H 1225 Archaeological Works


BACKGROUND: Works that discuss the archaeology of particular places are assigned a standard combination of subject headings. The purpose of this instruction sheet is to provide guidelines for assigning these headings to assure uniform treatment for such works.

Note: The arrangement of headings used in the text and examples below is not significant, since the actual order of headings used in an individual case depends upon the emphasis of the work and the class number assigned to it (cf. H 80).


1. General rule. To works on the archaeology of a particular place, assign an appropriate combination of the following headings, as specified in sec. 1.a.-1.d., below:

651 #0 $a [name of site, if the work is about a specific site].

651 #0 $a [place] $x Antiquities <or Antiquities, Roman [etc.]>.

650 #0 $a Antiquities, Prehistoric $z [place].

650 #0 $a [name of people, prehistoric culture or period, etc.].

650 #0 $a Excavations (Archaeology) $z [place].

Also assign headings to bring out any other special topics, such as pottery, burial sites, agriculture, etc. Divide these headings by place, including the name of the site if the work is about an individual site.


a. Name of the site. For works about a specific site, assign the heading for the site. For procedures for establishing headings for individual sites, see sec. 3, below.


b. [Place]Antiquities and/or Antiquities, Prehistoric[place]. Assign a heading of the type [place]Antiquities to works on the antiquities of a particular place, for example, AfricaAntiquities; FranceAntiquities; London (England)Antiquities.


If a work is about a specific site, assign this heading only to bring out a locality below the level of a country (or below the level of a first order political division in the case of the United States, Great Britain, and Canada).

Use the subdivision –Antiquities, Byzantine, [Celtic, Germanic, Phoenician, Roman, Slavic, or Turkish] if the work is about antiquities of one of those types. In all other cases, assign the subdivision –Antiquities without an adjectival qualifier.


For works on prehistoric antiquities, assign the heading Antiquities, Prehistoric–[place]. Do not divide this heading by names of individual sites.

c. Name of people. When possible, assign a heading for the people who occupied the site, or assign a heading for the prehistoric culture or period. Subdivide this heading geographically if appropriate. Under headings for extant peoples, use the subdivision –Antiquities. Examples:

650 #0 $a Sumerians.

650 #0 $a Mesolithic period.

650 #0 $a Copper age $z Europe.

650 #0 $a Hallstatt period.

650 #0 $a Corded Ware culture.

650 #0 $a Neanderthals $z France $z Poitou–Charentes.

650 #0 $a Indus civilization.

650 #0 $a Paleo–Indians.

650 #0 $a Mayas $x Antiquities.


If the work is about two peoples, cultures, or periods, designate both. If it is about more than two, or if the name of the people, culture, or period cannot be identified from the work, this type of heading may be omitted.

Assign this heading even if the subdivision –Antiquities has been qualified by the name of the corresponding ethnic group. For example, in the following case, the heading Celts is required even though –Antiquities, Celtic has been used in the first heading:

651 #0 $a Romania $x Antiquities, Celtic.

650 #0 $a Celts $z Romania.


Exception: Do not assign the heading Romans if either ItalyAntiquities, Roman or [locality within Italy]­Antiquities, Roman has been assigned.

Do not assign this heading if the place used in the [place]–Antiquities heading corresponds exactly to the name of the people (for example, Greece and Greeks; Egypt and Egyptians; Gaul and Gauls; Hawaii and Hawaiians; Rome and Romans).


d. Excavations (Archaeology)­[place]. Assign this heading if the work is about excavations carried out in the place, including techniques used, artifacts recovered, etc. Do not divide this heading by names of individual sites.


2. Catalogs of antiquities. Use the free-floating form subdivision –Catalogs under names of individual sites and under headings of the type [place]–Antiquities and Excavations (Archaeology)–[place] for works listing objects found at those sites.

Do not use –Catalogs under headings for peoples. For example, use Rome–Antiquities–Catalogs, not Romans–Catalogs.


4. Examples of headings assigned to individual works:

Title:   Archaeological treasures of ancient Egypt.

651 #0 $a Egypt $x Antiquities.


Title:   Etruscan painted tombs of Tarquinia, Italy.

651 #0 $a Tarquinia (Italy) $x Antiquities.

650 #0 $a Etruscans z Italy $z Tarquinia.

650 #0 $a Tombs $z Italy $z Tarquinia.

650 #0 $a Mural painting and decoration, Etruscan $z Italy $z Tarquinia.


Title:   Remains of Roman roads in Lombardy.

651 #0 $a Lombardy (Italy) $x Antiquities, Roman.

650 #0 $a Roads, Roman $z Italy $z Lombardy.


Title:   Studies of Phoenician settlements in early Spain.

651 #0 $a Spain $x Antiquities, Phoenician.

650 #0 $a Phoenicians $z Spain.


Title:   Danebury, anatomy of an Iron Age hillfort.

651 #0 $a Danebury Site (England)

650 #0 $a Fortification, Prehistoric $z England $z Danebury Site.

650 #0 $a Iron age $z England $z Danebury Site.


Title:   Selected early Mississippian household sites in the American Bottom.

650 #0 $a Indians of North America $z Illinois $z American Bottom $x Antiquities.

650 #0 $a Mississippian culture $z Illinois $z American Bottom.

650 #0 $a Excavations (Archaeology) $z Illinois $z American Bottom.

651 #0 $a American Bottom (Ill.) $x Antiquities.


Title:   The Grand Village of the Natchez revisited : excavations at the Fatherland site, Adams County, Mississippi, 1972. 

651 #0 $a Fatherland Site (Miss.)

650 #0 $a Natchez Indians $x Antiquities.

650 #0 $a Excavations (Archaeology) $z Mississippi $z Adams County.


Title:   Archeology of Kauai

651 #0 $a Kauai (Hawai) $x Antiquities.

650 #0 $a Excavations (Archeology) $z Hawaii $z Kauai.


Copyright Library of Congress except within the USA.