H 1917.5 Music Form/Genre Headings: Medium of Performance

 

CONTENTS

 

BACKGROUND

 

1. Names of instruments, families, and ensembles

 

a. Form of name

(1)   General guidelines

(2)   Headings that include the instrument’s key

(3)   Headings that include the instrument’s range

(4)   Non-musical objects as musical instruments

 

b. Singular/plural

(1)   Instruments

(2)   Ensembles and families of instruments

 

c. Doubling

 

2. Solo instruments in headings: Order of solo instruments

 

3. Solo instruments in headings: Combinations of two different instruments or of one unspecified and one specified instrument

a. Standard order

b. One unspecified instrument

c. Chordal instruments; accompanying instrument

 

4. Solo instruments in headings:Two or more of the same solo instrument or of the number of players of the instrument

a. Two or more of the same instrument in a mixed group

 

b. Music of individual instruments

(1)   Wind, plucked, and bowed stringed instruments

            (a)   Number of instruments

            (b)   Number of hands

(2)   Keyboard instruments

            (a)   Number of hands

            (b)   Number of instruments

                        i.   Two keyboard instruments

                        ii.   Three or more keyboard instruments

                        iii.   One performer playing more than one instrument

(3)   Two or more unspecified instruments

(4)   Percussion instruments

            (a)   Number of hands

            (b)   Number of players

(5)   Electronic music; Computer music

 

 

5. Instrumental ensembles

a. Types of instrumental ensemble

(1)   Large ensembles (more than one player to a part)

            (a)   Large ensembles of different instruments

            (b)   Large ensembles of the same instrument

(2)   Ensembles with one player to a part

            (a)   Ensembles of different instruments

            (b)   Ensembles of the same instrument

 

b. Number of instruments represented by the word “ensemble”

(1)   Collections

(2)   Individual works

(3)   Certain other ensembles

(4)   Solo instruments as accompanying ensemble

(5)   Percussion ensemble(s)

(6)   Jazz ensembles

 

c. Authority records

(1)   Large ensembles (more than one player to a part)

(2)   Ensembles with one player to a part

 

d. Orchestra assumed as the medium of performance

 

e. The headings Concertos (Orchestra [Band, etc.])

 

6. Connecting words: “and” and “with”

a. The connecting word “and”

b. The connecting word “with”

c. “And” and “with” in the same heading

 

7. Arranged works: the qualifier “, Arranged”

a. Free-floating usage

b. Authority record required

c. Special provision for excerpts

 

8. Solo vocal works

a. Voice stated or implied in the heading

(1)   One solo voice

(2)   Two or more solo voices

b. Voice not stated or implied in the main heading

(1)   One solo voice

(2)   Two or more solo voices

(3)   Unaccompanied works

 

9. Chorus

a. Chorus stated or implied in the heading

(1)   Type of chorus

(a)   No qualifier for type of chorus

(b)   Free-floating qualifiers for type of chorus

(c)   Headings established with qualifier for type of chorus

(2)   Number of choral parts

b. Chorus not stated or implied in the main heading

 

10. Accompaniment for vocal music

a. Accompaniment not given in the heading

b. One instrument or two keyboard instruments

c. Other instrumental accompaniment

 

11. Unaccompanied music: the qualifier “, Unaccompanied”

a. Vocal music

(1)   Free-floating usage

(2)   Authority record required

(3)   Examples

b. Instrumental music

 

BACKGROUND: This instruction sheet provides guidance on headings for musical compositions, specifically, those music form/genre headings that include medium of performance. Its primary focus is on when authority records are required and how to formulate headings that include medium of performance when the headings are built from various elements according to patterns. It also touches on music form/genre headings that do not include medium of performance. For guidance on subdivisions for musical compositions, see H 1160.

A large number of music form/genre headings that include medium of performance have been established in the subject authority file. With some exceptions (see H 250 and below), authority records for these types of headings are no longer made because: 1) cross references are no longer required; 2) the order of musical instruments given in the headings has been a pattern for some time; and 3) the patterns the headings follow are amply illustrated in the authority file.

 

1. Name of instruments, families, and ensembles.

a. Form of name.

(1) General guidelines. For general guidance on the creation of subject authority records for musical works, see H 250. For additional guidance on establishing names of musical instruments, see H 1918. When specifying an instrument in a heading, use the form of name for the instrument established in the subject authority file. If the name of the instrument has not been established, make two proposals, one for the name of the instrument and the other for its music, which will authorize the instrument to be used in bibliographic records as a medium of performance. Include a see also reference in the proposal for the music, where the authorized plural, if there is one, is shown, and a scope note.  Example:

 

150 ## $a Flute

150 ## $a Flute music

360 ## $i headings for forms and types of music that include "flute" or "flutes" and headings with medium of performance that include "flute" or "flutes"

680 ## $i Here are entered compositions not in a specific form or of a specific type for solo flute, and collections of compositions in several forms or types for solo flute.

 

(2) Headings that include the instrument's key. When establishing headings, omit the key of the instrument even if it is typically included in the instrument's name.  Examples:

 

150 ## $a Clarinet [Includes the A, B flat and E flat clarinets]

150 ## $a Trumpet [Includes the B flat, C, D, E flat, F, and A trumpets]

 

(3) Headings that include the instrument's range. Headings for instruments may be established that incorporate the instrument's range. Retain the term for the range when the instrument is used as a medium of performance in form/genre headings for musical works only in headings for instrumental works, and only when the works are for one or two solo players, alone or accompanied by an ensemble. In other form/genre headings use the generic term for the instrument.  Examples:

 

150 ## $a Alto flute music

150 ## $a Alto flute and viola music

150 ## $a Sonatas (Alto flutes (2))

150 ## $a Alto trombone music

150 ## $a Alto trombone with string orchestra.

150 ## $a Bass clarinet music

650 ## $a Concertos (Bass clarinet and double bass with jazz ensemble)

but:

Title: Life a mad animal : for double bass, piano, violin, viola, alto flute, clarinet

150 ## $a Flute music

650 ## $a Sextets (Piano, clarinet, flute, violin, viola, double bass)

 

Include a scope note in the authority record for music of an instrument whose name incorporates the instrument's range, to state when the specific name of the instrument is used, and when the generic name is used, in form/genre headings that include the medium of performance. Example:

150 ## $a Bass clarinet music

680 ## $i The term "bass clarinet" is used as a medium of performance in headings for works for one or two solo instruments, alone or accompanied by an ensemble. In headings for other works that include bass clarinet, the generic term "clarinet" is used as the medium of performance.

 

(4) Non-musical objects as musical instruments. When establishing a heading for music written for non-musical objects, also establish a heading for each object as a musical instrument and designate the two headings as related terms.  Example:

150 ## $a Leaf music

550 ## $a Leaves as musical instruments

150 ## $a Leaves as musical instruments

550 ## $w g $a Musical instruments

550 ## $a Leaf music

 

b. Singular/plural.

(1) Instruments. Names of instruments established in the plural (because more than one is usually played at a time by a single performer) may be singular or plural in headings for music of that instrument, where natural language should govern the choice. Examples:

 

Name of the instrument Music of the instrument

Castanets

Clock chimes

Panpipes

Timpani Castanet music

Clock chime music

Panpipes music

Timpani music

 

(2) Ensembles and families of instruments. When establishing a heading for music of an instrumental ensemble or a family of instruments whose name has been established in the plural, use the name of the ensemble or family in the singular in the heading for music of the ensemble or family. Examples:

 

Name of the ensemble or family Music of the ensemble or family

Bands (Music)

Stringed instruments Band music

Stringed instrument music

 

c. Doubling. If a solo performer doubles on two or more instruments of the same type, use the generic name for the instrument in headings that specify medium of performance. Example:

Title: Sonata a cinque : for clarinet in A (doubling on bass clarinet and clarinet in E-flat), violin, cello, bass trombone and piano

650 ## $a Quintets (Piano, clarinet, trombone, violin, violoncello)

2. Solo instruments in headings: Order of solo instruments. Assign the names of solo instruments in the following order: (1) keyboard instruments, (2) wind instruments, (3) plucked instruments, (4) percussion, electronic, and other instruments, (5) bowed stringed instruments, (6) unspecified instruments, and (7) continuo. Within each numbered category, give the instruments in alphabetical order with the exception of bowed stringed instruments: give these in score order, high to low, basing the order on the range of each instrument as described in standard music reference sources.

Do not include more than 9 instruments or 9 soloists in a heading, counting all categories. If the solo group is larger than 9, use an appropriate heading that incorporates the term "ensemble" (cf. sec. 5).

Examples:

650 #0 $a Clarinet, flute, violin, violoncello with chamber orchestra.

650 #0 $a Flute and violin music.

650 #0 $a Concertos (Piano, saxophone, double bass with instrumental ensemble)

650 #0 $a Nonets (Bassoon, clarinet, flute, horn, oboe, violin, viola, violoncello, double bass)

650 #0 $a Octets (Piano, clarinet, flute, guitar, mandolin, accordion, percussion, double bass)

650 #0 $a Piano, horn, glockenspiel, xylophone with orchestra

650 #0 $a Pianos (2), celesta, percussion, synthesizer with chamber orchestra

650 #0 $a Quartets (Flute, violin, viola, continuo)

650 #0 $a Sonatas (Flute and violin)

650 #0 $a Suites (Flute, harp, vibraphone, violoncello)

650 #0 $a Quartets (Pianos (3), computer)

650 #0 $a Quartets (Clarinet, flute, computer, double bass)

650 #0 $a Septets (Electronics, percussion)

650 #0 $a String quintets (Violin, viola d'amore, viola, violoncello, violone)

650 #0 $a Trios (Piano (4 hands), reed organ)

650 #0 $a Variations (Organ and piano)

For the order of solo instruments when there are two, one of which is chordal, see sec. 3 and sec. 6.

For guidelines on headings for two or more solo instruments combined with a term for an accompanying ensemble, see sec. 5.

 

3. Solo instruments in headings: Combinations of two different instruments or of one unspecified and one specified instrument.

a. Standard order. Follow the general guidelines in sec. 2. Create an authority record for the combination; provide a reference with the instruments in reverse order. Examples:

 

150 ## $a Bassoon and flute music

450 ## $a Flute and bassoon music

 

150 ## $a Sitar and tabla music

450 ## $a Tabla and sitar music

 

b. One unspecified instrument. In headings for works where one of the instruments is unspecified, establish the heading beginning with the term Duets. Provide references with both of the other possible ways of expressing the combination.

Example:

150 ## $a Duets (Unspecified instrument and piano)

450 ## $a Duets (Piano and unspecified instrument)

450 ## $a Piano and unspecified instrument music

 

c. Chordal instruments; accompanying instrument. If one of the instruments is chordal (keyboard or plucked instruments, on which chords are easily played), or if one serves as an accompaniment to the other, give the chordal or accompanying instrument in the second position. Examples:

 

1 chordal instrument as accompaniment:

150 ## $a Trombone and piano music

450 ## $a Piano and trombone music

 

2 chordal instruments, the second as accompaniment:

150 ## $a Mandolin and piano music

450 ## $a Piano and mandolin music

 

4. Solo instruments in headings: Two or more of the same solo instrument or of the number of players of the instrument.

a. Two or more of the same instrument in a mixed group. When there are two or more different parts for the same instrument, or for unspecified instruments, in a group where other solo instruments are also required, specify the number of instruments with an arabic numeral in parentheses following the instrument's name. Use the plural form of the name. No authority record is necessary to establish the number. Examples:

 

650 #0 $a Concertos (Euphonium, horns (4) with band)

650 #0 $a Concertos (Flutes (3), harp)

650 #0 $a Concertos (Harpsichord, guitars (2), harp, double bass)

650 #0 $a Horns (3), violin with chamber orchestra.

650 #0 $a String nonets (Violins (4), violas (2), violoncellos (2), double bass)

 

b. Music of individual instruments. Headings representing music of an individual instrument (Clarinet music, Harp music, etc.), or an unspecified instrument, may be modified as shown below. Authority records are required for the modified headings. These authority records authorize use of the modifications in all pattern headings described in this instruction sheet for works that feature the instruments, either as soloists alone or as soloists serving as accompaniment.

Do not confuse the provisions in this section with sec. a. above, which provides for headings in which there are two or more parts for the instrument and the instrument is in a mixed group statement of the medium of performance.

 

(1) Wind, plucked, and bowed stringed instruments.

(a) Number of instruments. The heading for music for the instrument may be modified for music for two of the same instrument. Examples:

 

150 ## $a Flute music (Flutes (2))

150 ## $a Violoncello music (Violoncellos (2))

 

(b) Number of hands. If a work calls for the instrument to be played with a number of hands other than two, an authority record for music of the instrument with the exceptional number of hands is required. Indicate the number of hands in parentheses after the name of the instrument. Examples:

 

150 ## $a Lute music (4 hands)

650 ## $a Songs (High voice) with lute (4 hands)

 

150 ## $a Viola music (3 hands)

650 ## $a Sonatas (Viola, 3 hands)

 

(2) Keyboard instruments.

(a) Number of hands.  If a work calls for the instrument to be played with a number of hands other than two, an authority record for music of the instrument indicating the exceptional number of hands is required. Give the number of hands in parentheses after the name of the instrument, or, if there is more than one instrument, following the number of instruments. 

Examples:

150 ## $a Piano music (1 hand)

450 ## $a Left-hand piano music

450 ## $a Right-hand piano music

650 #0 $a Concertos (Piano, 1 hand)

650 #0 $a Quintets (Piano (1 hand), clarinet, violin, viola, violoncello)

150 ## $a Piano music (Pianos (2), 6 hands)

150 ## $a Organ music (4 hands)

650 #0 $a Canons, fugues, etc. (Organ, 4 hands), Arranged

650 #0 $a Septets (Organ (4 hands), horn, trombone, trumpets (2), tuba)

 

Do not enclose the number of hands in parentheses if the keyboard instrument is part of the accompaniment in vocal music headings (cf. sec. 10).

Example:

150 ## $a Piano music (4 hands)

650 #0 $a Songs (High voice) with piano, 4 hands.

650 #0 $a Choruses, Secular (Mixed voices) with piano, 4 hands.

 

(b) Number of instruments. 

i. Two keyboard instruments.  If a work features two of the same solo keyboard instruments, make an authority record for music of the instrument, modified to show the number. Examples:

 

150 ## $a Electronic organ music (Electronic organs (2))

650 #0 $a Chorale preludes (Electronic organs (2))

150 ## $a Harpsichord music (Harpsichords (2))

650 #0 $a Concertos (Harpsichords (2) with string orchestra)

150 ## $a Organ music (Organs (2))

650 #0 $a Organs (2) with orchestra.

650 #0 $a Pianos (2)

650 #0 $a Quartets (Pianos (2), percussion)

650 #0 $a Choruses, Secular (Children's voices) with pianos (2)

 

ii. Three or more keyboard instruments. Three or more keyboard instruments constitute an ensemble. If the instruments are the same, the ensemble bears that instrument's name. Example:

150 ## $a Piano ensembles

650 #0 $a Piano ensembles, Arranged.

650 #0 $a Suites (Piano ensemble)

Works for keyboard instruments that differ, or that are not specified, are assigned the heading Keyboard instrument ensembles. This heading, and those for ensembles of specific keyboard instruments, authorize the construction of pattern headings for works that feature three or more of the instrument or whose accompaniment is for three or more of the instrument. See also sec. 5.b.(4).

 

iii. One performer playing more than one instrument. If a work calls for one performer to play more than one of the same keyboard instrument, an authority record incorporating both the number of instruments and the number of performers is required. Indicate the performer as the last element in the heading. Example:

150 ## $a Piano music (Pianos (2), 1 performer)

 

(3) Two or more unspecified instruments. For two unspecified instruments the headings Duets (Unspecified instruments (2)) through Nonets (Unspecified instruments (9)) have been established. The number of unspecified instruments in these and related headings is indicated even when they begin with the number of players (Trios, Quartets, etc.). Examples:

650 #0 $a Canons, fugues, etc. (Unspecified instruments (5))

650 #0 $a Trio sonatas (Unspecified instruments (2), continuo)

 

(4) Percussion instruments.

(a) Number of hands. When two or more players perform on a mallet instrument or on the celesta, instruments normally played with two hands, specify the number of hands if other than two. Make an authority record for the music for each exceptional number of hands.

Example:

150 ## $a Vibraphone music (4 hands)

650 #0 $a Trios (Flute, vibraphone (4 hands))

 

(b) Number of players. Do not specify the number of percussion players. One player often plays more than one instrument, so a number representing the players can be confused with the number of instruments. This proscription leads to some ambiguity, as the term "percussion" is used in two ways in headings: 1) "percussion" stands for a solo percussionist in duet combinations where the percussionist plays two or more different instruments: Examples:

150 ## $a Percussion music

650 #0 $a Electronic and percussion music.

650 #0 $a Songs (Low voice) with percussion.

and 2) in headings for three or more solo instruments from various families, "percussion" stands for one or more solo percussionists playing two or more different instruments. However, the number of percussion players can sometimes be inferred from the heading. See also sec. 5.b(6).

Examples:

   Title: A cycle for voice and percussion / John Cage.

[1 percussionist plays four instruments]

   650 #0 $a Songs with percussion.

   Title: Images : para percusión / Siegfried Fink

[Flute or soprano and 4 percussionists]

   650 #0 $a Quintets (Flute, percussion)

650 #0 $a Songs (High voice) with percussion ensemble.

   Title: Sonata for two pianos and percussion / Béla Bartók.

[2 percussionists play 11 instruments]

650 #0 $a Quartets (Pianos (2), percussion)

650 #0 $a Sonatas (Pianos (2), percussion)

   Title: Music of amber / Joseph Schwantner.

[1 percussionist plays 13 instruments]

650 #0 $a Sextets (Piano, clarinet, flute, percussion, violin, violoncello)

 

(5) Electronic music; Computer music. Do not modify these headings or the term "electronics" in a heading to indicate the number of instruments.

 

5. Instrumental ensembles.

a. Types of instrumental ensemble. There are two principal types of instrumental groups: large ensembles with more than one player to a part, and smaller ensembles with one player to a part. Both types have the same two subtypes: ensembles of different instruments and ensembles of the same instrument. Subject heading practice for each type and subtype is described below. Terms for the names of specific types of ensemble may be used alone in headings or as an element that indicates medium of performance. Authority records are required for the type of ensemble and for music of the ensemble. For further guidance, see sec. 5.c below.

(1) Large ensembles (more than one player to a part), such as orchestra, string orchestra, band, clarinet choir. The word "ensembles" is not part of headings in this category.

(a) Large ensembles of different instruments. Examples:

 

Ensemble type as heading Ensemble type as medium of performance

Orchestra

 

 

String orchestra

Band (Music) Violin with orchestra

Suites (Orchestra)

Songs (High voice) with orchestra

Concertos (String orchestra)

Choruses, Sacred (Mixed voices) with band

Suites (Piano with band)

 

 

 

(b) Large ensembles of the same instrument. Example:

 

Ensemble type as heading Ensemble type as medium of performance

Clarinet choir Variations (Piano with clarinet choir)

Piano with clarinet choir

 

 

 

(2) Ensembles with one player to a part.

(a) Ensembles of different instruments. Examples:

 

Ensemble type as heading Ensemble type as medium of performance

Instrumental ensembles

 

 

 

Brass ensembles

 

 

 

Wind ensembles

 

String ensembles

 Harp with instrumental ensemble

Variations (Instrumental ensemble)

Choruses, Sacred (Mixed voices) with

instrumental ensemble

Symphonies (Brass ensemble)

Brass ensemble with orchestra

Choruses, Secular (Mixed voices)

with brass ensemble

Clarinet with wind ensemble

Concertos (Tuba with wind ensemble)

Variations (Clarinet with string ensemble)

Songs (Medium voice) with string ensemble

 

 

 

(b) Ensembles of the same instrument. Examples:

 

Ensemble type as heading Ensemble type as medium of performance

Clarinet ensembles

Recorder ensembles

Violin ensembles Clarinet with clarinet ensemble

Suites (Recorder ensemble)

Canons, fugues, etc. (Violin ensemble)

 

 

 

b. Number of instruments represented by the word "ensemble."

(1) Collections. For collections, the word "ensemble(s)" in headings for the type of ensemble may represent works that differ in their specific instrumentation or number of players.

 

(2) Individual works. For individual works, the word "ensemble(s)" stands for 10 or more instruments in headings for the type of ensemble, except as indicated in sec. (3)-(6). Examples:

650 #0 $a Brass ensemble with orchestra.

650 #0 $a String ensembles.

650 #0 $a Symphonies (Brass ensemble)

650 #0 $a Variations (Instrumental ensemble)

 

(3) Certain other ensembles. The following headings for types of ensemble stand for three or more instruments of that type. Check scope notes in subject authority records to ascertain whether ensemble headings for other instruments have been added to this small group.

150 ## $a Accordion ensembles

150 ## $a Carillon ensembles

150 ## $a Concertina ensembles

150 ## $a Harmonica ensembles

150 ## $a Harpsichord ensembles

150 ## $a Keyboard instrument ensembles

150 ## $a Piano ensembles

 

(4) Solo instruments as accompanying ensemble. With one exception, two or more instruments that serve as accompaniment are described in headings as a type of ensemble, even though some of the combinations would be described by a different term otherwise. Indication of accompaniment follows the connecting word with (cf. sec. 6). See also sec. 10. Examples:

 

650 #0 $a Choruses, Sacred (Mixed voices) with keyboard ensemble.

[not, e.g., 650 #0 $a Choruses, Sacred (Mixed voices) with organ and piano.]

 

650 #0 $a Songs (High voice) with string ensemble.

[not, e.g., 650 #0 $a Songs (High voice) with string quartet.]

 

650 #0 $a Songs (Medium voice) with instrumental ensemble.

[not, e.g., 650 #0 $a Songs (Medium voice) with piano trio.]

 

Exception: When the accompaniment is for two of the same keyboard instrument, the instrument is specified. Example:

650 #0 $a Vocal trios with pianos (2)

 

(5) Percussion ensemble(s). Percussion ensemble(s) stands for two or more performers, each playing one or more instruments, in works solely for percussion or where the accompaniment is solely for percussion. Examples:

650 #0 $a Percussion ensembles.

650 #0 $a Vibraphone with percussion ensemble.

 

(6) Jazz ensembles. The term "jazz ensembles" is not used as a main heading (cf. the see also reference in the authority record Jazz). However, it may be used as a medium of performance to designate a group of two or more solo instruments with other accompaniment, or to designate the accompanying group itself. Examples:

650 #0 $a Concertos (Jazz ensemble with band)

650 #0 $a Guitar and piano with jazz ensemble.

 

c. Authority records.

(1) Large ensembles, with more than one player to a part. An authority record is required for the music for the type of ensemble. Include a scope note in the proposal and a see also reference, which authorizes the term for the ensemble to be used in bibliographic records as a medium of performance. Examples:

150 ## $a String orchestra music

680 ## $i Here are entered compositions not in a specific form or of a specific type for string orchestra, and collections of compositions in several forms or types for string orchestra.

360 ## $i headings for forms and types of music that include "string orchestra" and headings with medium of performance that include "string orchestra"

150 ## $a Band music

680 ## $i Here are entered compositions not in a specific form or of a specific type for band, and collections of compositions in several forms or types for band.

360 ## $i headings for forms and types of music that include "band" and headings with medium of performance that include "band"

150 ## $a Trombone choir music

680 ## $i Here are entered compositions not in a specific form or of a specific type for trombone choir, and collections of compositions in several forms or types for trombone choir.

360 ## $i headings for forms and types of music that include "trombone choir" and headings with medium of performance that include "trombone choir"

 

(2) Ensembles with one player to a part. An authority record is required for the name of the ensemble. Include a scope note and a general see also reference, which authorizes the term for the ensemble to be used in bibliographic records as a medium of performance. Examples:

150 ## $a Instrumental ensembles

680 ## $i Here are entered compositions not in a specific form or of a specific type for ten or more different solo instruments, and collections of compositions for various numbers of solo instruments belonging to different families.

360 ## $i headings for forms and types of music that include "instrumental ensemble" and headings with medium of performance that include "instrumental ensemble"

150 ## $a Brass ensembles

680 ## $i Here are entered compositions not in a specific form or of a specific type for ten or more different solo brass instruments, and collections of compositions in several forms or types for various numbers of solo brass instruments.

360 ## $i headings for forms and types of music that include "brass ensemble" and headings with medium of performance that include "brass ensemble"

150 ## $a Clarinet ensembles

680 ## $i Here are entered compositions not in a specific form or of a specific type for ten or more solo clarinets and collections of compositions in several forms or types for various numbers of solo clarinets.

360 ## $i headings for forms and types of music that include "clarinet ensemble" and headings with medium of performance that include "clarinet ensemble"

 

d. Orchestra assumed as the medium of performance. Full orchestra is typically the medium of performance of certain musical forms, including overtures, symphonic poems, and symphonies, and of the accompanying ensemble in concertos. Therefore, the large ensemble "orchestra" is assumed in headings for these forms, and is not added as a medium of performance. Similarly, the parenthetical qualifier in headings for concertos accompanied by full orchestra contains only the solo instrument(s). When assigning headings in this category to works where the assumed orchestral medium of performance is other than full orchestra, include the medium in the heading. Check scope notes in authority records to ascertain which headings should not have the medium of performance "orchestra" added when the heading is used for a work requiring full orchestra.

 Examples:

650 #0 $a Concertos (Clarinet) [Accompaniment of orchestra is assumed]

650 #0 $a Symphonic poems. [Performance by orchestra is assumed]

650 #0 $a Symphonies. [Performance by orchestra is assumed]

but:

650 #0 $a Concertos (Clarinet with band)

650 #0 $a Concertos (Percussion with instrumental ensemble)

650 #0 $a Concertos (Violins (2) with string orchestra)

650 #0 $a Overtures (Dance orchestra)

650 #0 $a Symphonic poems (Organ)

650 #0 $a Symphonies (Electronics)

 

e. The headings Concertos (Orchestra [Band, etc.]).  Headings of this type are assigned when the composer has indicated in the title or subtitle that the work is a concerto for the entire large ensemble. Concerto headings are not assigned to chamber music, where there is only one player to a part, even if the composer has used the term "concerto." Examples:

Title: Concerto for orchestra

650 #0 $a Concertos (Orchestra)

but:

Title: Concerto : per clavicembalo (o pianoforte), flauto, oboe, clarinetto, violino e violoncello

650 #0 $a Sextets (Harpsichord, clarinet, flute, oboe, violin, violoncello)

 

6. Connecting words: "and" and "with."

a. The connecting word "and." The connector and is used to connect two solo instruments.

Examples:

650 #0 $a Violin and piano music.

650 #0 $a Suites (Violin and piano)

650 #0 $a Concertos (Violin and viola)

 

It is also used to connect sung vocal parts and a solo instrument when they appear together in a parenthetical qualifier for medium of performance formulated according to the provisions of sec. 8.b and 9.b.

Example:

650 #0 $a Canons, fugues, etc. (Chorus and trumpet with string orchestra)

The connector and is not used either when there are three or more elements in the heading that precede the connecting word with, or when the total number of soloists is more than two. Instead, commas separate those elements.

Examples:

650 #0 $a Clarinet, flute, violin, violoncello with instrumental ensemble

650 #0 $a Monologues with music (Voices (2), oboe, trumpet with orchestra)

650 #0 $a Wind trios (Oboes (2), trumpet)

 

b. The connecting word "with." Solo instruments used as accompaniment, and instrumental ensemble accompaniment, are given following the connector with. List solo instruments as instructed in sec. 2; indicate the accompaniment as instructed in sec. 4.b(2)(a), sec. 4.b(2)(b)(iii), sec. 5.b(5), sec. 5.d., and sec. 10. Examples:

650 #0 $a Concertos (Piano with string orchestra)

650 #0 $a Choruses, Secular (Mixed voices) with orchestra.

650 #0 $a Electronics and piano with percussion ensemble.

650 #0 $a Piano with band.

650 #0 $a Songs (High voice) with piano.

 

c. "And" and "with" in the same heading. Both connecting words may appear in the same heading. When two different solo instruments are indicated, their order must be established according to the provisions of sec. 3. When the terms "voice(s)" or "chorus" appear as a medium of performance in a parenthetical qualifier, follow the provisions of sec. 8.b. or 9.b. Examples:

150 ## $a Saxophone and guitar music

650 #0 $a Saxophone and guitar with jazz ensemble.

650 #0 $a Symphonies (Chorus and viola with chamber orchestra)

 

7. Arranged works: the qualifier ", Arranged."

a. Free-floating usage. The qualifier , Arranged is free-floating with form/genre headings for arranged instrumental music to indicate that the medium of performance specified represents an arrangement and not the original instrumentation (see also H 1160). Examples:

650 #0 $a Piano music, Arranged.

650 #0 $a Violin and piano music, Arranged.

650 #0 $a Variations (Violin and piano), Arranged.

650 #0 $a Quartets (Flute, violin, viola, violoncello), Arranged.

 

b. Authority record required. This qualifier may be added to headings for larger vocal forms and to instrumental forms that do not indicate medium of performance (cf. sec. 10). However, this usage is not free-floating; each such term must be established. Examples:

150 ## $a Operas, Arranged

150 ## $a Oratorios, Arranged

150 ## $a Motion picture music, Arranged

150 ## $a Incidental music, Arranged

 

Do not add this qualifier to form/genre headings for the following vocal forms:

·   Forms whose headings are usually qualified by type of chorus. (Cf. sec. 9) Examples:

150 ## $a Cantatas

150 ## $a Masses

150 ## $a Choruses

150 ## $a Requiems

 

·   Works for solo singers or for one singer to a part. Examples:

150 ## $a Sacred vocal duets [trios, etc.]

150 ## $a Songs

150 ## $a Sacred songs

150 ## $a Vocal duets [trios, etc.]

150 ## $a Solo cantatas

150 ## $a Vocalises

 

c. Special provision for excepts. When a heading with the qualifier , Arranged could be modified by the free-floating subdivision –Excerpts (cf. H 1160), use instead the free-floating subdivision –Excerpts, Arranged.

 

8. Solo vocal works. Performance by solo voice(s) may be stated or implied in the main heading, or "voice" may be added to a heading as a medium of performance.

 

a. Voice stated or implied in the heading. This category includes headings such as Songs, Sacred cantatas, Vocal trios, etc.

 

(1) One solo voice. For works requiring one solo voice, a qualifier indicating vocal range is added as the first element in parentheses following the main heading. The terms for vocal range and the types of voices to which they apply are:

High voice: soprano, tenor, countertenor

Medium voice: mezzo-soprano, baritone

Low voice: alto, contralto, bass

When assigning a heading, select a qualifier on the basis of a written description on the item being cataloged. Ignore terms that modify the basic voice types indicated above. If there is no description of vocal range, select the qualifier by comparing the score to the specific ranges shown for each voice type in the New Harvard Dictionary of Music. If the vocal range in a work exceeds those shown there, choose the qualifier that most closely matches it.

The following headings have been established with each of the qualifiers for vocal range added:

150 ## $a Sacred songs

150 ## $a Solo cantatas

150 ## $a Solo cantatas, Sacred

150 ## $a Solo cantatas, Secular

150 ## $a Songs

150 ## $a Vocalises

Examples:

650 #0 $a Sacred songs (Low voice)

650 #0 $a Solo cantatas, Sacred (Medium voice)

650 #0 $a Vocalises (High voice)

 

(2) Two or more solo voices. Headings for two through nine solo voices have been established as follows: Vocal duets through Vocal nonets; Sacred vocal duets through Sacred vocal nonets. No indication of the range of the solo voices is given in headings using these terms. Examples:

150 ## $a Vocal duets with continuo

150 ## $a Sacred vocal quartets, Unaccompanied

The heading Vocalises may be qualified by a number for two or more solo voices. The number may be added on a free-floating basis. No authority records are necessary to establish the number of voices and no voice range may be indicated. Examples:

650 #0 $a Vocalises (Voices (3)), Unaccompanied.

650 #0 $a Vocalises (Voices (4)) with pianos (2)

 

b. Voice not stated or implied in the main heading. One or more solo voices may be present in a work to which a main heading is assigned that does not state or imply any particular medium of performance. A parenthetical qualifier for medium of performance is added to such headings, with the term "voice" as the first element. The full order of elements in the qualifier is sung part(s), solo instrument, accompaniment; neither the vocal range nor the nature of the text is indicated. Where appropriate, a second heading may be added that contains those elements.

 

(1) One solo voice. Examples:

650 #0 $a Recorded accompaniments (Voice)

650 #0 $a Sacred monologues with music (Voice with orchestra) ["voice" refers to the sung vocal part, i.e., it is part of the medium of performance of the "music" element of the heading]

650 #0 $a Sacred songs (Low voice) with orchestra. [second heading]

 

(2) Two or more solo voices. Two or more solo voices are indicated by an arabic numeral in parentheses following the term "voices." Up to 9 solo voices may be given. No authority records are required. (Cf. sec. 4.a.) Examples:

650 #0 $a Marches (Voices (3) with band)

650 #0 $a Sacred trios with band [second heading]

650 #0 $a Variations (Voices (5) with instrumental ensemble)

650 #0 $a Vocal quintets with instrumental ensemble. [second heading]

 

(3) Unaccompanied works. Do not add ", Unaccompanied" to parenthetical qualifiers when "voice" is the sole medium of performance in headings of this type. Example:

650 #0 $a Canons, fugues, etc. (Voices (3))

650 #0 $a Vocal trios, Unaccompanied. [second heading]

 

9. Chorus. Performance by a chorus may be stated or implied in the main heading, or "chorus" may be added to a heading as a medium of performance. Though solo singers may also be required, they are not indicated in the heading.

 

a. Chorus stated or implied in the heading.

 

(1) Type of chorus. In headings that state or imply performance by chorus, the type of voices is generally added as appropriate in a parenthetical qualifier immediately following the main heading. The terms for type of chorus are:

Changing voices

Children's voices

Equal voices

Men's voices

Mixed voices

Unison

Women's voices

 

(a) No qualifier for type of chorus. The presence of mixed voices is assumed for the headings Cantatas, Sacred; Cantatas, Secular; Masses; Requiems. Therefore, no qualifier for mixed voices is added.

Examples:

650 #0 $a Cantatas. [Mixed voices is assumed]

650 #0 $a Cantatas, Sacred. [Mixed voices is assumed]

650 #0 $a Cantatas, Secular. [Mixed voices is assumed]

650 #0 $a Masses. [Mixed voices is assumed]

650 #0 $a Requiems. [Mixed voices is assumed]

For the use of qualifiers for other types of chorus with these headings, see sec. (c) below.

 

(b) Free-floating qualifiers for type of chorus. Qualifiers for type of voices in a chorus are free-floating after the following headings:

150 ## $a Choruses

150 ## $a Choruses, Sacred

150 ## $a Choruses, Secular

 

Examples:

650 #0 $a Choruses (Women's voices)

650 #0 $a Choruses, Sacred (Mixed voices)

 

(c) Headings established with qualifier for type of chorus. The following headings have been established with qualifiers for type of chorus:

150 ## $a Cantatas

150 ## $a Cantatas, Sacred

150 ## $a Cantatas, Secular

150 ## $a Masses

150 ## $a Requiems

Examples:

150 ## $a Cantatas, Secular (Men's voices)

150 ## $a Masses (Equal voices)

150 ## $a Requiems (Unison)

 

(2) Number of choral parts. When included in the heading, the number of choral parts follows the qualifier for type of chorus, separated by a comma in the same parentheses. The number of choral parts, if 8 or fewer, is specified only with the headings Choruses; Choruses, Sacred; and Choruses, Secular, and only if the accompaniment is:

·   not present in the heading

·   for continuo

·   for a solo instrument

·   for two of the same keyboard instruments

or if the qualifier , Unaccompanied is appropriate. Do not count divisi parts separately unless they occur throughout most or all of the vocal line.

Note: Choral parts are sometimes referred to as "voices." This designation stands for the number of vocal lines, and not the number of singers.

 

Do not confuse the term "choral parts," used here synonymously with "vocal lines," with the terms "part" or "parts" as they are used in descriptive cataloging for the number of physical items.

Examples:

650 #0 $a Choruses, Sacred (Equal voices, 3 parts)

650 #0 $a Choruses, Sacred (Mixed voices, 6 parts) with continuo.

650 #0 $a Choruses, Sacred (Mixed voices, 4 parts) with piano.

650 #0 $a Choruses, Secular (Children's voices, 3 parts), Unaccompanied.

650 #0 $a Choruses, Secular (Men's voices, 4 parts) with piano and reed organ.

650 #0 $a Choruses, Secular (Women's voices, 3 parts) with harp.

 

b. Chorus not stated or implied in the main heading. A chorus may be present in a work to which a main heading is assigned that does not state or imply any particular medium of performance. Add a parenthetical qualifier for medium of performance with the term "chorus" as the first element. The full order of elements in the qualifier is sung part(s), solo instrument, accompaniment. Do not use the qualifier ", Unaccompanied" when chorus is the only medium of performance, and do not indicate either the type of chorus or the nature of the text. Where appropriate, a second heading may be added that contains those elements. Examples:

650 #0 $a Canons, fugues, etc. (Chorus)

650 #0 $a Choruses, Sacred (Mixed voices, 5 parts), Unaccompanied. [second heading]

650 #0 $a Monologues with music (Chorus with band)

650 #0 $a Choruses, Secular (Mixed voices) with band. [second heading]

650 #0 $a Variations (Chorus and trumpet with orchestra)

650 #0 $a Choruses, Secular (Children's voices) with orchestra. [second heading]

 

10. Accompaniment for vocal music. When instrumental accompaniment is given in headings that include vocal parts, it is the last element in the heading. For unaccompanied works, see sec.11.

 

a. Accompaniment not given in the heading. No indication of accompaniment is added to headings for larger vocal forms and dramatic works, of which the following list is representative:

Cantatas

Masses

Musicals

Operas

Oratorios

Pantomimes with music, Sacred

Requiems

Solo cantatas

 

b. One instrument or two keyboard instruments. Name specific instruments as the medium of performance for the accompaniment of vocal music only if the accompaniment consists of one instrument or two of the same keyboard instrument.

 

Examples:

650 #0 $a Choruses, Secular (Mixed voices) with piano.

650 #0 $a Sacred songs (High voice) with oboe.

650 #0 $a Vocal quartets with pianos (2)

650 #0 $a Vocalises with piano.

 

c. Other instrumental accompaniment. Groups of two or more accompanying instruments (excepting two of the same keyboard instrument) are indicated by the appropriate term for the type of ensemble. See also sec. 5.b(4)

Examples:

650 #0 $a Canons, fugues, etc. (Chorus with instrumental ensemble)

[not, e.g., 650 #0 $a Canons, fugues, etc. (Chorus and trumpet with organ)]

650 #0 $a Choruses, Sacred (Mixed voices) with brass ensemble.

[not, e.g., 650 #0 $a Choruses, Sacred (Mixed voices) with brass trio.]

650 #0 $a Songs (High voice) with string ensemble.

[not, e.g., 650 #0 $a Songs (High voice) with string quartet.]

650 #0 $a Songs (Medium voice) with orchestra.

 

11. Unaccompanied vocal music: the qualifier ", Unaccompanied."

 

a. Vocal music. When vocal music is unaccompanied, the qualifier , Unaccompanied is added as the final element in medium of performance headings, according to the provisions below.

 

(1) Free-floating usage. The qualifier , Unaccompanied is free-floating with the following headings, including when they may be modified by range of solo voice or type of chorus:

150 ## $a Choruses

150 ## $a Choruses, Sacred

150 ## $a Choruses, Secular

150 ## $a Sacred vocal duets, [trios, etc.]

150 ## $a Sacred songs

150 ## $a Songs

150 ## $a Vocal duets [trios, etc.]

150 ## $a Vocalises

 

(2) Authority record required. An authority record is required when , Unaccompanied is added to the following headings, including when the first two may be modified by type of chorus:

150 ## $a Masses

150 ## $a Requiems

150 ## $a Sacred vocal ensembles

150 ## $a Vocal ensembles

 

Do not add , Unaccompanied to headings of the type described in sec. 8.b(3) or 9.b, or to the headings listed in sec. 10.a., with the exception of Masses and Requiems, to which it may be added according to the provisions of sec. (2) above.

 

(3) Examples.

650 #0 $a Choruses, Secular (Mixed voices, 4 parts), Unaccompanied.

650 #0 $a Songs (Medium voice), Unaccompanied.

650 #0 $a Vocal quintets, Unaccompanied.

650 #0 $a Vocalises (Medium voice), Unaccompanied.

150 ## $a Masses, Unaccompanied

150 ## $a Requiems (Women's voices), Unaccompanied

 

b. Instrumental music. Do not use , Unaccompanied in headings for instrumental music.

 

 

 

Copyright Library of Congress except within the USA.