H 1095 Free-Floating Subdivisions

 

DEFINITION: The term free-floating refers to a form or topical subdivision that may be used under designated subjects without the usage being established editorially, and, as a consequence, without an authority record being created for each main heading/subdivision combination that might be needed.

 

 

 

CAUTION REGARDING USE: Free-floating status does not allow the assignment of a subdivision under any topic of interest without regard for appropriateness. All free-floating subdivisions may be assigned only in accordance with subject cataloging rules, policies, and practices. Most subdivisions are usable only under limited categories of headings in specifically defined situations.

 

 

 

TYPES OF FREE-FLOATING SUBDIVISIONS: Five types of free-floating subdivisions are in use: (1) Form and topical subdivisions of general application; (2) subdivisions used under classes of persons and ethnic groups; (3) subdivisions used under names of individual corporate bodies, persons, and families; (4) subdivisions used under place names; and (5) subdivisions controlled by pattern headings. It is also possible to add free-floating terms and phrases to existing headings. For instructions on those terms and phrases, see H 362.

 

(1) Form and topical subdivisions of general application. These subdivisions are listed with guidelines for their use beginning on p. 4 of this instruction sheet.

 

(2) Subdivisions used under classes of persons and ethnic groups. These subdivisions are given in two separate lists, H 1100 and H 1103.

 

(3) Subdivisions used under names of individual corporate bodies, persons, and families. There are three separate lists of these subdivisions. Subdivisions used under names of corporate bodies are listed in H 1105. Subdivisions used under names of persons are listed in H 1110. Subdivisions used under family names are included in H 1120.

 

(4) Subdivisions used under place names. There are two separate lists for these subdivisions. Subdivisions used under names of regions, countries, cities, etc., are listed in H 1140. Subdivisions used under names of bodies of water are listed in H 1145.5.

(5) Subdivisions controlled by pattern headings. Separate lists of these subdivisions are given in the appropriate instruction sheet for each pattern heading (H 1147 -H 1200). General instructions for their use may be found in H 1146.

 

 

 

PROCEDURES FOR ASSIGNING FREE-FLOATING SUBDIVISIONS:

 

1. Authorized usage. Before using any free-floating subdivision, determine that it is being used in accordance with subject cataloging policy, as stated in the Subject Cataloging Manual, the subject authority file, etc. Information about the authorized usage of free-floating subdivisions may be found in:

The Subject Cataloging Manual -- the lists of free-floating subdivisions in H 1095-H 1200) as well as in separate instruction sheets that explain the use of many individual subdivisions.

Subject authority records -- subdivision authority records in which free-floating subdivisions appear in 18X fields, codes identifying their controlling instruction sheet numbers (H 1095-H 1200) appear in 073 fields, and usage statements and instructions appear in 680 and 667 fields; scope notes in 680 fields of subject authority records (cf. H 400); general see also references in 360 fields of authority records for generic headings (cf. H 371); and general see references in 260 fields of reference records (cf. H 374) when no generic headings exist.

 

2. Conflicts. Determine if the use under consideration conflicts with any previously established subject headings. The conflict most frequently encountered is the subdivision vs. phrase heading conflict, for example, Sports-Fiction vs. Sports stories; Schools-Management vs. School management and organization. Use the established heading in each case unless a policy is in place to revise a particular type of heading. For example, in the 1980s, a decision was made to cancel all headings of the type ... as a profession in favor of the free-floating subdivision -Vocational guidance. For subdivisions controlled by pattern headings, generally bring usage into conformity with the pattern lists unless there is a good reason to maintain an exceptional heading.

 

3. Topics not implied in headings. Use a free-floating subdivision under a topical heading only when the topic of the subdivision is not already implied in the heading itself. For example, the subdivision -Government policy is not used under headings that are inherently governmental in nature (cf. H 1642). The subdivision -Psychological aspects should not be used under headings for psychological concepts, such as Emotions.

 

4. Order of subdivisions. Combine subdivisions with main headings in the prescribed order to create meaningful subject heading strings. For a discussion of the two basic orders of subject heading strings, see H 1075 sec. 2.

 

5. Geographic subdivision. Free-floating subdivisions that are authorized for further geographic subdivision have the notation (May Subd Geog) on the lists of free-floating subdivisions. See H 860 for instructions on subdivisions further subdivided by place and H 870 for instructions on interposition of geographic subdivisions.

 

6. Subfield coding. On the individual free-floating subdivision and pattern heading lists, subfield coding is provided for each subdivision listed. Most form subdivisions coded $v on the lists may also be used as topical subdivisions coded $x when assigned to works about the form (see H 1075, sec. 1.d.).

 

LC practice:

7. Updating of LC records. When assigning a particular subdivision for the first time under a particular heading, check the existing entries in the LC Database under the unsubdivided heading in order to locate those records with headings that require updating.

Example: When assigning the subdivision -Social aspects (May Subd Geog) for the first time under the heading Hunting, examine the other records that have been assigned the heading Hunting to determine those records, if any, that should receive this new subdivision (with geographic subdivision, if appropriate).

 

8. New usage. To use a free-floating subdivision in a new situation, or in a situation not authorized in the written guidelines here or in the individual free-floating or pattern heading lists, establish the new usage editorially according to the normal procedures in H 200, submitting a note of explanation at the same time.

 

 

 

FORM AND TOPICAL SUBDIVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION:

 

Listed below are general free-floating form subdivisions and those topical subdivisions having general application, or an application not covered by the pattern and other lists of free-floating subdivisions outlined on p. 1. For subdivisions having applications governed solely by the other lists, consult the appropriate list(s). On this list, statements are given of the types of headings under which each subdivision may be used along with definitions of use in some cases. For subdivisions that may be used under all types of headings - geographic, personal, corporate, title, and topical - the statement reads, "Use under subjects." Subdivisions authorized for use under topical headings may be used under appropriate headings tagged 150 as well as under headings with other tags that are divided by topical subdivisions. For subdivisions of general application that also appear on other special lists, all uses are enumerated here. See also references are provided between related subdivisions on this list. See also references to closely related subdivisions on other special lists are also given. Appearing with each subdivision are references to instruction sheets in the Subject Cataloging Manual which explain or mention its use.

Note: Most form subdivisions coded $v in this list may also be used as topical subdivisions coded $x when assigned to works about the form (see H 1075, sec. 1.d.).

 

$x Abbreviations

Use under topical headings for works about abbreviations pertaining to those topics.

See also -Acronyms

 

$x Abbreviations $v Dictionaries

Use under topical headings for lists of abbreviations pertaining to those topics.

 

$v Abbreviations of titles

Use under types of periodicals, for example, English periodicals-Abbreviations of titles.

See also -Periodicals-Abbreviations of titles

 

$x Ability testing (May Subd Geog) (H 2186)

Use under topical headings.

See also -Testing under phrase headings for types of ability.

 

$x Abstracting and indexing (May Subd Geog) (H 1205; H 1670)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., classes of persons, ethnic groups, and uniform titles of sacred works, and under topical headings for works on how to prepare ab stracts or indexes of publications about the subject. Also use under types of publications for works on preparing abstracts or indexes of those types of publications.

 

$v Abstracts (H 1205)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and under topical headings for works that list publications on the subject and provide full bibliographical information together with substantive summaries or condensations of the facts, ideas, or opinions presented in each publication listed. Use under names of individual persons and corporate bodies for abstracts of works by or about the person or corporate body. Also use under types of publications for works that summarize the contents of those publications.

See also -Digests under legal topics.

 

$x Access control (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of archives, records, computers, computer networks, and statistical and data-gathering services.

 

$x Accidents (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual space vehicles, types of industries, and other topical headings.

Do not subdivide geographically under names of individual space vehicles.

See also -Wounds and injuries under classes of persons, ethnic groups, individual animals and groups of animals, individual plants and groups of plants, and individual organs and regions of the body.

 

$x Accidents $x Investigation (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Accounting (H 1624)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and under types of corporate bodies and industries, military services, and topical headings.

 

$x Accreditation (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies, especially institutions, educational institutions, and services, and under types of institutions, educational institutions, and services.

Do not subdivide geographically under names of corporate bodies.

See also -Study and teaching under subjects for the accreditation of programs of study in those subjects.

See also -Certification; -Licenses

 

$x Acronyms (H 1206.5)

Use under individual languages other than English, groups of languages, and topical headings for works about acronyms in those languages or pertaining to those topics.

 

$x Acronyms $v Dictionaries (H 1206.5)

Use under individual languages other than English, groups of languages, and topical headings for lists of acronyms in those languages or pertaining to those topics.

 

$x Administration

Use under names of individual libraries, schools, and institutions in the spheres of health and social services, under types of such institutions, and under types of education and programs in the field of education.

See also -Colonies-Administration under names of countries, cities, etc.

See also -Management

See also -Politics and government under names of countries, cities, etc., and under ethnic groups.

 

$v Aerial photographs (H 1210.5)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and under topical headings for collections or discussions of aerial photographs, including collections of reproductions, of a place or topic.

 

$x Air conditioning (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of buildings, vehicles, and other constructions.

 

$x Air conditioning $x Control (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of buildings, vehicles, and other constructions.

 

$v Amateurs' manuals (H 1943.5)

Use under technical topics for works of instruction for nonprofessionals on how to acquire a skill or perform an operation.

 

$x Analysis

Use under substances and chemicals for works on methods of analyzing those items or analyzing a sample to determine the presence or quantity of the items, and for works presenting the results of analyses of substances not produced naturally.

See also -Composition

 

$v Anecdotes

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons, families, and corporate bodies, uniform titles of sacred works, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$x Anniversaries, etc.

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons and corporate bodies, and under historic and social movements, individual Christian denominations, events, classes of persons, and ethnic groups for works on anniversary celebrations or commemorations of significant events. Do not use for works merely published on the occasion of an anniversary.

See also -Centennial celebrations, etc.

 

$x Archival resources (H 1230)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and under topical headings for descriptions of the types of documents and historical records about a particular place or topic available in an institution or institutions.

 

$v Archives (H 1230)

Use under names of individual persons, families, and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, types of corporate bodies and educational institutions, and military services for collections of documents or historical records, including notes, correspondence, minutes, photographs, legal papers, etc.

$x Archives $v Microform catalogs (H 1361)

 

$v Art (H 1250)

Use under names of individual persons who lived before 1400, names of deities and mythological or legendary figures, and under headings of the type [topic]-[subdivision].

See also -Portraits under names of individual persons who lived after 1400 and individual families, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and individual wars.

See also headings of the type [topic] in art and the subdivision -In art under names of countries, cities, etc., under names of individual corporate bodies, and under Christian denominations.

 

$v Atlases (H 1935)

Use under scientific and technical topics for works consisting of comprehensive, often systematically arranged collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.

 

$x Audio-visual aids (H 2110)

Use under topical headings for works on audiovisual materials not specifically designed for educational purposes.

See also -Study and teaching-Audio-visual aids

 

$v Audio-visual aids $v Catalogs (H 1361)

Use under topical headings for catalogs of audiovisual materials.

 

$v Audiotape catalogs (H 1361)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons and corporate bodies, and under ethnic groups and topical headings for lists or catalogs of sound recordings on audiotapes.

 

$x Auditing (H 1624)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and under types of corporate bodies and industries and topical headings.

 

$x Authorship

Use under names of individual persons and individual works entered under title, under disciplines, and under literary, motion picture, radio, television, and video forms and genres.

 

$x Automatic control

Use under individual technical processes and equipment.

 

$x Automation

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and under types of corporate bodies, industries, buildings, processes, and systems.

See also -Effect of automation on under occupational groups and types of employees.

 

$x Autonomous communities (H 713)

Use under headings of the type [topic]-Spain for works discussing collectively the autonomous communities of Spain in relation to the topic, for example, Law-Spain-Autonomous communities.

 

$x Autonomous regions (H 713)

Use under headings of the type [topic]-China for works discussing collectively the autonomous regions of China in relation to the topic, for example, Minorities-China-Autonomous regions.

 

$x Awards (May Subd Geog) (H 1265)

Use under names of individual persons, corporate bodies, and military services, and under topical headings. This subdivision may be further subdivided by place only under topical headings.

 

$x Barrier-free design (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of buildings, structures, and facilities.

 

$x Biblical teaching (H 1295)

Use under religious or secular topics for works on the theological and/or ethical teachings of the Bible, or its individual parts, on that topic.

 

$v Bibliography (H 1205; H 1322; H 1325; H 1670)

Use under subjects.

See also -Imprints under names of countries, cities, etc.

 

$v Bibliography $v Catalogs (H 1361)

Use under subjects.

 

$v Bibliography $v Early (H 1576)

Use under subjects for bibliographies issued before 1800.

 

$v Bibliography $v Exhibitions (H 1593)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Bibliography $x Methodology

Use under subjects.

 

$v Bibliography $v Microform catalogs (H 1361; H 1965)

Use under subjects for catalogs that list works stored in microform editions.

See also -Microform catalogs

 

$v Bibliography $v Union lists (H 1361)

Use under subjects for catalogs of materials on those subjects held by two or more libraries.

See also -Union lists

 

$v Bibliography of bibliographies (H 1325)

Use under subjects.

 

$v Bio-bibliography (H 1328)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., individual Christian denominations and monastic and religious orders, and under ethnic groups, literatures, and topical headings.

 

$v Bio-bibliography $v Dictionaries (H 1328)

 

$v Biography (H 1330; H 1720; H 1845)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual corporate bodies, uniform titles of sacred works, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, individual and groups of animals, and historic events.

 

$v Biography $v Dictionaries

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and historic events.

 

$v Biography $v Dictionaries $x French, [Italian, etc.]

 

$x Biography $x History and criticism

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and historic events.

 

$v Book reviews (H 2021)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings for collections of appraisals of books on those places or topics.

See also -Reviews

 

$x Buildings

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and exhibitions for works that discuss collectively the buildings of those corporate bodies or exhibitions.

See also -Buildings, structures, etc. under names of cities.

 

$v By-laws

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and under types of corporate bodies.

 

$x By-products

Use under types of industries and processes.

 

$v Calendars

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and individual corporate bodies, and under topical headings for works that list recurring, coming or past events occurring in those places, associated with those organizations, or relating to those topics, and under names of individual persons for calendars that include information on events associated with the person or quotations from the person.

 

$x Calibration (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of scientific and technical instruments and equipment.

 

$x Cantons (H 713)

Use under headings of the type [topic]-[country] for works discussing collectively the cantons of a country in relation to the topic, for example, Transportation-Switzerland-Cantons.

 

$v Caricatures and cartoons

Use under names of individual persons, families, and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, individual wars, and topical headings for collections or discussions of caricatures or pictorial humor about those subjects.

 

$v Case studies (H 1350)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$v Catalogs (H 1360; H 1361)

Use under types of objects, including types of merchandise, art objects, products, publications, collectors' items, technical equipment, etc., for listings of those objects that have been produced, that are available or located at particular places, or that occur on a particular market, often systematically arranged with descriptive details, prices, etc., accompanying each entry. Use -Catalogs under the heading Excavations (Archaeology) as well as under headings for individual archaeological sites for works listing objects found. Use -Catalogs under names of individual corporate bodies and types of organizations for works listing ob jects, art works, products, etc., produced by, located in, or available from those organizations. Also use -Catalogs under names of individual artists, craftspersons, and corporate bodies for works listing their art works or crafts which are available or located in particular institutions or places. Also use under persons doing business as sellers under their own names.

See also -Audiotape catalogs; -CD-ROM catalogs; -Compact disc catalogs; -Data tape catalogs; -Discography; -Exhibitions; -Film catalogs; -Microform catalogs; -Video catalogs

 

$v Catalogs and collections (May Subd Geog) (H 1360; H 1427)

Use under types of natural objects and musical instruments.

 

$v CD-ROM catalogs

Use under subjects.

 

$x Censorship (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual persons and under individual literatures, wars, and topical headings, especially forms of communication.

 

$x Centennial celebrations, etc.

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and individual corporate bodies, and under historic events.

 

$x Certification (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of products and industries, occupational groups, and types of employees for works on official confirmation that standards have been met.

See also -Accreditation; -Licenses

 

$x Charitable contributions (May Subd Geog)

Use under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and types of organizations.

 

$v Charts, diagrams, etc.

Use under topical headings for works consisting of miscellaneous charts or diagrams illus trating those topics.

 

$v Chronology (H 1367)

Use under names of individual persons, uniform titles of sacred works, headings not divided by -History, such as art, music, and literature headings, and headings for wars, and under topical headings that are inherently historical.

See also -History-Chronology

 

$x Citizen participation (H 1942)

Use under topical headings for works on the participation of citizens in carrying out an activity.

 

$v Classification

Use under classes of persons and topical headings.

 

$x Cleaning (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings.

 

$v Code numbers

Use under topical headings for works consisting of lists of code numbers.

 

$v Code words

Use under topical headings for works consisting of lists of code words.

 

$x Cold weather conditions

Use under types of installations, construction activities, and technical processes for works on procedures to be followed during cold weather conditions.

 

$x Collectibles (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual persons, corporate bodies, titles of works, and fictitious and legendary characters, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, events, and topical headings, for works on objects depicting or related to those subjects.

 

$x Collection and preservation (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of natural objects, including plants, animals, rocks, and minerals, for works on methods of collecting and preserving those objects.

See also -Antiquities-Collection and preservation under names of countries, cities, etc., and ethnic groups

 

$x Collectors and collecting (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of objects, excluding natural objects, for works on collectors and methods of assembling and maintaining collections of those objects.

 

$x Colonies (H 1149.5)

Use under headings of the type [topic]-[place] for works discussing collectively the colonies of a place in relation to the topic, for example, Education-Great Britain-Colonies. Also use under names of countries, cities, etc., for works discussing collectively the colonies ruled by the country or city.

 

$v Comic books, strips, etc.

Use under names of individual persons, uniform titles of sacred works, and under topical headings.

 

$x Communication systems

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and under types of industries, institutions, installations, military services, and disciplines.

 

$v Compact disc catalogs (H 1361)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons and corporate bodies, and topical headings.

 

$x Comparative method

Use under disciplines for works on methods of comparing data relevant to the field.

 

$v Comparative studies

Use under uniform titles of sacred works, individual Christian denominations, and religious topics.

 

$x Competitions (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Composition

Use under natural substances of unfixed composition, including soils, plants, animals, farm products, etc., for the results of chemical analyses of those substances.

See also -Analysis

 

$x Computer-aided design (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Computer-assisted instruction

Use under topical headings for works on an automated method of instruction in which a student interacts directly with instructional materials stored in a computer.

 

$v Computer games

Use under subjects.

 

$x Computer network resources

Use under subjects for works on computer network resources available for research in various fields.

 

$x Computer networks (May Subd Geog)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Computer networks $x Security measures (May Subd Geog)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Computer programs (H 2070)

Use under topical headings for works on computer programs, whether or not lists of machine instructions are included.

See also -Software

 

$x Computer simulation (H 2040)

Use under topical headings.

 

$v Concordances (H 1670)

Use under names of individual persons, individual works (author-title or title entries), and uniform titles of sacred works, and under individual literatures and literary forms.

 

$v Congresses (H 1460)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Congresses $x Attendance (H 1460)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Conservation and restoration (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of art objects, library materials, types of architecture, types of buildings, etc., for works on preserving and restoring those items.

 

$x Control (May Subd Geog)

Use under individual and groups of animals, plants and crops, and pests.

 

$x Cooling (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Corrosion (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of materials, metals and metal compounds, and types of engineering structures, equipment, and vehicles.

 

$x Corrupt practices (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies, and under types of organizations, activities, and industries. This subdivision may be further divided by place only under types of organizations, activities, and industries.

 

$x Cost control

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Cost effectiveness

 

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Cost of operation

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Costs

Use under topical headings.

 

$v Cross-cultural studies (H 1510)

Use under topical headings for works which report the results of cross-cultural studies on those topics or discuss the methods and techniques of conducting such studies.

 

$x Cult (May Subd Geog)

Use under individual deities, divine persons, saints, and persons worshipped for works on systems of beliefs or rituals associated with them.

 

$x Curricula (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual educational institutions and under types of education and educational institutions for works about courses offered at those institutions or in those fields.

Do not subdivide geographically under names of individual educational institutions.

 

$x Customer services (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and under types of organizations and industries. This subdivision may be further divided by place only under types of organizations and industries.

 

$x Data processing

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and under topical headings.

 

$v Data tape catalogs

Use under subjects.

 

$v Databases (H 1520)

Use under subjects as a form subdivision for actual databases or as a topical subdivision for works on databases on those subjects.

 

$x Dating

Use under types of objects for the techniques of fixing the date of their origination.

 

$x Decision making

Use under topical headings for works on the process of arriving at decisions for action, including attempts to formulate a general theory based on mathematical analysis and psychological experiment.

 

$x Defects (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of materials, equipment, structures, products, etc., in which defects may exist.

 

$x Defects $x Reporting (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of materials, equipment, structures, products, etc.

 

$x Defense measures (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of industries, utilities, installations, etc., for measures undertaken for their protection during times of conflict.

 

$x Departments (H 713)

Use under headings of the type [topic]-[country] for works discussing collectively the departments of a country in relation to the topic, for example, Budget-France-Departments.

 

$x Design (H 1532)

Use under topical headings where -Design and construction would not be appropriate.

 

$x Design and construction (H 1532)

Use under individual examinations and types of examinations; also use under types of struc tures, machines, equipment, etc., for works discussing their engineering and/or construction.

 

$v Designs and plans (H 1532)

Use under architectural headings, including types of buildings and rooms, and under landscape headings, including types of gardens and parks, for works containing architectural drawings.

 

$x Deterioration

Use under types of substances, materials, products, etc.

 

$v Dictionaries (H 1540)

Use under subjects.

See also -Encyclopedias

 

$v Dictionaries $x French, [Italian, etc.] (H 1540)

Use under subjects.

 

$v Dictionaries $x Polyglot (H 1540)

Use under subjects.

 

$v Dictionaries, Juvenile (H 1690)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Digitization (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of library materials.

 

$v Directories (H 1558)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., individual corporate bodies and families, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, Christian denominations, types of organizations, and topical headings for individual directories containing names, addresses, and other identifying data.

See also -Registers; -Telephone directories

 

$x Discipline

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and under types of corporate bodies, classes of persons, individual religions, and Christian denominations for the enforcement of rules affecting conduct or action.

 

$v Discography (H 1361)

Use under names of individual persons and under topical headings for lists or catalogs of sound recordings.

See also -Audiotape catalogs; -Songs and music-Discography

 

$x Documentation (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings for works on the processes by which documents on those topics are made available.

 

$v Drama (H 1780)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons, families, and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings for plays or musical dramatic works on those subjects.

 

$v Drawings

Use under technical topics for collections of drawings, plans, etc., and for the technique of making such drawings, unless a separate heading for the technique has been provided.

 

$x Drying (May Subd Geog)

Use under individual materials, products, and objects dried.

 

$x Dust control (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of industries, industrial plants, and processes.

 

$v Early works to 1800 (H 1576)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and appropriate topical headings to designate individual works written or issued before 1800.

 

$x Earthquake effects (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of buildings, structures, facilities, and equipment.

 

$x Econometric models (H 2040)

Use under topical headings for works that employ mathematical or statistical models used to test or measure economic phenomena.

 

$x Economic aspects (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings.

See also -Economic conditions under names of countries, cities, etc., and under classes of persons and ethnic groups, including occupational groups, for works discussing the economic history or economic conditions in general of a place, class of persons, or ethnic group.

 

$x Electromechanical analogies (H 2040)

Use under scientific and technical topics.

 

$v Electronic discussion groups

Use under subjects.

 

$x Electronic information resources

Use under subjects.

 

$x Employees

Use under names of individual nongovernmental corporate bodies and under types of indus tries, services, establishments, and institutions.

See also -Officials and employees

 

$v Encyclopedias (H 1540)

Use under subjects.

 

$v Encyclopedias, Juvenile (H 1540)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Endowments

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and under types of corporate bodies and disciplines.

 

$x Energy conservation (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of industries, facilities, etc.

 

$x Energy consumption (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of industries, military services, and topical headings.

 

$x Environmental aspects (May Subd Geog)

Use under individual military services, events, and wars, and under types of industries, processes, machines, facilities, constructions, chemicals, materials, and events for environmental issues associated with their operation, creation, use, or planning and execution. Also use under individual diseases for environmental aspects of their causation or development.

See also -Environmental conditions under names of countries, cities, etc.

 

$x Equipment and supplies

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and under types of industries, processes, services, activities, institutions, disciplines, animals, plants and crops, vehicles, and wars.

See also -Instruments; -Safety appliances

 

$x Estimates (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of engineering, technical processes, industries, etc., for estimates of the cost of construction, installation, etc., or the carrying out of a task to completion.

 

$x Evaluation (H 1591)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and under types of institutions, products, services, equipment, activities, projects, and programs for works on methods of assessing or appraising those subjects, or for works on both the methods and results of assessing them.

See also -Testing

See also -Rating of under classes of persons.

 

$x Examinations

Use under names of individual corporate bodies, educational institutions, and military services and under types of educational institutions for works discussing examinations given by those organizations; under classes of persons for works discussing examinations for those groups; and under names of individual persons and titles of works and under topical headings for works discussing examinations given about those persons, titles, or topics.

 

$x Examinations $v Study guides

 

$v Examinations, questions, etc.

Use under classes of persons for compilations of questions and answers for examinations for those groups; and under names of individual persons and titles of works and under topical headings for compilations of questions and answers for examinations about those persons, titles, or topics.

See also -Problems, exercises, etc.

 

$v Exhibitions (H 1593)

Use under subjects.

See also -Bibliography-Exhibitions

 

$x Experiments

Use under scientific and technical topics for discussions about experiments and instructions for carrying them out.

 

$x Expertising (May Subd Geog)

Use under headings for art forms and under types of art objects, types of architecture, and types of buildings.

 

$v Facsimiles (H 1595)

Use under headings or subdivisions designating types of printed or written materials, documents, etc.

See also -Manuscripts-Facsimiles; -Maps-Facsimiles

 

$v Fiction (H 1720; H 1790)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons, families, and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings for collections of stories or novels on those topics. Also use under names of individual persons and historic events for individual works of biographical or historical fiction, and under animals for individual stories about animals.

 

$x Field work (H 1645)

Use under disciplines for discussions of the techniques of carrying out work in the field to gain practical experience through firsthand observation.

 

$v Film catalogs (H 1361)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Finance (H 1624)

Use under names of individual nongovernmental corporate bodies and under types of industries, corporate bodies, services, technical operations, etc., for works on the raising and expenditure of funds. Use under names of individual government bodies only for works on their management of nonappropriated funds. Use under ethnic groups for the financial affairs of the group as a whole.

See also -Appropriations and expenditures under names of countries, cities, etc., and individual government agencies.

See also -Finance, Personal under names of individual persons and under classes of persons and ethnic groups.

 

$x Fires and fire prevention (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of institutions, buildings, industries, and vehicles.

 

$v Folklore (H 1627; H 1720)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, uniform titles of sacred works, and topical headings for works discussing those topics as themes in folklore and for collections of folklore texts on those subjects.

 

$x Food service (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual legislative bodies and types of institutions, organized activities, etc., for provisions for meals and food in those enterprises. Do not subdivide geographically under legislative bodies.

 

$x Forecasting (H 1628)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and under topical headings.

 

$z Foreign countries (H 1919.5)

Use under ethnic groups, individual languages, individual literatures, military services, and types of publications qualified by language or nationality.

 

$x Foreign influences (H 1675)

Use under headings for civilizations of places, or particular aspects of those civilizations, including art forms, literary forms, philosophies, intellectual life, etc., under ethnic groups, and under disciplines when further subdivided by place for works discussing general outside cultural influences on those civilizations, groups, or disciplines.

 

$x Forgeries (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual persons and under types of art objects, documents, etc.

 

$v Forms

Use under names of individual corporate bodies, and under topical headings for works consisting of, or containing, substantial numbers of blank forms.

 

$x Fume control (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of industries, industrial plants, and processes.

 

$x Geographic information systems (May Subd Geog)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Government policy (May Subd Geog) (H 1642)

Use under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings not inherently governmental.

See also headings of the type [topic] and state and [topic] policy.

 

$x Grading (May Subd Geog)

Use under individual animals and groups of animals, individual plants and groups of plants, and individual commodities.

 

$x Graphic methods

Use under disciplines, types of technical processes, scientific phenomena, etc., for the technique of solving problems by means of graphs.

 

$v Guidebooks (H 1645)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., individual corporate bodies and parks, etc., and certain topical headings.

See also -Tours under names of countries, cities, etc.

 

$v Handbooks, manuals, etc. (H 1646)

 

Use under subjects

See also -Amateurs' manuals; -Laboratory manuals; -Observers' manuals

 

$x Health aspects (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Heating and ventilation (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of buildings, vehicles, and other constructions.

 

$x Heating and ventilation $x Control (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of buildings, vehicles, and other constructions.

 

$x Heraldry

Use under names of individual corporate bodies, types of industries, and topical headings for the devising, granting, and use of armorial insignia.

 

$x Historiography

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and individual corporate bodies, uniform titles of sacred works and treaties, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, individual wars, and topical headings.

 

$x History (H 1647; H 1845)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and individual corporate bodies, uniform titles of sacred works, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$x History $y To 1500 (H 1647)

Use under topical headings.

 

$x History $y 16th century (H 1647)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., individual corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$x History $y 17th century (H 1647)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., individual corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$x History $y 18th century (H 1647)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., individual corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$x History $y 19th century (H 1647)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., individual corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$x History $y 20th century (H 1647)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., individual corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$x History $y 21st century (H 1647)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., individual corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$x History $v Chronology (H 1367)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and individual corporate bodies, and under ethnic groups, and topical headings not inherently historical.

See also -Chronology

 

$x History $x Philosophy

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and under topical headings.

 

$x History $v Sources (H 1647; H 2080)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and individual corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings not inherently historical for collections or discussions of source materials of all types, such as legal documents, letters, diaries, family papers, visual and moving image materials, assembled at a later time to serve as source mate rials for use by students, scholars, etc., in their research on the subject.

See also -Sources

 

$x History and criticism (H 1647)

Use under literary, music, and film form headings.

 

$x History of doctrines

Use under religious topics.

 

$x History of doctrines $y Early church, ca. 30-600

Use under religious topics.

 

$x History of doctrines $y Middle Ages, 600-1500

Use under religious topics.

 

$x History of doctrines $y 16th century

Use under religious topics.

 

$x History of doctrines $y 17th century

Use under religious topics.

 

$x History of doctrines $y 18th century

Use under religious topics.

 

$x History of doctrines $y 19th century

Use under religious topics.

 

$x History of doctrines $y 20th century

Use under religious topics.

 

$x Hot weather conditions (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings for works on procedures to be followed during hot weather conditions.

See also -Tropical conditions

 

$v Humor

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons and corporate bodies, uniform titles of sacred works, and under topical headings.

 

$x Identification

Use under classes of persons and topical headings. Also use under groups of animals and plants and types of objects as a topical or form subdivision for works presenting the characteristics of a group for the purpose of determining the names of its members.

 

$v Illustrations (H 1659)

Use under names of individual persons, individual works (author-title or title entries), uniform titles of sacred works, and under individual literatures, literary forms, and types of published materials.

 

$v In art (H 362; H 910; H 1250; H 1935)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and individual corporate bodies, and individual Christian denominations, and under uniform titles, for their representation as physical objects in artistic works. Use as a form subdivision for works consisting of reproductions of artistic works that depict the place, body, etc. Use as a topical subdivision for works that discuss the place, body, etc., as a theme in art.

 

$v Indexes (H 1670)

Use under subjects.

See also -Concordances

 

$x Industrial applications (May Subd Geog)

Use under scientific phenomena, individual chemicals, and individual plants and groups of plants.

 

$x Influence (H 1675)

Use under names of individual persons and corporate bodies, uniform titles of sacred works, and under forms and movements in the visual arts, types of organizations, religions, and individual wars for works discussing their influence.

 

$x Information resources

Use under subjects.

See also -Electronic information resources

 

$x Information resources management (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and types of industries and organizations.

 

$x Information services (H 1675.5)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons, corporate bodies, and military services, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$x Information technology (May Subd Geog)

Use under disciplines, types of industries, services, and organizations.

 

$x Insignia

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and military services and under types of corporate bodies.

 

$x Inspection (May Subd Geog) (H 1676.5)

Use under names of individual military services, and under types of merchandise, products, equipment, engineering structures, and buildings, and individual and groups of animals and plants.

 

$x Installation (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of equipment.

 

$x Instruments

Use under scientific and technical disciplines for discussions of the instruments employed in those fields.

 

$v Interactive multimedia

Use under subjects.

 

$x International cooperation

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Interpretation

Use under individual tests and types of tests.

 

$v Inventories

Use under types of industries, institutions, and topical headings for lists or discussions of raw materials, supplies, work in process, finished goods, etc., on hand at a particular time.

 

$x Inventory control (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and military services and under types of industries, organizations, and facilities. This subdivision may be further subdivided by place only under types of industries, organizations, and facilities.

 

$v Job descriptions (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and military services, and under occupational groups. This subdivision may be further subdivided by place only under occupational groups.

 

$v Juvenile drama (H 1690)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$v Juvenile fiction (H 1690)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$v Juvenile films (H 1690)

Use under subjects.

 

$v Juvenile humor (H 1690)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$v Juvenile literature (H 1690)

Use under subjects.

 

$v Juvenile poetry (H 1690)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$v Juvenile software (H 2070)

Use under topical headings for actual software items, that is, machine-readable editions.

 

$v Juvenile sound recordings (H 1690)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Koranic teaching

Use under Islamic topics for works on the theological and/or ethical teachings of the Koran on that topic, for example, Islamic education-Koranic teaching; War-Religious aspects- Islam-Koranic teaching.

 

$x Labeling (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of products.

 

$x Labor productivity (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of industries, occupations, and processes.

 

$v Laboratory manuals (H 1646)

Use under scientific and technical topics for workbooks containing concise background infor mation and directions for performing work, including experiments, in the laboratory.

 

$x Landscape architecture (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of buildings, institutions, and facilities.

 

$x Language

Use under names of individual persons and corporate bodies, individual works entered under title, and under classes of persons, disciplines, types of newspapers, and individual wars.

See also -Languages under names of countries, cities, etc., and under ethnic groups.

See also -Slang under individual languages and groups of languages and under topical headings.

 

$v Legends (H 1627; H 1795)

Use under names of individual persons and legendary characters and uniform titles of sacred works, and under religious topics for collected or individual literary versions of legendary tales about those persons, characters, or topics.

See also -Romances

 

$x Library resources

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings for works describing the resources and special collections available on those subjects.

 

$x Licenses (May Subd Geog)

Use under occupational groups and types of employees, under types of industries, facilities, and institutions, and under individual land vehicles.

See also -Accreditation; -Certification

 

$x Licenses $x Fees (May Subd Geog)

Use under occupational groups and types of employees, under types of industries, facilities, and institutions, and under individual land vehicles.

 

$x Lighting (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of vehicles, structures, buildings, rooms, installations, etc.

 

$x Linear programming

Use under topical headings.

 

$v Literary collections

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons, families, and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, individual wars, and topical headings for collections including several literary forms.

 

$x Liturgy

Use under individual Jewish and Christian sects and rites; under names of individual Christian monastic and religious orders; and under individual Jewish and Christian ceremonies, rituals, holidays, etc.

$x Liturgy $v Texts (H 2190)

 

$x Location (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of industries, business entities, government agencies, and facilities, and under individual plants and groups of plants.

 

$v Longitudinal studies (H 1848)

Use under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$x Maintenance and repair

 

Use under types of objects, including machinery, vehicles, structures, etc., requiring maintenance and repair.

See also -Repairing

 

$x Management

Use under names of individual corporate bodies, including government agencies, galleries, museums, parks, etc., and under types of industries, industrial plants and processes, special activities, resources, etc.

See also -Administration

 

$x Manuscripts (H 1855)

Use under names of individual persons and families, individual works entered under title, uniform titles of sacred works, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, groups of authors, literatures, and topical headings.

 

$x Manuscripts $v Catalogs (H 1855)

 

$v Manuscripts $v Facsimiles (H 1595; H 1855)

 

$x Manuscripts $v Indexes

 

$x Manuscripts $v Microform catalogs (H 1361)

 

$v Maps (H 1865)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and individual corporate bodies, and under topical headings for individual maps or collections of maps.

See also -Aerial views under names of countries, cities, etc., and individual educational institutions.

 

$x Maps $v Bibliography

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and individual corporate bodies, and under topical headings.

 

$v Maps $v Early works to 1800 (H 1576)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and under topical headings.

 

$v Maps $v Facsimiles (H 1595)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and under topical headings

 

$x Maps $x Symbols

Use under topical headings.

 

$v Maps, Comparative

Use under names of countries, cities, etc.

 

$v Maps, Manuscript

Use under names of countries, cities, etc.

 

$v Maps, Mental

Use under names of countries, cities, etc.

 

$v Maps, Outline and base

Use under names of countries, cities, etc.

 

$v Maps, Physical

Use under names of countries, cities, etc.

 

$v Maps, Pictorial

Use under names of countries, cities, etc.

 

$v Maps, Topographic

Use under names of countries, cities, etc.

 

$v Maps, Tourist

Use under names of countries, cities, etc.

 

$v Maps for children

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., under individual corporate bodies, and under topical headings.

 

$v Maps for people with visual disabilities

Use under names of countries, cities, etc.

 

$v Maps for the blind

Use under names of countries, cities, etc.

 

$x Marketing (H 1870)

Use under types of commodities, products, services, and institutions providing products or services.

 

$x Materials (May Subd Geog)

Use under scientific and technical disciplines and under types of equipment and construction.

 

$x Mathematical models (H 2040)

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Mathematics

Use under topical headings for works on the mathematics employed in those fields.

 

$x Measurement

Use under scientific and technical topics for works on the technique of making measurements.

 

$x Medals (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual persons and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, individual wars, and topical headings. This subdivision may be further subdivided by place only under classes of persons, ethnic groups, individual wars, and topical headings.

 

$x Medical examinations (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual military services and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings for which medical examinations are needed, such as insurance.

 

$v Meditations

Use under names of individual persons, uniform titles of sacred works, and under religious topics for works containing collections of thoughts or reflections on the spiritual significance of the person or topic.

 

$x Membership

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and types of corporate bodies for works on the conditions of belonging to those organizations.

 

$x Methodology

Use under disciplines and other topical headings for works on both the theory and practice of procedures to be followed.

See also -Technique

 

$v Microform catalogs (H 1361; H 1965)

Use under names of individual institutions and collections for catalogs that list works stored in those institutions or collections in microform editions.

See also -Archives-Microform catalogs; -Bibliography-Microform catalogs

 

$v Miscellanea (H 1910)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$x Models (May Subd Geog) (H 2040)

Use under types of objects and organs and regions of the body, for works on physical or working models of those objects or body parts.

 

$x Moisture (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of farm produce, objects, materials, technical equipment, etc., for works on their moisture content.

 

$x Moral and ethical aspects (May Subd Geog) (H 1998)

Use under non-religious or non-ethical topics for works that discuss moral and/or ethical questions regarding the topic.

See also -Professional ethics under occupational groups and types of employees.

 

$x Museums (May Subd Geog) (H 1916)

Use under names of individual persons, families, and corporate bodies, and under ethnic groups, individual wars, and topical headings for which phrase headings for the type of museum have not been established. This subdivision may be further subdivided by place only under headings for names of individual persons and families, and ethnic groups, individual wars, and topical headings.

 

$x Mythology (May Subd Geog) (H 1998)

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Name (H 1919)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons, deities, Christian de nominations, and corporate bodies, and under ethnic groups and individual wars, events, etc., for works on the name's origin, history, spelling, validity, etc.

 

$x Names (H 1919)

Use under types of objects, animals, events, organizations, and educational institutions for the rules, customs, etc., in the naming of those items.

 

$v Newspapers (H 1920)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., ethnic groups of the United States, and topical headings as a form subdivision on newspapers for those places or groups or on those topics.

 

$x Noise

Use under topical headings.

 

$v Nomenclature

Use under scientific and technical disciplines and types of substances, plants, and animals for systematically derived lists of names or designations that have been formally adopted or sanctioned, or for discussions of the principles involved in the creation and application of such names.

 

$v Nomograms

Use under topical headings.

 

$v Notation

Use under scientific and technical topics for works containing the symbols, formulae, or signs employed in the field.

 

$v Observations

Use under scientific topics for works consisting of numerical data obtained by the observation of natural phenomena or for discussions on the processing and use of those data.

 

$v Observers' manuals (H 1646)

Use under scientific topics for instruction books on making observations of natural phenomena.

 

$x Officials and employees

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and individual international and governmental agen cies, and under types of government agencies. This subdivision may be further subdivided by place only when used under names of countries, cities, etc.

See also -Employees

 

$x On postage stamps (H 1945)

Use under names of individual persons and corporate bodies, under titles of works and under names of countries, cities, etc., for works on the portrayal of those entities on postage stamps.

 

$x Orbit

Use under names of individual artificial satellites.

 

$v Outlines, syllabi, etc.

Use under names of individual persons, uniform titles of sacred works, classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings for brief statements of the principal elements of a subject to be studied, usually arranged by headings and subheadings.

 

$x Packaging (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of products and merchandise for the techniques of wrapping, sealing, and labeling those items for marketing.

 

$x Packing (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of products and commodities for the techniques of preparing those items for storage or shipment.

 

$v Pamphlets

Use under 16th, 17th and 18th century period subdivisions of European and American history and under individual wars for short, separately published, usually polemical, essays or treatises regarding controversial issues of contemporary interest, especially political or religious matters.

 

$v Papal documents

Use under topical headings for collections of documents and other papal pronouncements on the topic.

 

$v Parodies, imitations, etc.

Use under names of individual persons and individual works entered under title.

 

$v Passenger lists

Use under names of individual ships.

 

$v Patents

Use under disciplines and under types of articles and processes patented.

 

$v Periodicals (H 1927)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Periodicals $v Abbreviations of titles

Use under subjects.

 

$x Periodicals $v Bibliography

Use under subjects for lists of serials or periodicals on a subject.

 

$x Periodicals $v Bibliography $v Catalogs (H 1361)

Use under subjects for lists of serials or periodicals held by one organization or library, assem bled as a private collection, or issued by an individual publisher.

 

$x Periodicals $v Bibliography $v Union lists (H 1361)

Use under subjects for catalogs of serials or periodicals on those subjects held by two or more libraries.

 

$x Periodicals $v Indexes (H 1670)

Use under subjects.

 

$v Personal narratives (H 1928)

Use under names of events and wars.

 

$x Personal narratives $x History and criticism

 

$x Personnel management

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and under types of industries and organizations.

 

$x Philosophy (H 1929)

Use under names of individual persons other than philosophers, and under groups of literary authors, uniform titles of sacred works, and topical headings.

 

$v Photographs (H 1935)

Use under subjects for works that consist of actual photographs, that is, photographic prints or digital photographs, rather than reproductions of photographs.

 

$v Photographs from space (H 1210.5)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and under topical headings for collections of photo graphs taken from outer space. Do not use for cartographic materials.

 

$x Physiological aspects

Use under types of activities and mental conditions for works on the relationship between an individual's activity, mental state, etc., and his physiology.

See also -Physiology under classes of persons, ethnic groups, individual and groups of animals and plants, and individual organs and regions of the body.

 

$x Physiological effect (May Subd Geog)

Use under individual chemicals, materials, individual plants and groups of plants, and environmental phenomena or conditions for works on their effect on the functions of living organisms.

 

$v Pictorial works (H 1935)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., individual persons, families, and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, individual wars, and topical headings.

See also -Portraits under names of individual persons who lived after 1400, individual families, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and individual wars.

 

$x Planning

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and types of activities, facilities, industries, services, undertakings, etc.

 

$v Poetry (H 1800)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual persons, families, and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings for collections of poetry and individual poems on those subjects.

 

$x Political activity (H 1942)

Use under names of individual persons, families, corporate bodies, and military services, and under classes of persons, individual Christian denominations, and types of corporate bodies for works on the political participation of those persons or organizations.

See also -Politics and government under ethnic groups

See also -Political and social views under individual persons and groups of literary authors.

 

$x -Political aspects (May Subd Geog) (H 1942)

Use under individual religions and topical headings for works on the political dimensions or implications of nonpolitical topics.

See also -Politics and government under names of countries, cities, etc., and under ethnic groups.

 

$v Popular works (H 1943.5)

Use under scientific, technical, and legal headings, etc., for works written for the layperson; and under medical disciplines, individual diseases, and under headings of the type [part of the body]-Diseases for materials written for the layperson.

 

$v Posters (H 1945.5)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., individual persons and corporate bodies, classes of persons, ethnic groups, individual wars, and topical headings for individual posters and collections and/or discussions of posters about those subjects.

 

$x Power supply (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of buildings, installations, equipment, industries, etc.

 

$x Practice (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of professions.

 

$v Prayer-books and devotions

Use further subdivided by the language of the text under names of individual religious and monastic orders and under individual religions, Christian denominations, classes of persons and ethnic groups for whose use the prayers are intended; under names of individual saints, deities, etc., to whom the devotions are directed; and under topical headings for prayer-books on those topics.

 

$v Prayer-books and devotions $x English, [French, German, etc.]

 

$x Prayer-books and devotions $x History and criticism

 

$x Preservation (May Subd Geog)

Use under individual organs, and types of perishable products, including food, drugs, textiles, etc.

 

$x Press coverage (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., individual corporate bodies, individual events, and topical headings.

 

$x Prevention

Use under individual or types of diseases and medical conditions, and under situations to be avoided.

 

$x Prices (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of products, objects, etc., and under industries where one general heading for the products of that industry is lacking.

 

$x Prices $x Government policy (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of products, objects, etc., and under industries where one general heading for the products of that industry is lacking.

 

$x Private collections (May Subd Geog) (H 1427)

Use under types of objects, including art and antiquities and excluding natural objects and musical instruments, for works on privately owned collections of those objects.

 

$x Privileges and immunities

Use under names of individual international agencies and legislative bodies and under types of organizations and educational institutions.

 

$v Problems, exercises, etc.

Use under topical headings for compilations of practice problems or exercises pertinent to the study of the topic.

See also -Examinations, questions, etc.

 

$x Production and direction (May Subd Geog)

Use under forms and types of musical compositions, under individual art forms performed on stage or screen, and under types of programming for the broadcast media

 

$x Production control (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of industries, industrial plants, and processes.

 

$x Production standards (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of industries and processes.

 

$v Programmed instruction

Use under topical headings for works discussing presequenced instruction in which the learner is able to govern the pacing of the process, sometimes with a teaching machine, or for programmed texts on those topics.

 

$x Programming (May Subd Geog)

Use under individual and types of computers, microprocessors, and programmable calculators.

 

$x Prophecies

Use under names of individual persons and deities, uniform titles of sacred works, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and individual wars.

See also -History-Prophecies under names of countries, cities, etc.

 

$x Protection (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of equipment, structures, individual and groups of plants and crops, organs and regions of the body, and under classes of persons for works on preserving these items or persons from physical damage or harm.

 

$x Provinces (H 713)

Use under headings of the type [topic]-[country] for works discussing collectively the provinces of a country in relation to the topic, for example, Economic forecasting-Canada-Provinces.

 

$x Psychological aspects

Use under topical headings other than religious topics for works on the influence of conditions, activities, objects, etc., on the mental condition or personality of individuals.

 

$x Psychology

Use under uniform titles of sacred works, religions, and religious topics for the psychological aspects of those works or topics. Use under names of individual persons for discussions or interpretations of the person's psychological traits, personality, character, etc. Also use under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and individual and groups of animals for the mental pro cesses or characteristics of those persons or animals.

 

$x Public opinion (H 1955)

Use under names of individual persons and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, individual wars, and topical headings for works on public opinion on those persons or topics.

 

$x Public relations (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies, military services, and topical headings.

 

$x Publishing (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies, individual Christian denominations, and types of corporate bodies, and under types of published materials and headings for literature on particular topics.

See also -Publication and distribution under uniform titles of sacred works.

 

$x Purchasing (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of products and services.

 

$x Quality control

Use under types of industries, industrial plants, and processes.

 

$v Quotations, maxims, etc. (H 1969)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and under topical headings.

See also -Quotations under names of individual persons and families, uniform titles of sacred works, and under classes of persons and ethnic groups.

 

$x Rates (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of services, utilities, transportation systems, etc., for prices charged for services provided or items sold according to a specific ratio, scale, or standard.

 

$v Records and correspondence

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and types of industries, organizations, etc.

 

$x Recreational use (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of bodies of water, types of land, types of geographic features, and types of buildings with other functions.

 

$x Reference books (H 1980)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Regional disparities

Use under topical headings.

See also -Economic conditions-Regional disparities under names of countries, etc.

 

$x Regions (H 713)

Use under headings of the type [topic]-[country] for works discussing collectively the regions of a country in relation to a topic, for example, Law-Italy-Regions. Use only under countries whose legally designated first order divisions are called regions.

 

$v Registers (H 1558)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., individual corporate bodies, and families, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, individual wars, and topical headings for lists of names of persons, organizations, or objects, etc., without addresses or other identifying data.

See also -Directories

 

$x Reliability

Use under types of equipment, machinery, technical systems, industrial plants, etc.

 

$x Remodeling (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of buildings and rooms.

 

$x Remote sensing

Use under topical headings.

 

$v Remote-sensing maps

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and under topical headings.

 

$x Repairing (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of objects not requiring maintenance.

See also -Maintenance and repair

 

$x Republics (H 713)

Use under headings of the type [topic]-[country] for works discussing collectively the republics of a country in relation to the topic, for example, Civil law-Soviet Union-Republics.

 

$x Research (May Subd Geog) (H 2020)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., individual corporate bodies, and classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings.

 

$x Research grants (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and under topical headings. This subdivision may be further subdivided by place only under topical headings.

 

$v Reviews (H 2021)

Use under the heading Books and headings for types of books for collections of descriptive and evaluative accounts of books on many subjects. Use under headings for nonbook materials for collections of descriptive and evaluative accounts of those materials. Also use under headings for mass media and the performing arts for collections of critical writings about programs, performances, etc.

 

$x Risk assessment (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings with which risk is associated.

 

$v Romances (H 1795)

Use under names of individual persons and legendary characters for texts of medieval (that is, pre-1501) European tales based chiefly on legends of chivalric love and adventure in which those persons or characters are the dominant character.

See also -Legends

 

$v Rules

Use under names of individual religious and monastic orders, contests, and sport events and under types of games and activities.

 

$v Rules and practice

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and types of corporate bodies.

See also -Regulations under names of individual educational institutions and military services.

 

$x Safety appliances (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of machines, vehicles, industrial plants, occupations, etc.

 

$x Safety measures

Use under names of individual corporate bodies, military services, and under topical headings.

 

$x Safety regulations (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Sanitation (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies, types of industries, and topical headings.

Do not subdivide geographically under corporate bodies.

 

$x Scholarships, fellowships, etc. (May Subd Geog)

Use under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and fields of study.

 

$x Scientific applications (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of technical devices or processes used to further scientific advancement.

 

$x Security measures (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and under individual computers, networks, and systems, and types of buildings, installations, and industries. This subdivision may be further subdivided by place only under individual computers, networks, and systems, and under types of buildings, installations, and industries.

See also -Computer networks-Security measures.

 

$v Sermons (H 2032)

Use under names of individual persons and under sects of individual religions, Christian denominations, types of educational institutions, uniform titles of sacred works, individual wars, and topical headings.

$x Sermons $x History and criticism (H 2032)

 

$x Sex differences

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Simulation methods (H 2040)

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Slang

Use under individual languages and groups of languages, and under topical headings.

 

$v Slides

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and individual persons and under topical headings.

 

$x Social aspects (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings for works that discuss the effect of the item, activity, discipline, etc., and modern society on each other.

See also -Social conditions under names of countries, cities, etc., and under classes of persons and ethnic groups for works on the social history or sociology of the place or group.

See also -Social life and customs under names of countries, cities, etc., and under classes of persons and ethnic groups.

 

$x Societies, etc. (H 2060)

Use under names of individual persons, families, and corporate bodies, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, uniform titles of sacred works, and topical headings for works discussing two or more societies or institutions related to those subjects.

See also -Societies and clubs under age and sex groups.

 

$x Sociological aspects (H 2055)

Use under types of institutions for works discussing the impact of the inherent nature of the institution in question on group interaction within the institution and vice versa.

 

$v Software (H 2070)

Use under topical headings as a form subdivision for actual computer programs that are tools to perform tasks, for example, systems software, utilities, or applications programs. Do not use for computer files or electronic resources that are about a given topic, or to indicate only that the item is machine-readable.

See also -Computer games; -Computer programs; -Databases.

 

$v Songs and music (H 2075)

Use under names of individual persons and corporate bodies, and under ethnic groups, individual wars, and topical headings.

See also -Music under ethnic groups.

 

$x Songs and music $v Discography

 

$x Songs and music $x History and criticism (H 2075)

 

$v Songs and music $v Texts (H 2190)

 

$x Soundproofing (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of buildings, structures, facilities, and equipment.

 

$v Sources (H 1647; H 2080)

Use under individual works (author-title or title entries), historical topics, and headings for systems of law for collections or discussions of source materials of all types compiled for scholars. Also use under names of individual persons for collections of materials that served as the person's sources of ideas or inspiration for his or her endeavors or creative works, and for discussions of those source materials. Also use under types of literatures for works about sources of ideas or inspiration for those literary works.

See also -History-Sources

 

$v Specifications (May Subd Geog) (H 2083)

Use under types of engineering, construction, industries, products, and merchandise.

 

$v Specimens

Use under types of publications, printed matter, etc., as a form subdivision for actual specimens of the material. Also use under individual typefaces or groups of typefaces as a form subdivision for works consisting primarily or entirely of samples of printed matter using those typefaces and intended to illustrate their appearance.

 

$x Spectra

Use under individual chemicals, materials, elementary particles, and celestial bodies.

 

$v Speeches in Congress

Use under topical headings for single speeches or compilations of speeches on those topics.

 

$x Stability

Use under individual chemicals, materials, elementary particles, celestial bodies, and land vehicles.

 

$x Standards (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings for descriptions of the example or model set up and established by authority as the measure of quantity, quality, value, extent, weight, etc., to be followed.

See also -Production standards

 

$x State supervision

Use under topical headings.

 

$x States (H 713)

Use under headings of the type [topic]-[country] for works discussing collectively the states of a country in relation to the topic, for example, Income tax-United States-States.

 

$x Statistical methods (H 2095)

Use under topical headings for discussions of the methods of solving problems on those topics through the use of statistics.

 

$x Statistical services (H 2095)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., and under topical headings for works on services that collect numerical data located in those places or about those topics.

 

$v Statistics (H 2095)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., names of individual corporate bodies, classes of persons, ethnic groups, and topical headings for works consisting of or discussing statistics about those subjects.

See also -Statistics, Medical under names of countries, cities, etc.

See also -Statistics, Vital under names of countries, cities, etc., and under ethnic groups for compilations of birth, marriage, and death statistics.

 

$x Storage (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of commodities, foods, materials, industrial products, etc., for their safekeep ing in a warehouse or other depository.

 

$x Study and teaching (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects for works on methods of study and teaching on those subjects.

See also -Education under names of individual religious and monastic orders, classes of persons, ethnic groups, and Christian denominations.

See also -Instruction and study under music headings.

See also -Training of under occupational groups and types of employees.

 

$x Study and teaching $x Activity programs (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching $x Audio-visual aids (H 2110)

Use under subjects for works on the use of audiovisual aids in the learning and teaching of those subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching $x Simulation methods (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching $x Supervision (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Study and teaching (Continuing education) (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Continuing education) $x Audio-visual aids

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Early childhood) (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Early childhood) $x Activity programs (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Early childhood) $x Audio-visual aids (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Elementary) (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Elementary) $x Activity programs (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Elementary) $x Audio-visual aids (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Elementary) $x Simulation methods (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Graduate) (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Higher) (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Higher) $x Activity programs (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Higher) $x Audio-visual aids (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Higher) $x Simulation methods (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Internship) (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Study and teaching (Middle school) (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Middle school) $x Activity programs (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Middle school) $x Audio-visual aids (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Preschool) (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Preschool) $x Activity programs (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Preschool) $x Audio-visual aids (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Primary) (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Primary) $x Activity programs (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Primary) $x Audio-visual aids (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Residency) (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under topical headings.

 

$x Study and teaching (Secondary) (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Secondary) $x Activity programs (May Subd Geog) (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Secondary) $x Audio-visual aids (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Study and teaching (Secondary) $x Simulation methods (H 2110)

Use under subjects.

 

$v Study guides

Use under individual examinations and types of examinations and tests for guides for preparation for those examinations.

 

$v Tables (H 2160)

Use under topical headings.

 

$v Tables of contents

Use under individual works (author-title or title entries) and types of publications.

 

$x Taxation (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings for works on the taxes levied on income-producing activities or articles of value; and under classes of persons and ethnic groups for taxes levied on those groups.

 

$x Taxation $x Law and legislation (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings, classes of persons, and ethnic groups.

 

$x Technique

Use under disciplines, especially those involving laboratory routines, for nontheoretical works describing steps to be followed in performing required tasks. Use under names of individual literary authors and under literary form headings for works on writing technique. Also use under individual art forms and headings for national or ethnic art for works on artistic technique.

See also -Methodology

 

$x Technological innovations (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings for works on fundamental technological improvements or changes in materials, production methods, processes, organization, or management which increase efficiency or production.

 

$v Telephone directories (H 1558)

Use under names of countries, cities, etc., individual corporate bodies, classes of persons, ethnic groups, and types of organizations and industries.

 

$v Terminology (H 2184)

Use under uniform titles of sacred works, and under classes of persons, individual Christian denominations, and topical headings for works that list or discuss words and expressions found in those works or used in those fields.

See also -Terms and phrases under individual languages and groups of languages.

 

$x Terminology $x Pronunciation

Use under individual sacred works and topical headings.

 

$x Territories and possessions

Use under headings of the type [topic]-[country] for works discussing collectively the territories and territorial possessions of a country in relation to the topic, for example, Post marks-United States-Territories and possessions. Also use under names of regions and countries for works discussing collectively the territorial possessions of the region or country.

 

$x Testing (H 2186)

Use under topical headings for works on the construction, application, and results of testing pertaining to those topics. Also use under Drugs and individual drugs for works on testing their effectiveness and/or safety, and under types of materials, instruments, equipment, prod ucts, chemicals, animals, etc., for works on testing of those items and/or the results of testing.

See also -Ability testing; -Evaluation

 

$v Textbooks (H 1690; H 2187)

Use under topical headings for textbooks on those topics.

 

$v Texts (H 2190)

Use under individual lesser-known languages, dialects, early periods of languages, liturgy headings, and headings for vocal music for individual texts or collections of texts

See also -Liturgy-Texts; -Songs and music-Texts

 

$x Themes, motives

Use under names of individual persons and individual literary and art forms.

 

$x Therapeutic use (May Subd Geog)

Use under topical headings for works on their use in treating disease.

 

$x Tombs (May Subd Geog)

Use under names of individual families, royal houses, dynasties, etc., and under classes of per sons.

See also -Tomb under names of individual persons.

 

$x Toxicology (May Subd Geog)

Use under individual chemicals and other substances for works on their poisonous effects on human beings or animals.

 

$v Trademarks

Use under types of industries and products for works listing or discussing the words, letters, or symbols adopted and used by the manufacturers or dealers of those items to distinguish them from the goods of others.

 

$x Translating (May Subd Geog) (H 2219)

Use under uniform titles of sacred works, and under individual languages and groups of lan guages and topical headings.

 

$v Translations (H 2220)

Use under names of individual literary authors, individual literary works entered under title, individual literatures, types of publications, and topical headings, for collections of translated works.

 

$v Translations into [name of language] (H 2220)

 

$x Transportation (May Subd Geog) (H 2225)

Use under names of individual military services, and under classes of persons, ethnic groups, types of objects, merchandise, animals, and individual wars for works on transportation of or applied to those topics. This heading may be further subdivided by place only when used under classes of persons, ethnic groups, types of objects, merchandise, animals, and individual wars.

 

$x Tropical conditions

Use under topical headings for works on methods or procedures employed when working in a tropical climate.

See also -Hot weather conditions

 

$v Union lists (H 1361)

Use under types of printed or nonbook materials for catalogs of those materials held by two or more libraries.

See also -Bibliography-Union lists

 

$x Union territories (H 713)

Use under headings of the type [topic]-India for works discussing collectively the union territories of India in relation to the topic, e.g. Land use-India-Union territories.

 

$v Use studies

Use under types of information resources, information services, library resources, and publications.

 

$x Validity (May Subd Geog)

Use under individual tests and types of tests.

 

$x Valuation (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of property, businesses, structures, etc., for works on the values set upon those topics or their estimated or determined market value.

 

$x Vibration (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of equipment, structures, and vehicles.

 

$v Video catalogs (H 1361)

Use under subjects.

 

$x Vocational guidance (May Subd Geog) (H 2232)

Use under names of individual corporate bodies and military services, and under occupations, fields of endeavor, and types of industries, trades, etc., for works describing careers in those organizations or fields and/or offering advice on how to prepare for, enter, and succeed in those careers. Use under classes of persons or occupational groups only if the heading for the corresponding field or activity does not exist or cannot be established.

 

$x Voivodeships (H 713)

Use under headings of the type [topic]-Poland for works discussing collectively the voivodeships of Poland in relation to the topic.

 

$x Waste disposal (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of industries, industrial processes, facilities, and institutions.

 

$x Waste minimization (May Subd Geog)

Use under types of industries, industrial processes, facilities, and institutions.

 

$x Water-supply

Use under topical headings.

 

$v Weblogs

Use under names of individual persons, classes of persons, ethinic groups, and topical headings for weblogs by those persons, or about those persons, groups, or topics.

 

$x Weight

Use under types of objects, substances, individual animals and groups of animals, and organs and regions of the body for works on the techniques of making weight measurements of those items, or for the results of such measurements.

 

$x Weights and measures

Use under types of commodities and merchandise for systems of weights and measures established for those items.