H 1916.3 Music: General

 

BACKGROUND: This instruction sheet provides a general overview of the assignment of subject headings for all materials in the field of music. Specific instructions are given in other instruction sheets, especially those listed in sec. 1., below.

 

1. Most-commonly-used instruction sheets. The following instruction sheets are of particular importance for the assignment of subject headings to music materials.

 

Establishing and constructing headings:

H 250 Music Form Heading Authority Records

H 1917.5 Music Form/Genre Headings: Medium of Performance

H 1918 Musical Instruments

 

Musical instruments:

H 1918 Musical Instruments

 

Assigning subject headings:

H 1917.5 Music Form/Genre Headings: Medium of Performance

H 1916.5 Jazz and Popular Music

H 1917 Music of Ethnic, National, and Religious Groups

H 1438 Composers and Works about Music of Individual Composers

 

Free-floating subdivisions:

H 1160 Pattern Headings: Musical Compositions

H 1161 Pattern Headings: Musical Instruments

H 2075 Songs and Music

H 2190 Texts

 

2. Most-commonly-expressed concepts in subject headings for music: Outline. The concepts listed below are frequently encountered in the cataloging of music materials. The expression of these concepts in the assignment of headings depends on the type of work being cataloged, as explained in sec. 3, below.

 

 

Concept Examples

a. Musical form, genre, type,etc.

 

650 #0 $a Symphonies.

650 #0 $a Fox trots.

650 #0 $a Villancicos (Music).

 

b. Medium of performance

650 #0 $a Orchestral music.

650 #0 $a Trios (Piano, flute, violin)

650 #0 $a Songs (High voice) with piano.

 

c. Music for occasions, such as religious seasons, holidays, festivals

650 #0 $a April Fools' Day $v Songs and music.

650 #0 $a Christmas music.

650 #0 $a Passover music.

650 #0 $a Reformation Festival music.

 

d. Music about a topic or a person or other named entity

650 #0 $a Dogs $v Songs and music.

600 10 $a Lincoln, Abraham, $d 1809-1865 $v Songs and music.

 

e. Language of vocal text

650 #0 $a Ballads, English.

650 #0 $a Folk songs, Norwegian.

 

f. Certain liturgical texts

650 #0 $a Psalms (Music) $v 23rd Psalm.

 

g. Musical style

650 #0 $a Rock music.

650 #0 $a Jazz.

650 #0 $a Gospel music.

 

h. Music of ethnic, national, and religious groups

650 #0 $a Quechua Indians $v Music.

650 #0 $a Hindu music.

650 #0 $a Baptists $v Hymns.

 

i. Musical presentation or format subdivisions

650 #0 $a Piano trios $v Scores and parts.

650 #0 $a Popular music $v Fake books.

 

j. Geographic subdivisions

650 #0 $a Musical instruments $z Uganda.

 

k. Literature and other materials about music; instructional materials

650 #0 $a Popular music $x History and criticism.

650 #0 $a Clarinet $x History.

650 #0 $a Percussion instruments.

650 #0 $a Harmony.

650 #0 $a Violin $v Studies and exercises.

 

 

 

3. Most-commonly-expressed concepts in subject headings for music: Summary of practice. The guidelines below provide basic information on the formulation of subject headings for music materials. The first two concepts, 2.a. and 2.b., are frequently combined to formulate one heading.

 

a. Musical form, genre, type, etc. Terms that exemplify this concept appear as the initial element of a subject heading, such as Cantatas, Sacred; Carnatic music; Sonatas; Quintets. These terms may be used alone or may be followed by various qualifiers for medium of performance, language, and other aspects as described below and in other instruction sheets.

See H 250 and H 1917.5 for instructions on creating headings for musical form, genre, type, etc.

 

b. Medium of performance. Medium of performance in music subject headings includes a statement of instrumental, vocal, and/or other "performance forces." The medium of performance can appear as the heading itself, as in Piano music; String orchestra music; in a parenthetical qualifier, as in Sonatas (Violin and piano); or added at the end of the heading following the connecting word "with," as in Songs (High voice) with piano. Medium of performance may also be expressed in a format subdivision for musical presentation, as in –Vocal scores with piano.

 

In some cases the medium of performance is not stated because it is implied by the musical form named in the heading. For example, the heading Symphonies does not include the qualifier "(Orchestra)" because orchestra is typically the medium of performance of a symphony; the heading reflects the assumption that the work being cataloged is for orchestra. However, if the form named in the heading is not performed as assumed, indicate the actual medium of performance by a parenthetical qualifier, as in Symphonies (Band).

 

The subject authority record indicates whether a specific medium of performance has been assumed for headings of this type. See H 1917.5 for specific instructions on expressing medium of performance in music subject headings.

 

c. Music for occasions such as religious seasons, holidays, festivals.

Examples:

650 #0 $a Ascension Day music.

650 #0 $a Corpus Christi Festival music.

650 #0 $a Earth Day $v Songs and music.

650 #0 $a Memorial music.

650 #0 $a Synagogue music $v Day of Atonement services.

650 #0 $a Tenebrae service music.

650 #0 $a Wedding music.

 

d. Music about a topic or a person or other named entity. For an individual musical work or a collection of music about a topic or a person or other named entity, add the subdivision –Songs and music to a 6XX heading for that topic or person, etc. If the musical work is dramatic and can be staged, such as an opera or a ballet, add the subdivision –Drama instead.

See H 2075 for specific instructions on applying the free-floating subdivision -Songs and music.

 

e. Language of vocal text. The language of the text of vocal music is expressed by an inverted phrase heading. Examples:

650 #0 $a Ballads, English.

650 #0 $a Carols, French.

650 #0 $a Folk songs, Norwegian.

650 #0 $a Hymns, English.

650 #0 $a Buddhist hymns, Japanese.

650 #0 $a Part songs, Italian.

650 #0 $a Songs, Spanish.

 

Do not add the language to headings for sacred songs or sacred part songs. Instead, generally assign a second heading for the form without the term "sacred." Examples:

 

650 #0 $a Sacred songs.

650 #0 $a Songs, Provençal.

650 #0 $a Part songs, Sacred.

650 #0 $a Part songs, Italian.

 

f. Certain liturgical texts. Subject headings may be established for certain liturgical texts. Headings for these texts set to music may also be established by adding the qualifier (Music). For psalms set to music, a subdivision for the number of the psalm may be established. Examples:

650 #0 $a Ave Maria (Music)

650 #0 $a Magnificat (Music)

650 #0 $a Te Deum laudamus (Music)

650 #0 $a Psalms (Music) $v 150th Psalm.

 

g. Musical style. Many headings for types of popular music and non-Western music are terms for musical style. The principal instruction sheets for assigning headings in this category are H 1916.5, Jazz and Popular Music, and H 1917, Music of Ethnic, National, and Religious Groups.

 

h. Music of ethnic, national, and religious groups. There are prescribed combinations of subject headings for works that consist of or discuss the music of ethnic groups, music with national emphasis, music of individual religious groups, and non-Western art music, including works about the musical instruments of these groups. See H 1917 for instructions on applying these headings.

 

i. Musical presentation or format subdivisions. Subdivisions are added to certain form/genre headings in order to identify the physical format of written or printed music. See H 1160 for instructions on applying these subdivisions and for a list of them.

 

j. Geographic subdivisions. In general, geographic subdivisions are added to music subject headings according to the provisions of H 690 through H 1055. For instructions on the geographic subdivision of headings for ethnic, national, and religious groups, see H 1917. For instructions on the geographic subdivision of jazz and popular music headings, see H 1916.5.

 

k. Literature and other materials about music; instructional materials.

(1) Subdivisions added to headings in concepts 3.a.-3.h., above. In general, headings distinguish between printed, manuscript, and performed manifestations of music­the music itself­and materials about music. Headings for literature, etc., about musical works that would be assigned headings of the types described in sec. 3.a.-3.h., above, are often formulated by adding the free-floating subdivision -History and criticism to the heading or headings that would be assigned to the music.

Numerous other free-floating subdivisions may also be added. Examples:

650 #0 $a Ballets $v Stories, plots, etc.

650 #0 $a Blues (Music) $v Discography.

650 #0 $a Chamber music $v Bibliography $v Catalogs.

650 #0 $a Concertos (Violin) $x Analysis, appreciation.

650 #0 $a Operas $x Characters.

 

(2) Other headings for music materials. Certain other subject headings are used only for materials about music or for instructional works, a hybrid category that includes both musical compositions and works of music theory, pedagogy, and performance technique. Listed below are specific types of such materials with representative headings for each type.

See H 1160 and H 1161 for subdivisions that may be added to these headings.

 

Musical instruments and their construction, maintenance, etc.

650 #0 $a Piano.

650 #0 $a Piano $x Customizing.

650 #0 $a Piano $x History.

650 #0 $a Piano $x Maintenance and repair.

 

Analysis and appreciation of music

650 #0 $a Musical analysis.

650 #0 $a Music appreciation.

650 #0 $a Schenkerian analysis.

 

Music theory

650 #0 $a Counterpoint.

650 #0 $a Harmony.

650 #0 $a Music $x Acoustics and physics.

650 #0 $a Music theory.

 

Composition, arranging, etc.

650 #0 $a Arrangement (Music)

650 #0 $a Composition (Music)

650 #0 $a Computer composition.

650 #0 $a Instrumentation and orchestration.

650 #0 $a Popular music $x Writing and publishing.

 

Performing

650 #0 $a Choral conducting.

650 #0 $a Conducting.

650 #0 $a Music $x Performance.

650 #0 $a Performance practice (Music)

650 #0 $a Singing $x Interpretation (Phrasing, dynamics, etc.)

 

Instrumental and vocal techniques

650 #0 $a Guitar $v Studies and exercises (Jazz)

650 #0 $a Piano $v Methods $v Juvenile.

650 #0 $a Saxophone $x Multiphonics.

650 #0 $a Choral singing $x Intonation.

 

(3) Summary of instruction sheets for headings that exemplify concept 3.k. The following instruction sheets provide guidance for particular situations:

 

(a) Works about individuals, families, classes of persons, or corporate bodies.

 

Composers and Works about Music of Individual Composers H 1438

Biography H 1330

Free-floating Subdivisions: Names of Persons H 1110

Free-floating Subdivisions: Names of Families H 1120

Free-floating Subdivisions: Classes of Persons H 1100

Free-floating Subdivisions: Corporate Bodies H 1105

 

(b) Geographic, chronological, and form subdivisions; chronology.

 

Chronological Headings and Subdivisions H 620

Music: Jazz and Popular Music H 1916.5

Music of Ethnic, National, and Religious Groups H 1917

Pattern Headings: Musical Compositions H 1160

Chronology H 1367

 

(c) Musical instruments.

 

Musical Instruments H 1918

Music of Ethnic, National, and Religious Groups H 1917

Pattern Headings: Musical Instruments H 1160

Collections of Objects [for collections of instruments] H 1427

Catalogs H 1360

Free-floating Subdivisions: Names of Families H 1120

 

(d) Works about musical compositions by an individual composer.

 

Composers and Works about Music of Individual Composers H 1438

 

 

 

Copyright Library of Congress except within the USA.