that are authorized for geographic subdivision and the topical subdivision –History followed by either established or free-floating chronological subdivisions, provided that the time period is appropriate for the place, for example, Women–Italy–History–Renaissance, 1450-1600; Chemistry–Germany–History–19th century. Consider establishing headings of the type [topic]–[place]–History–[dates] where a specific date span is pertinent for a place and there is sufficient material to warrant it, for example, Finance, Public–France–History–1789-1871.

 

c. –Foreign relations–[dates]. Date subdivisions are established under headings of the type [place]–Foreign relations to express the diplomatic relations of a region or country during that time period. To express the diplomatic relations between two specific regions or countries during a time period, do not interpose geographic subdivisions between [place]–Foreign relations and the date subdivision. Assign multiple headings instead (cf. H 1629). Example:

 

651 #0 $a Great Britain $x Foreign relations $y 1979-1997.

651 #0 $a Great Britain $x Foreign relations $z Argentina.

651 #0 $a Argentina $x Foreign relations $z Great Britain.

651 #0 $a Argentina $x Foreign relations $y 1955-1983.

 

d. Literature. Chronological subdivisions are used under headings for individual literatures and genres of those literatures (cf. H 1156), and groups of literary authors (cf. H 1155.2) to represent the literatures and groups of authors in those periods. Do not interpose geographic subdivisions between the headings for the literatures and groups of authors and chronological subdivisions. Assign two headings instead.

 

e. Geology and paleontology. Following long-standing practice, do not interpose geographic subdivisions between the headings Geology, Stratigraphic; Paleontology; Paleobotany; etc., and established chronological subdivisions for geologic eras, periods, and epochs, for example, Geology, Stratigraphic–Permian; Paleontology–Pennsylvanian; Paleobotany–Carboniferous. Assign two headings instead. Example:

 

650 #0 $a Paleontology $y Cretaceous.

650 #0 $a Paleontology $z Montana.

[not   650 #0 $a Paleontology $z Montana $y Cretaceous.]

 

4. Form subdivisions. Form subdivisions are generally the last element in subject headings (cf. H 1075, sec. 2). Interpose geographic subdivisions between headings that are authorized for geographic subdivision and form subdivisions unless the subdivision is one of the exceptional form subdivisions that are authorized for further geographic subdivision, for example, –Catalogs and collections (May Subd Geog); –Job descriptions (May Subd Geog); –Registers of dead (May Subd Geog).