H 1647 History


BACKGROUND: The subdivision –History may be used under most headings to designate a historical treatment of the topic in question. There are, however, certain restrictions on its use. These restrictions are described in this instruction sheet.

1. General rule. Except as noted below, use the free-floating subdivision –History under topical headings, classes of persons, ethnic groups, uniform titles of sacred works, and names of places and corporate bodies for descriptions and explanations of past events concerning the topic, group, sacred work, place, or organization. Examples:

650 #0 $a Aeronautics $x History.

650 #0 $a Indians of North America $x History.

630 00 $a Koran $x History.

651 #0 $a Washington (D.C.) $x History.

610 20 $a Catholic Church $x History.

610 20 $a General Motors Corporation $x History.

Do not use –History under:

headings or subdivisions that denote history, that have an obvious historical connotation, or that have been treated as inherently historical

For a discussion of these headings and subdivisions, see sec. 3.

literary, music, film, television program, and video recording form headings

Instead use –History and criticism, for example, English poetry–History and criticism; Dance music–History and criticism; Western films–History and criticism; Animated television programs–History and criticism; Comedy videos–History and criticism. For subdivisions used under literatures and literary genres, see H 1156. For subdivisions used under musical compositions, see H 1160.

art genre headings, qualified by names of national, ethnic, or religious groups

See H 1250, sec. 1.

name-title headings or under uniform titles other than sacred works

Assign these headings without subdivision to historical treatments of particular works. For subdivisions used under literary works entered under author, see H 1155.6. For subdivisions used under literary work entered under title, see H 1155.8.

names of individual persons or families, including dynasties and royal houses

For subdivisions used under names of individual persons, see H 1110. For subdivisions used under names of families, see H 1120. For instructions on biographic works, see H 1330. For instructions on genealogy, see H 1631. For instructions on dynasties, royal houses, etc., see H 1574.



2. Chronological subdivisions. 
a. Established chronological subdivisions. Use –History further subdivided by chronological subdivisions for specific time periods where they are established under headings for topics and places. Examples:

651 #0 $a United States $x History $y Civil War, 1861-1865.

651 #0 $a Japan $x History $y Heian period, 794-1185.

650 #0 $a Theater $x History $y To 500.

b. Free-floating chronological subdivisions. Historical periods may also be brought out by headings of the type [topic]HistoryTo 1500 or [topic]History[16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, or 21st] century. Assign these free-floating –History[...] century subdivisions whenever it is possible to do so, that is, when there is no contrary provision in the subject authority file. Also assign, on a free-floating basis, headings of the type [place][topic]History[16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, or 21st] century so long as the topical subdivision is not one of those listed in sec. 9, and no contrary provision exists in the subject authority file. Examples:

650 #0 $a Technology $z France $x History $y 20th century.

651 #0 $a New York (N.Y.) $x Commerce $x History $y 19th century.

610 10 $a Virginia. $b General Assembly $x Contested elections $x History $y 19th century.

For topics or corporate bodies that by their nature are limited to a specific century, do not include the century subdivision.  Example:

650 #0 $a Lasers $x History.

[not 650 #0 $a Lasers $x History $y 20th century.]

For topics or corporate bodies that originated in and are limited to the current century, do not include the century subdivision.
In 1997, subdivisions of the type History[16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, or 20th] century were added to H 1140, thereby allowing their free-floating use under geographic headings at any level. These subdivisions were added to facilitate subject access by time period, primarily for places smaller than countries where chronological subdivisions were previously not established. These free-floating century subdivisions should be used with caution under names of countries and other geographic headings where chronological subdivisions for specific time periods have been established. Assign these century subdivisions only where there is no conflict with chronological subdivisions established in the subject authority file.

c. Establishing new chronological subdivisions. In accordance with the insturctions in H 620, sec. 3, d. and where there is sufficient material to warrant it, establish new chronological subdivisions under headings of the type [topic or place]History to represent significant time periods in the history of the topic or place, such as the reign or term of office of a ruler or president of a country. For instructions on establishing events as subdivisions, see H 1592, sec. 5.

3. Headings and subdivisions that are historical in nature. Do not use the subdivision –History under headings that already denote history, a historical time period, or a historical event, or that have an obvious historical connotation. Examples:

650 #0 $a Social history.

650 #0 $a Nineteen seventies.

650 #0 $a Renaissance.

650 #0 $a Reconstruction (1914-1939)

650 #0 $a Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988.

611 20 $a Paris Peace Conference (1919-1920)

Do not use the subdivision –History as a further subdivision after subdivisions that represent events. Examples:

650 #0 $a Solar eclipses $y 1969.

610 20 $a Triangle Shirtwaist Company $x Fire, 1911

651 #0 $a Vesuvius (Italy) $x Eruption, 79

Also, do not use –History after subdivisions that denote history or that have traditionally been regarded as being explicitly or implicitly historical These are listed in sec. 9.
Further subdivide these historical headings and subdivisions directly by the chronological subdivisions that are established or authorized for free-floating use with them. Examples:

650 #0 $a Military history, Modern $y 20th century.

651 #0 $a United States $x Foreign relations $y 1783-1815.

651 #0 $a Boston (Mass.) $x Politics and government $y 1775-1865.

651 #0 $a Buenos Aires (Argentina) $x Intellectual life $y 20th century.

See H 1140 for the free-floating topical subdivisions subdivided by centuries that may be used under geographic headings at any level.


4. Historical source materials. See H 2080, sec. 1, for instructions on using the subdivisions –HistorySources or –Sources for collections or discussions of historical source materials.


5. Chronology. See H 1367, sec. 2, for instructions on using the subdivisions –HistoryChronology or –Chronology for works containing listings of dates and events in the order of their occurrence in the history of a topic or place.


6. Philosophy headings. For inverted headings that begin with the word Philosophy, for example, Philosophy, French, chronological subdivisions are established directly under the heading without the interposition of the subdivision –History. Use the subdivision –History under these headings only for general historical works, not for those that deal with a specific period. Do not use the subdivision –History–16th, [17th, 18th, etc.] century under these headings. If a work deals with a specific period or specific century, and it is judged to be important to bring out that period or century, establish it directly under the heading, if it has not already been established.

7. Form subdivisions. In those instances where it is necessary to designate the history of a form, and no other provisions exist, assign the subdivision –History after the subdivision. Code the subdivision as an $x subfield because it is functioning as a topical subdivision. Example:

Title:   Development of medical periodicals.

650 #0 $a Medicine $x Periodicals $x History.

Consider the following factors, however:

·   Form subdivisions that may not be used as topical subdivisions. Certain form subdivisions may not be used as topical subdivisions because the corresponding topical aspect is designated by another subdivision. Example:

         Form heading: 

650 #0 $a Medicine $v Indexes.

         History of the topic:

650 #0 $a Medicine $x Abstracting and indexing $x History.

·   Art form subdivisions. By custom, art form subdivisions are not further subdivided by –History, including the subdivisions –Art, –Portraits, and –Illustrations.

8. Further subdivision by place. Do not subdivide the subdivision –History by place in order to designate the history of a discipline in a particular place. Instead, as a general rule, use headings of the type:

650 #0 $a [discipline] $z [place] $x History.

Thus no distinction is normally made between the history of the discipline in a place and the history of conditions in a place. The above heading is used to designate both aspects.

Note: For some disciplines these two aspects are separately designated. In the case of economics, for example, the heading Economics[place]History designates the history of the discipline in a place, whereas the history of economic conditions in a place is designated by the subdivision –Economic conditions under the name of the place. Normally, exceptional situations of this type are explained by scope notes in the subject authority file.

9. Subdivisions not further subdivided by –History. Do not use –History after the following free-floating subdivisions:

 –Annexation to [...]
–Anniversaries, etc.
–Centennial celebrations, etc.
–Church history
–Description and travel
–Discovery and exploration
–Economic conditions
–Economic policy
–Foreign economic relations
–Foreign relations
–Gold discoveries
–Historical geography

 –History, Local
–History, Military
–History, Naval
–History of doctrines
–Intellectual life
–Kings and rulers
–Military policy
–Military relations
–Politics and government
–Religious life and customs
–Rural conditions
–Social conditions
–Social life and customs
–Social policy




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