TRANSFORMATION OF PONO

 

I.  Overthrow of the ‘Aikapu

         A.  Kamehameha's kauoha (May 1819)

                  1.  Liholiho as Mō‘ī

                  2.  Kekuaokalani as kahu of Kūka‘ilimoku

                  3.  Ka‘ahumanu as Kuhina Nui

         B.  ‘Ainoa (Nov. 1819)

                  1.  Ka‘ahumanu's "resolved to be free"

                  2.  Liholiho's ‘Aha ritual

                  3.  Keōpūolani eats with Kauikeaouli

                  4.  Liholiho eats with mothers & wives/sisters

         C.  End of Kapu

                  1.  Kahuna Nui ordered heiau destroyed

                  2.  Kekuaokalani is killed (Dec. 1819)

II.  Ka‘ahumanu's Role

         A.  Her special status

                  1.  high lineage (but barren)

                  2.  Kamehameha's favorite wife

                  3.  power of Pu‘uhonua

                  4.  punalua right

         B.  Why break the ‘Aikapu?

                  1.  earlier explanations

                           a) communion with Kū

                           b) cultural fatigue

                           c) Tahitian "cousins"

                  2.  depopulation shows loss of pono

                           --> ‘ainoa as the secret of life

         C.  Influence over the Mō‘ī

                  1.  Liholiho's Rule (r. 1819-1824)

                           a) impoverished

                           b) attempts to Kālai‘āina

                                    -- visit to Kaua‘i (1821)

                                    -- Kaumuali‘i & Keali‘iahonui

                           c) attempts to ‘imihaku

                                    -- visit to London (1823)

                  2.  Early rule of Kauikeaouli (1825-1832)

                           a) hereditary land discussion

                                    -- Kalanimoku (Kamehameha's intention)

                                    -- Lord Byron (customs of civilized nations)

                           b) Boki as his kahu

                                    -- skeptical of Ka‘ahumanu

                                    -- visit to Hilo (1827)

                           c) consolidating chiefly debts

                                    -- foreigners want land

                                    -- government assumed all debt (except Boki's)

                                    -- Boki's New Hebrides expedition (1829)

                                    -- Liliha's rebellion

III.  Accepting Christianity

         A.  Christianity's attractiveness

                  1.  Palapala

                  2.  Ola Hou

         B.  Keōpūolani's conversion (1823)

                  1.  Rev. William Ellis (English Methodist)

                  2.  renounced Hawaiian customs

                  3.  her kauoha

         C.  Ka'ahumanu's conversion (1825)

                  1.  ‘Imihaku & Mälama ‘Äina

                  2.  Kaua‘i Rebellion (1824)

                           a) William Richards' advice

                           b) prayer before battle

                           c) won --> Ka'ahumanu Hou

                  3.  new rules for pono

                           a) Akua = Jehovah

                           b) kapu = Christian laws

                           c) kahuna = American missionaries

 

 

 

 

Think/Write Question

Do you see any value in using Kame'eleihiwa's metaphorical approach to understand Ka'ahumanu's conversion?