I.  Territorial Government 

           A.  Resolution instead of Treaty   

                       1.  1897 Petitions Protesting Annexation

                                  a) Hui Kālai'āina

                                  b) Hui Aloha 'Āina

                       2.  Joint Resolution of Congress (July 1898)

                       3.  Annexation (August 12, 1898)

           B.  Organic Act (June 14, 1900)

                       1.  "incorporated territory"

                       2.  structure of government

                                  a) appointed (governor & judges)

                                  b) elected

                                             -- one non-voting delegate to Congress

                                             -- 15 senators & 30 representatives (local)

                       3.  voting rights (21 years old, literate, male, citizen)

                       4.  U.S. citizenship   

                                  a) all citizens of the Republic

                                  b) all persons born in Hawai'i since annexation

                                  c) Asian immigrants can't be naturalized

           C.  Hawaiian Congressmen

                       1.  Robert Wilcox (1900-1902)

                                  a) Home Rule Party

                                  b) "Hawai'i for the Hawaiians"

                       2.  Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana'ole

                                  a) Republican Party (1902-1922)

                                  b) Hawaiian Homes Commission Act (1921)

II.  Crime & Punishment 

           A.  Myles Fukunaga (1928)

                       1.  kidnapped & strangled F. W. Jamieson's son

                       2.  tried, convicted & hanged

           B.  Massie case

                       1.  Thalia Massie is raped & beaten (Sept. 12, 1931)

                       2.  five "local boys" tried in the press (Hearst papers)

                                  a) Horace Ida

                                  b) David Takai

                                  c) Henry Chang

                                  d) Benny Ahakuelo

                                  e) Joe Kahahawai

                       3.  first trial (Nov. to Dec. 1931)

                                  a) jury make-up (7-5)

                                  b) prosecution's case (weak) 

                                  c) defense's case (time)

                                  d) mistrial declared

                                  e) Rear Admiral Yates Stirling's remarks

                       4.  Mrs. Fortescue's plan (Jan. 8, 1932)

                                  a) force a confession

                                  b) Thomas Massie (w/ Jones & Lord)

                                  c) kidnapped & murdered Joe Kahahawai

                       5.  second trial (April 1932)

                                  a) Clarence Darrow (defense attorney)

                                  b) guilty of manslaughter        

                                  c) commuted sentence