RISE OF KAMEHAMEHA

 

I.  Background

         A.  Born in Kohala (~1758)

                  1.  descent from ‘Umi

                  2.  his real parents:

                           a) Keōuakupuapāikalaninui (father)

                           b) Keku‘iapoiwa (mother)

                  3.  foster parents:  Kaha‘ōpulani & Nae‘ole

                           a) Alapa‘inui & the kahuna's prediction

                           b) raised as Pai‘ea until age 5

         B.  Early experiences

                  1.  raised by Kalani‘ōpu'u

                  2.  trained by Kekūhaupi‘o

                  3.  overturned the Naha stone

                  4.  meets Captain Cook

II.  Kamehameha's Rise to Power

         A.  Events of 1782

                  1.  Kalani‘ōpu‘u dies

                           a) Kīwala‘ō -- political heir

                           b) Kamehameha -- care of Kūkā‘ilimoku

                  2.  Kīwala‘ō fails to Kālai‘āina

                           a) two sides:

                                    -- Kīwala‘ō, Keōua, Keawema‘uhili  [east]

                                    -- Kamehameha & Five Kona "Uncles"  [west]

                                             -- Kekūhaupi‘o

                                             -- Keaweaheulu

                                             -- Ke‘eaumoku

                                             -- twins: Kame‘eiamoku & Kamanawa

                           b) Battle of Moku‘ōhai  -- Kīwala‘ō is killed

                  3.  Hawaii Island = 3 kingdoms

                           a) Keawema‘uhili = Hilo, Puna, Hamakua       

                           b) Keoua = Ka‘u, Puna 

                           c) Kamehameha = Kona, Kohala, Hamakua 

         B.  Peace & Trade (1786 - 1789)

                  1.  foreign fur traders

                  2.  armament race

                  3.  Ka‘iana

         C.  Metcalfe Incident (Jan. 1790)

                  1.  Simon Metcalfe --Eleanora

                           a) Honua‘ula, Maui

                           b) Olowalu Massacre

                  2.  Thomas Metcalfe -- Fair American

                           a) Kame‘eiamoku's revenge

                           b) Isaac Davis

                           c) Lopaka

                  3.  Eleanora at Kealakekua Bay -- leave John Young

         D.  Battle of Kapaniwai on Maui (Spring 1790)

                  1.  Keawema‘uhili joins Kamehameha

                  2.  Kamehameha vs. Kalanikūpule

                  3.  ‘Īao Valley

         E.  Visit to Molokai (1790)

                  1.  reconcile with Kalola

                           a) widow of Kalani‘ōpu‘u

                           b) sister of Kahekili

                           c) mother of Kīwala‘ō & Liliha

                  2.  Keōpūolani (daughter of Liliha & Kīwala‘ō)

                  3.  messenger to Kahekili

                  4.  soothsayer of Kaua‘i

         F.  Keōua on the Big Island (1790)

                  1.  kills Keawema‘uhili

                  2.  plunders Kamehameha's lands

                  3.  Kilauea crater erupts

         G.  Kepūwahaulaula -- Hawaii's fist naval battle (Spring 1791)

                  1.  Kahekili w/ Mare Amara

                  2.  Kamehameha w/ Young & Davis

         H.  Pu‘ukoholā heiau (Summer 1791)

                  1.  invites Keōua for peace talks

                  2.  Keōua killed by Ke‘eaumoku & sacrificed

III.  Interlude of Peace & Foreign Alliances

         A.  Honolulu Harbor "discovered" (1793)

                  1.  Capt. William Brown

                  2.  "Fair Haven"

                  3.  deal with Kahekili

         B.  Capt. George Vancouver visits (1794)

                  1.  "ceded" Hawaii to Britain

                  2.  alliance with Kamehameha

                  3.  helps build Britannia

IV.  Final Acts of Conquest

         A.  Death of Kahekili (1794)

                  1.  divided kingdom

                           a) Kalanikūpule = Oahu

                           b) Kā‘eo = Kauai, Maui, Molokai, Lanai

                  2.  Kamehameha conquers Maui, Molokai, Lanai (1795)

         B.  Battle of Nu‘uanu (April 1795)

                  1.  Ka‘iana deserts & joins Kalanikūpule

                  2.  Oahu warriors driven over Pali

                  3.  Kalanikūpule captured & sacrificed

         C.  Kaua‘i

                  1.  attempts to conquer

                           a) first in 1796 --> peleleu canoes swamped

                           b) second in 1804 --> epidemic struck warriors

                  2.  negotiated peace w/ Kaumuali‘i (1810)

                           a) Nathan Winship

                           b) death of Isaac Davis

 

 

 

Think/Write Question

Do you think Kamehameha was able to unite the Hawaiian islands because he used foreign weapons and advisors? Is this the only way to explain his success? What else might have factored into his rise to power?