H 1581 Emigration and Immigration

 

BACKGROUND: Works on population movements are cataloged in various ways, depending on the nature of the material and the type of human movement discussed. The heading Emigration and immigration and the free-floating subdivision Emigration and immigration are used for works on the process of leaving one's native land and moving to a foreign country in order to settle permanently. Immigrants is a class of persons heading used for works on foreign-born persons who enter a country intending to become permanent residents or citizens. Aliens is a class of persons heading used for works on persons who are not citizens of the country in which they reside. Headings of the type [place]Foreign population and [place]Emigration and immigrationBiography were cancelled in 1987. This instruction sheet provides guidelines for assigning the headings Emigration and immigration, Immigrants, Aliens, and related headings.


1. General works on emigration and immigration. Assign the heading Emigration and immigration to general works on the process of resettling in a new country, including the administration of the emigration/immigration process, the reasons why persons leave their native land, their arrangements for transportation and the moving of personal and household goods, their trip to another country, their arrival, etc. Subdivide the heading further by the free-floating subdivisions History or History[century], if appropriate. Example:

Title:   History of emigration in the 20th century.

650 #0 $a Emigration and immigration $x History $y 20th century.

650 #0 $a Immigrants $x History $y 20th century.

 

2. Specific regions, countries, cities, etc.

a. General. Use the free-floating subdivision Emigration and immigration under names of regions, countries, cities, etc., for works on the process of emigration from or immigration to a place. Subdivide the heading further by the free-floating subdivisions History or History[century], if appropriate. For works on migration from one country to another, or to a particular place within another country, assign a heading to indicate the place from which emigrants came and a heading for the place to which they moved. Example:

 

b. Government policy. Use the free-floating subdivision Emigration and immigrationGovernment policy under names of regions, countries, cities, etc., for works on the policies adopted by individual governments to encourage or discourage specific types of migration, such as quotas for particular groups, lifting of restrictions for certain occupations, etc. Example:

Title:   The Caribbean exodus.

651 #0 $a Caribbean Area $x Emigration and immigration.

651 #0 $a United States $x Emigration and immigration.

651 #0 $a United States $x Emigration and immigration $x Government policy.

650 #0 $a Immigrants $x Government policy $z United States.

 

3. Immigrants.

a. General. Assign Immigrants (May Subd Geog) as a class of persons heading to general works on persons who leave their native land and settle in another country in order to become permanent residents or citizens. Use this heading for emigrants as well as immigrants. Subdivide the heading further by the free-floating subdivisions used under classes of persons (H 1100), if appropriate.

 

b. By place. For works on immigrants in a particular place, divide the heading by the place in which they have settled. Assign a heading of this type also to works covering both immigrants and their descendants. Examples:

Title:   Immigrants arriving in Ohio in 1985.

650 #0 $a Immigrants $z Ohio.

651 #0 $a Ohio $x Emigration and immigration.

 

Title:   Australian immigration : the foreign-born population and their Australian-born children.

650 #0 $a Immigrants $z Australia $x History.

650 #0 $a Children of immigrants $z Australia $x History.

651 #0 $a Australia $x Emigration and immigration $x History.

 

c. Biography. Assign the heading ImmigrantsBiography or Immigrants[place]Biography to works of individual or collective biography that are limited to, or include in a significant way, the experience of leaving one country and settling permanently in another.

 

Example:

Title:   Patrick O'Casey : an immigrant in Boston.

600 10 $a O'Casey, Patrick, $d 1870-1920.

650 #0 $a Immigrants $z Massachusetts $z Boston $v Biography.

650 #0 $a Irish $z Massachusetts $z Boston $v Biography.

651 #0 $a Boston (Mass.) $v Biography.

 

4. Ethnic groups.

a. General. For works on immigrants belonging to an individual ethnic group, assign a heading for the ethnic group and the heading Immigrants. Do not divide Immigrants by the place from which they came. Use instead a heading for the name of the ethnic group to bring out their country of origin. Example:

Title:   Portuguese immigrants in Massachusetts.

650 #0 $a Portuguese $z Massachusetts $x History.

650 #0 $a Immigrants $z Massachusetts $x History.

 

b. Descendants of immigrants. For works on individual ethnic groups that do not discuss the immigrant generation, assign a heading for the name of the group. Do not assign the heading Immigrants. Example:

Title:   The economic mobility of third and fourth generation Italian Americans in Hartford, Connecticut.

650 #0 $a Italian Americans $z Connecticut $z Hartford $x Economic conditions.

651 #0 $a Hartford (Conn.) $x Economic conditions.


5. Aliens. Assign Aliens (May Subd Geog) to works that discuss collectively persons who are not citizens of the country in which they reside, including recent immigrants, foreign students, foreign visitors, illegal aliens, military personnel, or government employees temporarily stationed in a foreign country, etc. Example:

Title:   A history of foreigners in India.

650 #0 $a Aliens $z India $x History.

 

6. Migration, Internal.

a. General. Assign the heading Migration, Internal (May Subd Geog) to works on the movement of persons from one place to another within the same country. Example:

Title:   Migration in the Prairie Provinces.

650 #0 $a Migration, Internal $z Prairie Provinces.

 

b. Special aspects. Assign headings for specific types of internal migration to works on special aspects of the topic, for example, Rural-urban migration, Urban-rural migration, etc. Example:

Title:   Urban migration and economic development in Nigeria.

650 #0 $a Rural-urban migration $z Nigeria.

651 #0 $a Nigeria $x Economic conditions $y 1960-

650 #0 $a Urbanization $z Nigeria.


7. Return migration. Assign the heading Return migration (May Subd Geog) to works on the social or demographic aspects of emigrants' return to their country of origin. Example:

Title:   The brain drain : emigration to the United States and return.

650 #0 $a Brain drain $z Developing countries.

650 #0 $a Return migration $z Developing countries.

651 #0 $a Developing countries $x Emigration and immigration.

651 #0 $a United States $x Emigration and immigration.

650 #0 $a Immigrants $z United States.


8. Assigning additional headings. Works on emigration and immigration are usually multifaceted, requiring an array of headings to bring out various aspects of the material. Assign several headings, if appropriate, to cover the important topics discussed in a work, such as the individual ethnic group involved, the country from which they moved, the immigration process, the place in which they settled, the conditions in which they lived, the history of their descendants, etc. Generally, when assigning the heading Emigration and immigration or [place]Emigration and immigration, assign also the heading Immigrants. Examples:

Title:   The life and hard times of the Rodriguez family in Chicago.

600 30 $a Rodriguez family.

650 #0 $a Immigrants $z Illinois $z Chicago $v Biography.

650 #0 $a Mexicans $z Illinois $z Chicago $v Biography.

650 #0 $a Mexican Americans $z Illinois $z Chicago $v Biography.

651 #0 $a Chicago (Ill.) $v Biography.

651 #0 $a Chicago (Ill.) $x Social conditions.

 

Title:   Japanese in Brazil.

650 #0 $a Japanese $z Brazil $x History.

651 #0 $a Japan $x Emigration and immigration $x History.

651 #0 $a Brazil $x Emigration and immigration $x History.

650 #0 $a Immigrants $z Brazil $ History.

651 #0 $a Brazil $x Civilization $x Japanese influences.

 

Title:   Italian emigration in the 20th century.

651 #0 $a Italy $x Emigration and immigration $x History $y 20th century.

650 #0 $a Immigrants $x History $y 20th century.

650 #0 $a Italians $z Foreign countries $x History $y 20th century.

 

Title:   Cultural assimilation of Chinese immigrant children.

650 #0 $a Chinese American children.

650 #0 $a Chinese Americans $x Cultural assimilation.

650 #0 $a Children of immigrants $z United States.

 

 

 

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