Excerpts from CCM and CEG about Frequency



From CONSER Cataloging Manual (CCM) Module 13:



13.3. Frequency notes (Fields 310/321)



13.3.1. When to give (AACR2 12.7B1)

The current frequency is expressed in field 310 and also in fixed field 008/18 "FREQ." The regularity of issuance is expressed in fixed field 008/19 "REGULR" and sometimes in qualifying information added to field 310 or 321. If the frequency has changed, the former frequency(ies) is given in field 321. For instructions on input, see CEG 310/321. For a list of the appropriate terms to be used, see [OCLC bib formats].


When known, CONSER catalogers give the current frequency in all cases, even when the frequency is already contained in the title (LCRI 12.7B1). This policy was set for the benefit of reference librarians who requested eye-readable information in the record. Other catalogers may omit the frequency note when information given elsewhere in the record is considered adequate. The frequency is also taking on an added importance with increased use of the MARC 21 holdings standard for creation of publication patterns.


13.3.2. Sources of information

The frequency is taken from information found in the piece or supplied by the publisher or from evidence of issues already published. If there is no stated frequency, give the probable frequency when there is sufficient evidence to indicate the publishing pattern. Do not use a question mark. If the frequency is unknown, omit field 310 and code the fixed field bytes as "u/u".


Sometimes the frequency requires further explanation to account for stated irregularities in the publishing pattern. Such information is generally taken from the piece but may also be supplied and is given in parentheses following the frequency.


310 ## $a Monthly (except July-Aug.)

310 ## $a Biweekly (Apr.-Sept.)


When cataloging with a run of a serial in hand, you may find that the actual publishing pattern varies considerably from the stated frequency. In general, give the stated frequency. In cases where it is obvious that the stated frequency is not the actual frequency, as evidenced by a number of issues and the numbering of those issues, give the actual frequency when it can be determined.


Stated frequency in piece:



Evidence from issues over a 3 year period:

2 or 3 issues a year


310 ## $a Two or three issues a year

Fixed field: Freq = f / Regulr = x



13.3.3. Terminology

The list of frequencies in 008/18-19 does not include all possible frequencies. When a serial is issued according to a frequency not on the list, construct a frequency statement using terms such as "... no. a year" or "... issues a year."


310 ## $a Four no. a year

310 ## $a Four times a year

310 ## $a Four issues a year


"Four no." would imply that the serial is numbered; however, some numbers may be combined. "Four times" or "Four issues" indicates that there are four separate pieces received regardless of the numbering. This is based on the individual serial and is a matter of cataloger's judgment.


Note: Do not confuse the frequency with the designation system of the serial. For instance, Time is a weekly that has two volumes each year, each with its own internal numbering. The frequency is determined by the pattern of issuance of the issues, not their numbering.


When supplying parenthetical information, try to use the publisher's terminology when clear and succinct.


310 ## $a Biweekly (during the school year)

310 ## $a Semiweekly (May-Aug.)


If there is more than one frequency in a given year, the other frequencies are indicated in parentheses.


310 ## $a Monthly (bimonthly June-Sept.)



13.3.4. Designations and former frequencies

Field 321 is used for former frequencies. When this field is given, a designation must be also included in all of the frequency fields (310 and 321). As with other notes, dates are generally given but numbers may also be used. When the exact date range is unknown, give what is known in angle brackets. Do not give field 321 without field 310. Do not include a designation when only the current frequency is given in field 310 since it is assumed that this is the frequency for all issues beginning with the first. If the serial has changed its frequency many times, you may give only the current frequency and use a "Frequency varies" note in field 321. For more information, see CEG 310/321.


310 ## $a Monthly, $b Aug. 1976-

321 ## $a Bimonthly, $b June 1, 1967-July 15, 1976

310 ## $a Annual, $b 1991-

321 ## $a Frequency varies, $b Aug. 1987-1990



From CONSER Cataloging Manual

Copyright (c)2004 by the Library of Congress except within the USA.





From CONSER Editing Guide (CEG)





310 Current publication frequency (NR)

321 Former publication frequency (R)


First and second indicators

#   Undefined



a   Current/former publication frequency (NR)

b   Date(s) of current/former publication frequency (NR)

6   Linkage (NR)



Fields 310 and 321 contain, respectively, the current and former frequencies. Field 310 is input in conjunction with field 008, character positions 18 (frequency) and 19 (regularity). These codes are based on the information stated in field 310 and should be coded after the 310 has been determined.


Field 321 can be used only when a current frequency is given in field 310.


According to LC/PCC practice (Cf. LCRI 12.7B1), field 310 is always input in CONSER full level records when the current frequency of a continuing resource is known. This is the case even when the fixed fields (008/18-19) [note from Mike: in OCLC, that equates to “Freq” and “Regl”] adequately reflect the frequency of the item or when the frequency is stated in the title. LC catalogers always input field 310 in LC core level records, as well as in full level record when the current frequency is known.




245 10 Annual report of the director.

310 ## Annual


For integrating resources, the term "updated" or "updates" is used with the frequency word to clarify that the resource itself does not have that frequency (see LCRI 12.7B1).


310 ## Continuously updated


Never use the term "frequency varies" in field 310. "Frequency varies" may be used in field 321 when more than three past frequencies are known. When using the term, provide inclusive dates in subfield $b of field 321 and always provide the current frequency in field 310.


310 ## Annual, $b 1985-

321 ## Frequency varies, $b 1948-1984


If multiple 321 fields exist in the record, delete them at the time the "frequency varies" note is added.


Editing instructions

For many years, CONSER instructions for editing field 310 and 321 were structured to format the fields into a single frequency note when output for the production of LC print products. In recognition of the fact that most OPACS display the 310 and 321 as separate frequency statements rather than in a single format note, the instructions were amended. The requirement to spell out the number only for the field that would be first in the frequency note was dropped in 2003.


1.   Do not input a period at the end of any field.


2.   Capitalize the first word in each field.


3.   When more than one 321 field is given, input them in chronological order (earliest to latest) following field 310.


310 ## Annual, $b 1983-

321 ## Monthly, $b Mar. 1972-Dec. 1980

321 ## Semiannual, $b 1981-1982

310 ## Quarterly, $b Apr./June 1992-

321 ## Quarterly, $b 1982-1990

321 ## Monthly, $b 1991-Feb. 1992




$a Current/former publication frequency.

Input the complete statement of current or former frequency in subfield $a.


310 ## Monthly

310 ## Monthly, including annual cumulation

310 ## Bimonthly (monthly June-July)

310 ## Monthly, $b 1985-

321 ## Ten no. a year, $b 1982-1984

310 ## Monthly, $b Jan. 1984-

321 ## Frequency varies, $b 1966-1983


$b Date(s) of current/former publication frequency.

Subfield $b is used in field 310 when the date of current frequency is different from the beginning date of the publication and when a former frequency is given in field 321. If a serial has only a numerical rather than a chronological designation, the number is given in subfield $b. Subfield $b must be given in all 321 fields.


310 ## Annual, $b 1983-

321 ## Biennial, $b 1981/1982

362 0# 1981/1982-

310 ## Monthly, $b Nov. 1983-

321 ## Bimonthly, $b Apr./May 1980-Sept./Oct. 1983

310 ## Quarterly, $b <Nov./Jan. 1984/85-v. 16, no.3>

321 ## Bimonthly, $b <Oct./Nov. 1971->


Apply the following conventions when inputting subfield $b.


1.   Input a comma preceding subfield $b.


310 ## Monthly, $b Mar. 1984-

310 ## Bimonthly, $b <Mar./Apr. 1983->


2.   Uncertain data (a known date that may not be the earliest or latest) is enclosed in angle brackets and may be suppressed from printing on output.


310 ## Annual, $b <1984->

321 ## Semiannual, $b 1976-<1982>


3.   When inputting only an ending date, leave no spaces before the closing date, except for the space following the subfield code. If only a portion of the date is known, leave an appropriate number of spaces for the missing portion.


310 ## Semiannual, $b -1984

321 ## Annual, $b 198 -

321 ## Monthly, $b 19 -




from CONSER Editing Guide

Copyright (c)2004 by the Library of Congress except within the USA.