ORIGINS OF THE HAWAIIANS

 

I.  Hawaiian Cosmogony

         A.  David Malo (ca. 1793-1853)

                  1.  oral tradition

                  2.  genealogical origins

                  3.  early ancestors not born in Hawai‘i

                           -- large canoes from Tahiti make long voyage by observing stars

         B.  Wākea & Papa

                  1.  Wākea = sky-father / Papa = earth-mother

                  2.  parents of . . .

                           a) Hawaiian islands

                           b) Hawaiian people

                  3.  Incestuous relationship of Wākea & Ho‘ohōkūkalani

                           = Hāloa-naka (first kalo plant)

                           = Hāloa (ancestor of the Hawaiian people)

II.  Early Theories

         A.  Lost Tribes of Israel

         B.  Pacific continent of Mu

         C.  From Southeast Asia

                  1.  Horatio Hale (studied languages)1846

                           -- Pulotu, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Tahiti, Hawai‘i

                  2.  "Migration Mentality"

                           a) E.S. Handy's two migratory waves (1930s)

                                    -- Indian-Brahmanical (manahune)

                                    -- Dynastic Indo-Malaysian (ari‘i)

                           b) cultural change introduced

         D.  From South America

                  1.  Thor Heyerdahl's theory

                  2.  Kon-Tiki experiment (1947)

III.  Evidence of an eastward migration

         A.  Lapita pottery

                  1.  Where found?

                           a) New Britain (1909)

                           b) Tongatapu (1920)

                           c) Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa (1940s & 1950s)

                           d) Mussau Islands (1985)

                  2.  Lapita Cultural Complex

                           a) Western Lapita (New Britain to Vanuatu)

                           b) Eastern Lapita (Fiji, Tonga, Samoa)

                                    -- isolation produces changes

                                    -- Eastern Lapita culture = 1st Polynesians

         B.  Linguistics

                  1.  Austronesian language

                  2.  cognate words

         C.  Ethnobotany

                  1.  taro, yams breadfruit, bananas, sugarcane

                  2.  sweet potato

         D.  Genetics

                  1.  homogeneous

                  2.  "founder effect"

         E.  Navigation

                  1.  purposeful migration

                  2.  prepared to colonize

                  3.  historical experience

                  4.  Hōkūle‘a experiment (1976)

IV.  Settlement Pattern

         A.  Settlement of Oceania

                  1.  Australia & New Guinea (50,000 BP)

                  2.  New Britain (11,000 BP)

                  3.  Southeast Asian peoples speaking an Austronesian language enter Melanesia (5,000 BP)

                  4.  Fiji, Tonga, Samoa (3500 BP)

                           -- Polynesian culture emerges (3000 BP)

         B.  Polynesian Dispersals

                  1.  Marquesas Islands (~ 200 B.C.)

                  2.  Easter Island (~ 300 A.D.)

                  3.  Hawai‘i (~ 400 A.D.)

                  4.  Society Islands (~ 600 A.D.)

                  5.  New Zealand (~750 A.D.)

                  6.  From Tahiti to Hawai‘i & New Zealand (~1000 A.D.)?

 

 

Think/Write Question

How much emphasis do you think should be placed on Hawaiian oral tradition in our attempts to understand the origins of the Hawaiians?