I. David Malo's prophecy    (1837)


"If a big wave comes in large fishes will come from the dark ocean which you never saw before, and when they see the small fishes they will eat them up; such also is the case with large animals, they will prey on the smaller ones; the ships of the whitemen have come, and smart people have arrived from the Great Countries which you have never seen before, they know our people are few in number and living in a small country; they will eat us up, such has always been the case with large countries, the small ones have been gobbled up."


         A. Three kinds of imperialism

                  1.  militaristic (i.e. political)

                  2.  cultural

                  3.  economic

         B.  Great Powers in the Pacific

                  1.  Great Britain

                  2.  France

                  3.  United States

II.  How could Hawaii remain independent?

         A.  Employ foreign advisors

                  1.  "Translators"

                           a) Rev. William Richards (1838)

                           b) Dr. Gerrit P. Judd (1842)

                  2.  Attorney General John Ricord

                  3.  Chief Justice William Lee

                  4.  Foreign Minister Robert Wyllie

         B.  Adopt Western ways

                  1.  Religion (i.e. Christianity)

                  2.  Government & Law

                           a) Declaration of Rights (1839)*

                           b) Constitution (1840)

                  3.  Economy (i.e. capitalism) 

                           -- private ownership of land

         C.  Send Diplomatic Mission  (July 1842)

                  1. William Richards & Timothy Ha'alilio

                  2. Washington D.C. (Dec. 1842)*

                  3. London (Feb. 1843)

                  4. Dual Agreement (Nov.1843)*

 III. The Paulet Episode

         A. Richard Charlton's claim (1840)

                  1. lease on Pūlaholaho (1826)

                  2. Alexander Simpson as "consul" (Sept. 1842)

         B. Hawaii ceded to Britain (Feb. 25, 1843)*

                  1. Captain Lord George Paulet

                  2. new government "high handed"

                           -- Dr. Judd's role

                  3. two messengers on Albert (March 11, 1843)

                           a) James Marshall (Hawaiian)

                           b) Alexander Simpson (British)

         C. Hawaiian independence restored (July 31, 1843)

                  1. Admiral Sir Richard Thomas

                  2. British policy statement (April 1843)*

                  3. Kauikeaouli's speech

                           "Ua mau ke ea o ka 'āina i ka pono."

 IV. Restructuring Hawaiian government

         A. Organic Acts (1845-1847)

                  1. established executive branch

                           a) five departments

                           b) Privy Council

                  2. established Land Commission

                  3. reorganized judiciary

         B. Fears of the Maka'āinana

                  1. 1845 petitions

                  2. don't want foreigners . . .

                           -- in government

                           -- becoming naturalized citizens

                           -- buying land



Think/Write Question

Do you think Malo's prophecy has been fulfilled? Do you believe that it is inevitable for smaller countries to be "gobbled up" by larger countries?


Declaration of Rights (1839)

"God hath made of one blood all nations of men, to dwell on the face of the earth in unity and blessedness. God has also bestowed certain rights alike on all men, and all chiefs, and all people of all lands.


"These are some of the rights which he has given alike to every man and every chief, life, limb, liberty, the labor of his hands, and productions of his mind . . ."



Washington D.C. (Dec. 1842)

" . . . the Government of the Sandwich Islands ought to be respected; that no power ought either to take possession of the islands as a conquest, or for the purpose of colonization, and that no power ought to seek for any undue control over the existing Government, or any exclusive privileges or preferences in matters of commerce"


-- in a letter from Daniel Webster, secretary of state, to the governments of France & Great Britain



Hawaii ceded to Britain (Feb. 25, 1843)


"Hear ye! I make known to you that I am in perplexity by reason of difficulties into which I have been brought without cause; therefore, I have given away the life of the land, hear ye! But my rule over you, my people, and your privileges, will continue, for I have hope that the life of the land will be restored when my conduct is justified."


-- Kauikeaouli's speech at Honolulu fort




British policy statement (April 1843) essentially it said:


native governments should be treated with "great forbearance and courtesy" and their laws and customs should be respected

the objective was to "strengthen those authorities and to give them a sense of their own independence, by leaving the administration of justice in their own hands"




Dual Agreement (Nov.1843) between Britain & France

"taking into consideration the existence in the Sandwich Islands of a government capable of providing for the regularity of its relations with foreign nations, have thought it right to engage reciprocally to consider the Sandwich Islands as an independent state, and never to take possession, either directly or under the title of a protectorate, or under any other form, of any part of the territory of which they are composed"