RISE OF SUGAR

 

I.  Factors influencing the rise of sugar

         A.  Decline of whaling

                  1.  scarcity

                  2.  petroleum

         B.  1848 Great Mahele

         C.  California gold rush (1848)

         D.  American Civil War (1861-1865)

II.  Plantation Agency System (origins of Big Five)

         A.  H. Hackfeld & Company

         B.  C. Brewer & Company

         C.  Theo H. Davies & Company

         D.  Castle & Cooke

         E.  Alexander & Baldwin

III.  Struggling Sugar Industry (1866-75)

         A.  Competition

                  1.  "No. 12, Dutch Standard" (after 1863)

                  2.  San Francisco & Pacific Refineries

                           a) 1865 -- quota system proposed

                           b) 1866 -- competition floods market

                           c) 1867 & 1868 -- contracts

         B.  Labor

                  1.  Hawaiians

                           a) inadequate numbers

                           b) idle & unproductive

                  2.  Masters and Servants Act of 1850

                           a) Chinese "coolies" (1852)

                           b) Japanese (1868)

         C.  Tariffs

                  1.  Reciprocity Treaty with U.S.A. 

                           a) Kalākaua's visit (Nov. 1874 - Feb. 1875)

                           b) What did the treaty do?

                                    -- no tariff duty (1876-1883)

                                    -- one-year notice to cancel (after 1883)

                                    -- assured American supremacy

                           c) effects

                                    -- increased sugar exports

                                    -- new & improved methods

                                    -- great influx of immigrant labor

                                              (1877-1890 = 55,000)

                           d) renewal with Pearl Harbor provision (1887)

                  2.  Annexation to U.S.A. (1898)

                           -- overthrow of the monarchy (1893)

   

 

 

Think/Write Question

Do you think Hawaii's economic reliance on the U.S. as a market for sugar made annexation inevitable?