H 1154  Languages

 

PATTERNS:  English language; French language; Romance languages

 

TYPES OF HEADINGS COVERED BY THE PATTERN:  Headings for individual languages and groups of languages, including named dialects and artificial languages.  Also included are headings formed using the free-floating subdivision –Languages under ethnic groups and names of countries, cities, etc.  Examples:  Danish language; Indo–European languages; Navajo language; Abung dialect; Esperanto; Indians of North America–Languages; Gabon–Languages; New York (N.Y.)–Languages.  The category does not include the heading Language and languages.

 

CONFLICTS:  Any subdivision listed here can be used as a free-floating subdivision under any heading belonging to the category if it is appropriate and no conflict exists in the subject authority file.  Subject authority records may exist for headings employing variant phrases or subdivisions equivalent to subdivisions on this list.

 

LC practice:

If an exceptional variant form is to be retained, make a UF reference from the equivalent free-floating subdivision form following the procedures in H 195 if the reference does not yet exist.  Otherwise, submit a proposal to change the variant form along with all bibliographic records requiring correction following the procedures in H 193.

 

NEW SUBDIVISIONS:  Establish new subdivisions under English language, if possible, or if it is not possible, under French language for individual languages or Romance languages for groups of languages.  Subdivisions listed below which are not valid under English language are indicated by a footnote.

 

PERIOD SUBDIVISIONS:

1.  General rule.  If the period subdivisions listed below and established under English language are not appropriate for another language, establish the appropriate subdivision under the specific language, for example, Russian language–To 1300.

 

2.  Further subdivisions.  Topical and form subdivisions valid for English language in general may also be used under any specific period subdivision, for example, English language–Middle English, 1100-1500–Etymology–Names.

 

3.  Period subdivisions established under English language.

$y  Old English, ca. 450-1100

$y  Middle English, 1100-1500

$y  Early modern, 1500-1700

$y  18th century

$y  19th century

$y  20th century

$y  21st century

 

TOPICAL AND FORM SUBDIVISIONS:

Note:  Most form subdivisions coded $v in this list may also be used as topical subdivisions coded $x when assigned to works about the form (see H 1075, sec. 1.d.).

 

$x  Ability testing  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Absolute constructions

$x  Accents and accentuation

$x  Acquisition

$x  Acronyms

$x  Acronyms $v Dictionaries

$x  Address, Forms of

$x  Adjectivals

$x  Adjective

$x  Adverb

$x  Adverbials

$x  Affixes

$x  Agreement

$x  Alphabet

$x  Alphabet $x Religious aspects

$x  Alphabet $x Religious aspects $x Buddhism, [Christianity, etc.]

$x  Analogy

$x  Anaphora

$x  Animacy

$x  Apheresis

$x  Apposition

$x  Archaisms

$x  Article

$x  Aspect

$x  Aspiration

$x  Asyndeton

$x  Augmentatives

$x  Auxiliary verbs

$x  Business English[1]

$x  Capitalization

$x  Case

$x  Case grammar

$x  Cataphora

$x  Categorial grammar

$x  Causative

$v  Classification

$x  Classifiers

$x  Clauses

$x  Clitics

$x  Cognate words

$x  Cognate words $x Dutch, [German, etc.]

$x  Collective nouns

$x  Comparative clauses

$x  Comparison

$x  Complement

$x  Composition and exercises

$x  Compound words

$x  Computer-assisted instruction

$x  Computer-assisted instruction for foreign speakers

$x  Computer-assisted instruction for French, [Spanish, etc.] speakers

$x  Concessive clauses

$x  Conditionals

$x  Conjunctions

$x  Connectives

$x  Consonants

$x  Context

$x  Contraction

$v  Conversation and phrase books

$v  Conversation and phrase books $x English

$v  Conversation and phrase books $x French, [Italian, etc.]

$v  Conversation and phrase books $x Polyglot

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for accountants)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for air pilots)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for animal specialists)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for bank employees)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for businesspeople)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for caregivers)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for clergy, etc.)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for computer industry employees)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for construction industry employees)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for correctional personnel)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for dental personnel)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for diplomats)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for domestics)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for farmers)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for fire fighters)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for first responders)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for fishers)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for flight attendants)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for gardeners)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for geologists)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for gourmets)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for homeowners)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for landscaping industry employees)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for lawyers)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for library employees)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for mathematicians)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for medical personnel)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for merchants)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for meteorologists)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for museum employees)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for musicians, musicologists, etc.)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for nutritionists)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for personnel department employees)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for petroleum workers)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for police)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for professionals)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for restaurant and hotel personnel)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for sailors)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for school employees)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for secretaries)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for social workers)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for soldiers, etc.)

$v  Conversation and phrase books (for tourism industry employees)

$x  Coordinate constructions

$x  Declension

$x  Definiteness

$x  Deixis

$x  Deletion

$x  Demonstratives

$x  Denominatives

$x  Dependency grammar

$x  Determiners

$x  Diacritics

$x  Dialectology

$x  Dialects  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Dialects $v Conversation and phrase books

$x  Dialects $v Glossaries, vocabularies, etc.

$x  Dialects $x Grammar

$x  Dialects $x Lexicology

$x  Dialects $x Morphology

$x  Dialects $x Mutual intelligibility

$x  Dialects $x Phonetics

$x  Dialects $x Phonology

$x  Dialects $x Research  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Dialects $x Research $x Law and legislation  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Dialects $x Syntax

$x  Dialects $v Texts

$x  Diction

$v  Dictionaries

$v  Dictionaries $v Conversation and phrase books (for homowners) Early works to 1700

$v  Dictionaries $x French, [Italian, etc.]

$v  Dictionaries $x Polyglot

$v  Dictionaries, Juvenile

$v  Dictionaries, Juvenile $x Hebrew, [Italian, etc.]

$x  Diminutives

$x  Diphthongs

$x  Direct object

$x  Discourse analysis

$x  Dissimilation

$x  Elision

$x  Ellipsis

$x  Emphasis

$x  Enclitics

$x  Epithets

$x  Eponyms

$x  Ergative constructions

$x  Errors of usage

$x  Etymology

$x  Etymology $x Names

$x  Euphemism

$x  Exclamations

$v  Exercises for dictation

$x  Existential constructions

$x  Figures of speech

$v  Films for foreign speakers

$v  Films for French, [Spanish, etc. ] speakers

$z  Foreign countries

$x  Foreign elements

$x  Foreign elements $x French, [Greek, Latin, etc.]

$x  Foreign words and phrases

$x  Foreign words and phrases $x Arabic, [Italian, etc.]

$x  Function words

$x  Gallicisms

$x  Gemination

$x  Gender

$x  Gerund

$x  Gerundive

$x  Globalization

$v  Glossaries, vocabularies, etc.

$v  Glossaries, vocabularies, etc. $x Polyglot

$x  Government

$x  Government jargon

$x  Gradation

$x  Grammar

$x  Grammar $x Theory, etc.

$x  Grammar, Comparative

$x  Grammar, Comparative $x French, [Latin, etc.]

$x  Grammar, Generative

$x  Grammar, Historical

$x  Grammatical categories

$x  Grammaticalization

$x  Graphemics

$x  Haplology

$x  Heteronyms

$x  Hiatus

$x  History

$x  Homonyms

$x  Honorific

$x  Ideophone

$x  Idioms

$x  Imperative

$x  Indeclinable words

$x  Indicative

$x  Indirect discourse

$x  Indirect object

$x  Infinitival constructions

$x  Infinitive

$x  Infixes

$x  Inflection

$x  Influence on foreign languages

$x  Influence on French, [Italian, etc.]

$x  Intensification

$x  Interjections

$x  Interrogative

$x  Intonation

$x  Jargon

$x  Labiality

$x  Lexicography

$x  Lexicology

$x  Lexicology, Historical

$x  Locative constructions

$x  Machine translating (May Subd Geog)

$x  Markedness

$x  Medical English

$x  Metonyms

$x  Metrics and rhythmics

$x  Mimetic words

$x  Modality

$x  Monosyllables

$x  Mood

$x  Morphemics

$x  Morphology

$x  Morphophonemics

$x  Morphosyntax

$x  Mutation

$x  Mutual intelligibility

$x  Nasality

$x  Negatives

$x  Neutralization

$x  New words

$x  Nominals

$x  Noun

$x  Noun phrase

$x  Null subject

$x  Number

$x  Numerals

$x  Obscene words

$x  Obsolete words

$x  Onomatopoeic words

$x  Orthography and spelling

$x  Palatalization

$x  Paragraphs

$x  Parallelism

$x  Paraphrase

$x  Parenthetical constructions

$x  Paronyms

$x  Parsing

$x  Participle

$x  Particles

$x  Partitives

$x  Parts of speech

$x  Passive voice

$x  Pejoration

$x  Person

$x  Phonemics

$v  Phonetic transcriptions

$x  Phonetics

$x  Phonology

$x  Phonology, Comparative

$x  Phonology, Comparative $x French, [German, etc.]

$x  Phonology, Historical

$x  Phraseology

$x  Polysemy

$x  Possessives

$x  Postpositions

$x  Prepositional phrases

$x  Prepositions

$x  Pronominals

$x  Pronoun

$x  Pronunciation

$x  Pronunciation by foreign speakers

$x  Prosodic analysis

$x  Provincialisms  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Punctuation

$x  Quantifiers

$x  Quantity

$v  Readers  (H 1975)

$v  Readers $v [form]  (H 1975)

$v  Readers $x [topic]  (H 1975)

$v  Readers for new literates

$x  Reduplication

$x  Reference

$x  Reflexives

$x  Reform

$x  Relational grammar

$x  Relative clauses

$x  Religious aspects

$x  Religious aspects $x Baptists, [Catholic Church, etc.]

$x  Religious aspects $x Buddhism, [Christianity, etc.]

$x  Remedial teaching  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Resultative constructions

$v  Reverse indexes

$x  Revival

$x  Rhetoric

$x  Rhyme

$x  Rhythm

$x  Roots

$v  Self-instruction

$x  Semantics

$x  Semantics, Historical

$x  Sentences

$x  Sex differences  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Slang

$x  Social aspects  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Sonorants

$v  Sound recordings for foreign speakers

$v  Sound recordings for French, [Spanish, etc.] speakers

$x  Spectral analysis

$x  Spoken English  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Spoken French, [Japanese, etc.]  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Standardization

$x  Study and teaching  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Study and teaching $x African American students

$x  Study and teaching $x Bilingual method

$x  Study and teaching $x Foreign speakers

$x  Study and teaching $x Foreign speakers $x Audio-visual aids

$x  Study and teaching $x French, [Spanish, etc.] speakers

$x  Study and teaching $x Immersion method

$x  Study and teaching (Continuing education)  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Study and teaching (Continuing education) $x Foreign speakers

$x  Study and teaching (Continuing education) $x French, [Spanish, etc.] speakers

$x  Study and teaching (Early childhood)  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Study and teaching (Early childhood) $x Foreign speakers

$x  Study and teaching (Early childhood) $x French, [Spanish, etc.] speakers

$x  Study and teaching (Elementary)  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Study and teaching (Elementary) $x Foreign speakers

$x  Study and teaching (Elementary) $x French, [Spanish, etc.] speakers

$x  Study and teaching (Higher)  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Study and teaching (Higher) $x Foreign speakers

$x  Study and teaching (Higher) $x French, [Spanish, etc.] speakers

$x  Study and teaching (Preschool)  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Study and teaching (Preschool) $x Foreign speakers

$x  Study and teaching (Preschool) $x French, [Spanish, etc.] speakers

$x  Study and teaching (Primary)  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Study and teaching (Primary) $x Foreign speakers

$x  Study and teaching (Primary) $x French, [Spanish, etc.] speakers

$x  Study and teaching (Secondary)  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Study and teaching (Secondary) $x Foreign speakers

$x  Study and teaching (Secondary) $x French, [Spanish, etc.] speakers

$x  Style

$x  Subjectless constructions

$x  Subjunctive

$x  Subordinate constructions

$x  Substitution

$x  Suffixes and prefixes

$x  Suppletion

$x  Switch-reference

$x  Syllabication

$x  Synonyms and antonyms

$x  Syntax

$x  Technical English

$x  Technical English $x Translating into French, [German, etc.]

$x  Tempo

$x  Temporal clauses

$x  Temporal constructions

$x  Tense

$v  Terms and phrases

$v  Textbooks

$v  Textbooks for English, [French, etc.] speakers

$v  Textbooks for foreign speakers

$v  Textbooks for foreign speakers $x English

$v  Textbooks for foreign speakers $x German, [Italian, etc.]

$v  Texts

$x  Texts $x Dating

$x  Topic and comment

$x  Transcription  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Transitivity

$x  Translating  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Translating into French, [German, etc.]

$x  Transliteration

$x  Transliteration into Korean, [Russian, etc.]

$x  Transmutation

$x  Usage

$x  Variation (May Subd Geog)

$x  Verb

$x  Verb phrase

$x  Verbals

$x  Versification

Video recordings for foreign speakers, see --Films for foreign speakers

Video recordings for French, [Spanish, etc.] speakers, see --Films for French, [Spanish, etc.] speakers

$v  Video recordings for French, [Spanish, etc.] speakers

$x  Vocabulary

$x  Vocalization

$x  Vocational guidance  (May Subd Geog)

$x  Voice

$x  Vowel gradation

$x  Vowel reduction

$x  Vowels

$x  Word formation

$x  Word frequency

$x  Word order

$x  Writing

$x  Written English  (May Subd Geog)

 

 

Copyright Library of Congress except within the U.S.A.



[1] Not a free-floating subdivision.  Establish headings for [...] language-Business [...]; [...] language-Medical [...]; [...] language-Technical [...]; and [...] language-Written [...] as needed.