A MULTIETHNIC STATE

 

I.  Big Five Oligarchy

           A.  Cooperation

                       1.  Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association

                       2.  boards of directors

                       3.  bonds of marriage

           B.  Labor

                       1.  19th century = contract labor

                                  a) Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese

                                  b) Masters & Servants Act (1850)

                       2.  20th century = employees

                                  a) Koreans, Puerto Ricans, Filipinos

                                  b) benevolent paternalism

                                  c) strikes (1900, 1909, 1920, 1924)

 II.  Race Relations 

           A.  On Plantations

                       1.  imposed by planters

                                  a) racial division of labor (Caucasian & Asian)

                                  b) ethnic "camps" = divide & control strategy

                       2.  within immigrant groups

                                  a) Chinese (Punti & Hakka)

                                  b) Japanese (main islands & Okinawans)

                                  c) Filipino (Visayan, Tagalog, Ilocano)

           B.  Off Plantations

                      1.  aliens vs. citizens

                       2.  American education

III.  Statehood Bills (Hawai‘i's Delegates to Congress)

           A.  Prince Kühiö (1919 & 1920)

           B.  Victor Houston (1931)

           C.  Samuel King (1935)

IV.  Proponents

           A.  position

                       1.  "incorporated territory" implied statehood 

                       2.   treated as second class citizens

                                             -- i.e. Jones-Costigan Act (1934)

           B.  actions

                       1.  1940 plebiscite (2 to 1 in favor)

                       2.  Hawaii Statehood Commission (1947)

                       3.  ratification of a state constitution (1950)

                       4.  Statehood Honor Roll (1954)

V. Opponents

           A.  Native Hawaiians (but they're outnumbered)

           B.  questioned Hawai‘i's loyalty

                       1.  communist threat

                                  a) ILWU (Harry Bridges & Jack Hall)

                                  b) Hugh Butler (1949 & 1952)

                       2.  racial argument

                                  a) senators from Southern states

                                  b) Drew Smith's The Menace of Hawaiian Statehood (1957)

                                             -- Hawai‘i was not the "American type"

           C.  politics

                       1.  Big Five domination

                       2.  non-contiguity argument

                       3.  Alaska & Hawaii Joint bill was divided