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Latin 1

Variant Stem Analysis of Present Active Indicative Conjugations

Householder (1971) [ Note 1] notes that "a morphemic analysis seems to depend very strongly on how the raw data is chopped up. The same paradigmatic set of forms may often be sliced in three different ways, one which makes the stem invariant and the affixes variable, one which makes the affixes firm and the stems variable, and a third which inserts a variable zero-element or process in between two non-varying morphemes." He gives an example of these three "styles" from Latin verbs:

================= Conjugation ===================================
    Style        |     I         |      II        |     III      |
      (a)        |    port-o:    |     mon-eo:    |    reg-o:    |
 Variant Affix   |    port-a:s   |     mon-e:s    |    reg-is    |
 (Conjugational  |    port-at    |     mon-et     |    reg-it    |
or Morphological)|               |                |              |
      (b)        |    port-  o:  |     mone- o:   |    reg- o:   |
  Variant Stem   |    porta:-s   |     mone:-s    |    regi-s    |
                 |    porta- t   |     mone- t    |    regi-t    |
      (c)        |    port-  -o: |     mon-e -o:  |    reg- -o:  |
 Invariant Stem  |    port-a:-s  |     mon-e:-s   |    reg-i-s   |
   & Suffix      |    port-a -t  |     mon-e -t   |    reg-i-t   |
 (Phonological   |               |                |              |
   or Process)   |               |                |              |

For some of the later exercises in this series, we will need an analysis that has invariant suffixes, which we get from either Style (b) or (c). [Note 2] Initially, however, we want to make only one cut in each word, between each lexical stem and its person-number suffixes. This then points to an analysis of Style (b).

Use as your data for Latin 1 the verbs displayed for each conjugation in A Student's Latin Grammar (page 28): I porto:, II doceo:, III traho:, and IV audio:. Use a postposed colon, rather than the superposed macron, to mark vowel length (as in these examples).

Solution to Latin 1. After you have cut off a set of invariable suffixes, you will be left with two or three variable stems for each verb. Present these stems and the suffixes in a table with the same format as is used for the "Variant Stem Solution" given in Latin Verb Inflection. Answer the following question: Of what possible value is a Variant Stem Solution? Cite any advantages or disadvantages. In addition (optional), experiment with permutations of the rows and columns in your matrix, if you wish, and comment on any optimal arrangement that you find.

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Latin 2

"Phonological Solution" for Present Active Indicative Conjugations

Starting with the variant stems you found in Latin 1, decide on one of the variants that can best be used as a citation stem for each verb. The form you decide on should contain phonological substance that points to the conjugation class of the verb without ambiguity. [Note 3] It should also come from the same person-number combination for each verb, so that simple instructions can be given for finding the stem from a full verb-form. Such an instruction might say, for example, "To find the citation stem for any verb, drop the -t suffix from its 3s form." (This, incidentally, would not be a good choice. Can you explain why?)

Solution to Latin 2. As your solution, present your four citation stems, the set of invariant suffixes, and any other necessary instructions for using them to reconstitute the four paradigms, in a set of simple prose statements (use tables to save words where possible). Do not include the original data above, or any other worksheets with your solution. Answer the following questions: (1) Why would dropping the -t from 3s forms not be a good way to arrive at citation stems? (2) Why is a solution like this sometimes referred to as a "phonological solution?" (3) Of what possible value is such a solution? Cite any advantages or disadvantages.

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Latin 3

"Morphological Solution" for Present Active Indicative Conjugations

Again, use as your data the verbs displayed for each conjugation in A Student's Latin Grammar (page 28): I porto:, II doceo:, III traho:, and IV audio:. The solution wanted here is one of Style (a), one that has invariant stems and variant suffixes.

Solution to Latin 3. Present your solution succinctly in table form. Of what possible value is such a solution? Cite any advantages or disadvantages.

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Latin 4

Variant Stem Analysis of Perfect Active Indicative

Subject the perfect active indicative forms of the same four verbs used in Latin 1 to the same style of analysis. Take your data from A Student's Latin Grammar (p. 29). Note that this proves to be a simpler task, since no stem variants need result. That is to say, it is possible to analyze the perfect forms in such a way that both invariant stems and invariant suffixes result.

Compare these perfect stems with the citation stems decided upon for each verb in Latin 1. Does there seem to be a simple and straightforward way of predicting the perfect from the present?

          Present       Perfect

          porta:-       porta:v-


This problem is completed when you have determined the four perfect stems, and the invariant set of PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE suffixes that go with them. This will be one of our sets of suffixes to be used in Latin 7 below. [back to top of Latin 4]

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Latin 5

Patterns of Perfect Formation

Add to the list of pairs of present and perfect stems developed in Latin 4 other pairs, including especially the variety to be found in Conjugation III. These can be taken from any reference grammar, as for example pp. 109-115 of A Student's Latin Grammar. [Note 4] As you add to the list, begin to classify the pairs according to the formal differences between the members of the pair.

For example, the pair porta:-porta:v- would be classed as "Add v", trahi-tra:cs as "Drop stem-vowel, add s, lengthen root vowel," and carpi-carps- as "Drop stem-vowel, add s."

Note that to classify trahi-tra:cs in this way, it is necessary to posit a phonological rule, informally: hs > cs. By doing so, we can end up with fewer classes. Keep a list of all such rules you find it necessary to posit. Do not posit a rule unless it seems to be quite natural, something that we would expect to happen based on what happens generally in natural languages.

Proceed to work your way through the whole list of stem-pairs available to you, classifying each one and refining your classification as you proceed. The aim will be to sort the entire list of pairs so as to bring together each type. This a place where the sorting feature of a word processor can be of help. Familiarize yourself with the sorting capabilities of the word processor available to you (if any). [Note 5] As you refine your classification, you may find that it falls logically into a scheme that can be summarized by an outline. One level might concern whether or not the stem vowel is retained, another whether -s , -v/u, or no suffix is added. This second level might also include the option of reduplication, since it and suffixation appear to be mutually exclusive. (Features that stand in a disjoint, "or" relation can be part of the same sort.) Sorting by the two levels just mentioned would already separate the stem-pairs into major groupings. Additional sorting levels should be added to further sort out other sub-varieties of perfect stem formation, including vowel length, vowel modification, metathesis of r, and so forth. The aim is to sort the entire list of pairs so as to bring together each type, those that form their perfect stems with exactly the same combination of modifications.

Make special note of any verbs for which there is more than one perfect stem. Do we find any examples of the converse, verbs with just one perfect stem, but which have more than one present stem? What might this indicate about the relation between the two, as to whether the perfect was formed from the present, or vice versa?

As a result of our work on Latin up to this point, we have pairs of stems. From one of the pair we can form all the present tense inflections; from the other the perfect. Presumably the learner of Latin would need learn only the pair and their meaning, and from them would be able to inflect fully for the present and the perfect. From what you have seen in this exercise, do you think it would be possible to simplify the learning task further by developing rules for forming one member of the pair from the other? Which member of the pair should be considered basic? (Consider in this connection your answers to the questions in the last paragraph.) What would such rules look like? What would the basic forms look like? What would the learner have to know or learn in addition to the basic form and its meaning in order to determine the full present and perfect paradigms?

After you have achieved a perfect sort, the remaining task is to describe it and its results in some insightful way. Can you identify the weak verbs? [Note 6] Can you identify major and minor patterns of strong verbs? Are there ways to tell which pattern is followed by looking at the present stem?--which is to ask, how much of perfect stem formation (if any) is phonologically conditioned? [back to top of Latin 5] [back to list of essays]

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Latin 6

Fitting "verbs in -io: of the Third Conjugation" into Latin 1.

Fit IIIa capio: into your final matrix of Latin 1 in a column between III and IV. Use equals signs to the right and/or left of the variant stem forms of capio: in the matrix to show where the stem endings are identical to those of either traho: or audio:, or both.

The resultant matrix should have equals signs to both the right and the left of the 3S form of capio, indicating that all three forms (the 3s of traho:, capio:, and audio:) end in short i-, and that therefore the traditional conjugation membership of verbs such as these cannot be discerned from looking at their 3s forms:

          III          IIIa         IV

          trahi-  =    capi-   =    audi-

Indo-European and Latin scholars tell us that IIIa verbs were originally members of IV (see for example the note at the bottom of page 99 in New Latin Grammar). [Note 7] This means that capio: and other IIIa verbs as well earlier had variable stems and were inflected just like audio: (and the other IV verbs). Can you posit a scenario whereby they came to be partially confused with (and inflected like) the verbs of III? Hint: use the concept of "analogy," and give examples of the analogies involved in your scenario with the format used by Greenberg in his chapter on "Linguistic Change." [Note 8]

Your answer to the above should include two possible analogies faced by the Latin speaker attempting to inflect a Latin IV verb for some person-number combination other than 3s, a correct one, and an "incorrect" one. For example, consider facio: 'make, do', originally a member of IV. Let's say the speaker wants to say the equivalent of 'we make', to inflect it for 1p. The correct analogy will involve another member of IV, such as audio:; the incorrect analogy will involve a member of III, such as traho::

            3s   :    1p       =      3s    :    1p

CORRECT:   audit :   audi:mus   =    facit  :     x   (faci:mus)

INCORRECT: trahit :  trahimus   =    facit  :     x   (facimus)

If the speaker (and others like him/her) makes correct analogies, facio: continues to be a member of IV, but if incorrect analogies are made, a MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGE takes place (as actually happened historically).

For Latin 4, give a clear and concise explanation as to how verbs of conjugation IIIa arose, replete with several such analogies, spelled out. [back to top of Latin 6] [back to list of essays]

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Latin 7

Building the details of verb inflection onto the Present-Perfect stem pairs

Our task in Latin 7 will be to describe Latin verb inflection, which consists of a large paradigm containing 90 cells for each verb. [Note 9] Our data are given in Chapter 7 of A Student's Latin Grammar. A total of 20 subparadigms are identified in the overview on page 27. We will ignore five of these, since they are accomplished periphrastically rather than morphologically. They are at the intersection of PERFECT and PASSIVE; see if you can identify them (both in the overview on page 27 and in the pages of data that follow) and tag them somehow for omission from your work on this problem. [Note 10]

We can build on our earlier work identifying present and perfect stems (Latin 1 and 2, respectively) and their interrelations (Latin 3). Our work in Latin 1 and 2 also identified two sets of suffixes. These and two other sets of suffixes are to be found throughout the master paradigm. Two differ only in their 1s suffix. It is recommended that the 1s forms be used as labels for the four sets. Between these suffixes on the right and the stems on the left there will be found another order of suffixes, that come between the stems and the final person-number suffixes. To avoid confusion, we will refer to these as "increments." We have not met these increments heretofore, since it so happened that the sub paradigms we examined in Latin 1 and 2 both had "zero increments."

The chart "Schematic of Latin Verb Inflection" is furnished to help you get your bearings (and keep them!) in this massive paradigm, and to simplify your task by giving you the beginnings of a solution. Together with the five present-perfect pairs of stems for the exemplar verbs, the boxes in the chart make up the basic Items for an IP solution. Your task is to describe as economically, exhaustively, and elegantly as possible the rules for combining the items so as to accurately populate the 90 paradigm cells for each exemplar verb. Refer to the verbs by their present stem endings, rather than by their traditional conjugation numbers. Although phonological conditioning is generally preferable to morphological conditioning, it may be necessary to settle for morphological conditioning in some instances. [Note 11] When a given suffix always seems to have the same effect, it may be more rightfully a characteristic of the suffix as suffix, rather than as assembly of certain phones.

One other suggestion to point you toward insight and elegance. Two of the increments as hypothesized consist not of any substance (any phonemes as such), but of their effect on the preceding stem vowels. They are termed "Vowel Shift" and "Future Vowel Shift," and their details (as you will see) involve a certain switching between back and front vowels (for which you should give the details). These vowel shifts constitute the seeds of a phenomenon that has come to fruition in Spanish, identified by Matthews [Note 12] as "vowel reversal," where the switching between indicative and subjunctive can be viewed as a toggling between e and a, depending on the verb class, rather than either vowel being identified with either mood across the board. [back to top of Latin 7]

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Latin 8

The WP Alternative: Paradigmatic Corner Strategies

Read the first two sections of Word and Paradigm at this web site. Develop paradigmatic strategies for each of the 15 "corners" of the inflectionall paradigm of a regular verb from one of the four conjugations (as indicated by your instructor), using the same format.

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Latin 9

The WP Alternative: Paradigmatic Corridor Strategies

Develop paradigmatic strategies for each of the 6 "corridors" of the inflectional paradigm of a regular verb from one of the four conjugations (as indicated by your instructor), using the same format.

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Latin 10

Developing a Phonological Solution
for Latin Noun Declension

It is an instructive exercise to minimize the morphological conditioning and maximize the phonological conditioning in the inflection of Latin nouns. The traditional declensions cut off suffixes immediately after the root, so that the different theme vowels create five different sets of suffixes-the five declensional endings-that differ in some measure just in these vowels. Phonological conditioning can be maximized by cutting further to the right, so that theme vowels remain with the roots to form stems that end in each of the five vowels-plus one type that has no vowel, which ends in a consonant. Then one no longer needs to learn the declension of a noun; its type is visible in the final phoneme of its stem. Stems are best based on the genitive singular, the case that is traditionally cited along with the nominative. Nominative stems often differ from genitive stems; sometimes the nominative stem can be predicted, but for some nouns a second, variant stem must also be given. Create 1) a list of noun stems, plus variant stems as necessary, 2) a table of suffixes that includes a column for each of the six stem types, and 3) a set of sandhi rules and any other rules that prove necessary. Permute the rows and columns of your suffix table to juxtapose instances of syncretism and other similarities. Include all the nouns whose paradigms are given in A Student's Latin Grammar plus the additional 2nd and 3rd declension paradigms listed below, taken from Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar.

1st Declension "a: stems" (traditional name)


Nom. sg. puella
Gen. sg. puellae
Dat. sg. puellae
Acc. sg. puellam
Abl. sg. puella:
Nom. pl. puellae
Gen. pl. puella:rum
Dat. pl. puelli:s
Acc. pl. puella:s
Abl. pl. puelli:s

2nd Declension "o-stems"

         servus       deus         vir            puer      magister
         Masc.        Masc.        Masc.          Masc.     Masc.
         'slave'      'god'        'man'          'boy'     'teacher'

Nom. sg. servus (-os) deus         vir            puer      magister
Gen. sg. servi:       dei:         viri:          pueri:    magisteri:
Dat. sg. servo:       deo:         viro:          puero:    magistero:
Acc. sg. servum (-om) deum         virum          puerum    magisterum
Abl. sg. servo:       deo:         viro:          puero:    magistero:
Voc. Sg. serve        
Nom. pl. servi:       dei:/di:     viri:          pueri:    magisteri:
Gen. pl. servo:rum    deo:rum/deum viro:rum/virum puero:rum magistero:rum
Dat. pl. servi:s      dei:s/di:s   viri:s         pueri:s   magisteri:s
Acc. pl. servo:s      deo:s        viro:s         puero:s   magistero:s
Abl. pl. servi:s      dei:s/di:s   viri:s         pueri:s   magisteri:s

         ager         Other 2nd decl. nouns:      Other 2nd decl. nouns:   
         Masc.          Those that do not have e    Those that have e 
         'field'        in stem; like ager:         in stem; like puer:

Nom. sg. ager           adulter 'adulterer'         arbiter 'judge'
Gen. sg. agri:          socer 'father-in-law'       cancer 'crab'
Dat. sg. agro:          gener 'son-in-law'          caper 'goat'
Acc. sg. agrum          vesper 'evening'            coluber 'snake'
Abl. sg. agro:                                      culter 'knife'
Nom. pl. agri:                                      faber 'smith' 
Gen. pl. agro:rum                                   liber 'book'          
Dat. pl. agri:s                                     minister 'servant'
Acc. pl. agro:s                                 
Abl. pl. agri:s  

         templum    bellum
         Neut.      Neut.
         'temple'   'war'

Nom. sg. templum    bellum
Gen. sg. templi:    belli:
Dat. sg. templo:    bello:
Acc. sg. templum    bellum
Abl. sg. templo:    bello:
Nom. pl. templa     bella
Gen. pl. templo:rum bello:rum
Dat. pl. templi:s   belli:s
Acc. pl. templa     bella
Abl. pl. templi:s   belli:s

3rd Declension "C-stems"

          pri:nceps    ra:dics     mi:les     leo:      merca:tor
          Com.         Fem.        Masc.      Masc.     Masc.
          'chief'      'root'      'soldier'  'lion'    'merchant'

Nom. sg.  pri:nceps    ra:dics     mi:les     leo:      merca:tor
Gen. sg.  pri:ncipis   ra:di:cis   mi:litis   leo:nis   merca:to:ris
Dat. sg.  pri:ncipi:   ra:di:ci:   mi:liti:   leo:ni:   merca:to:ri:
Acc. sg.  pri:ncipem   ra:di:cem   mi:litem   leo:nem   merca:to:rem
Abl. sg.  pri:ncipe    ra:di:ce    mi:lite    leo:ne    merca:to:re
Nom. pl.  pri:ncipe:s  ra:di:ce:s  mi:lite:s  leo:ne:s  merca:to:re:s
Gen. pl.  pri:ncipum   ra:di:cum   mi:litum   leo:num   merca:to:rum
Dat. pl.  pri:ncipibus ra:di:cibus mi:litibus leo:nibus merca:to:ribus
Acc. pl.  pri:ncipe:s  ra:di:ce:s  mi:lite:s  leo:ne:s  merca:to:re:s
Abl. pl.  pri:ncipibus ra:di:cibus mi:litibus leo:nibus merca:to:ribus

         cu:sto:s    re:cs    du:cs    cor      caput     genus
         Com.        Masc.    Masc.    Neut.    Neut.     Neut.
         'guard'     'king'   'leader' 'heart'  'head'    'race'

Nom. sg. cu:sto:s    re:cs    du:cs    cor      caput     genus
Gen. sg. cu:stodis   re:gis   ducis    cordis   capitis   generis
Dat. sg. cu:stodi:   re:gi:   duci:    cordi:   capiti:   generi:
Acc. sg. cu:stodem   re:gem   ducem    cor      caput     genus
Abl. sg. cu:stode    re:ge    duce     corde    capite    genere
Nom. pl. cu:stode:s  re:ge:s  duce:s   corda    capita    genera
Gen. pl. cu:stodum   re:gum   ducum    --       capitum   generum
Dat. pl. cu:stodibus re:gibus ducibus  cordibus capitibus generibus
Acc. pl. cu:stode:s  re:ge:s  duce:s   corda    capita    genera
Abl. pl. cu:stodibus re:gibus ducibus  cordibus capitibus generibus

         corpus     aequor     no:men     tempus     co:nsul
         Neut.      Neut.      Neut.      Neut.      Masc.
         'body'     'sea'      'name'     'time'     'consul'

Nom. sg. corpus     aequor     no:men     tempus     co:nsul
Gen. sg. corporis   aequoris   no:minis   temporis   co:nsulis
Dat. sg. corpori:   aequori:   no:mini:   tempori:   co:nsuli:
Acc. sg. corpus     aequor     no:men     tempus     co:nsulem
Abl. sg. corpore    aequore    no:mine    tempore    co:nsule
Nom. pl. corpora    aequora    no:mina    tempora    co:nsule:s
Gen. pl. corporum   aequorum   no:minum   temporum   co:nsulum
Dat. pl. corporibus aequoribus no:minibus temporibus co:nsulibus
Acc. pl. corpora    aequor     no:mina    tempora    co:nsule:s
Abl. pl. corporibus aequoribus no:minibus temporibus co:nsulibus

         virgo:     pater
         Fem.       Masc.
         'maiden'   'father'

Nom. sg. virgo:     pater
Gen. sg. Virginis   patris
Dat. sg. virgini:   patri:
Acc. sg. virginem   patrem
Abl. sg. virgine    patre
Nom. pl. virgine:s  patre:s
Gen. pl. virginum   patrum
Dat. pl. virginibus patribus
Acc. pl. virgine:s  patre:s
Abl. pl. virginibus patribus

3rd Declension "i-stems"

          sitis    turris         i:gnis         imber          
          Fem.     Fem.           Masc.          Masc.          
          'thirst' 'tower'        'fire'         'rain'         

Nom. sg. sitis     turris         i:gnis         imber          
Gen. sg. sitis     turris         i:gnis         imbris         
Dat. sg. siti:     turri:         i:gni:         imbri:         
Acc. sg. sitim     turrim (-em)   i:gnem         imbrem         
Abl. sg. siti:     turri: (-e)    i:gni: (-e)    imbri: (-e)    
Nom. pl. --        turre:s        i:gne:s        imbre:s        
Gen. pl. --        turrium        i:gnium        imbrium        
Dat. pl. --        turribus       i:gnibus       imbribus       
Acc. pl. --        turri:s (-e:s) i:gni:s (-e:s) imbri:s (-e:s) 
Abl. pl. --        turribus       i:gnibus       imbribus       

         sedi:le    animal      calcar     mare 
         Neut.      Neut.       Neut.      Neut. 
         'seat'     'animal'    'spur'     'sea'

Nom. sg. sedi:le    animal      calcar      mare
Gen. sg. sedi:lis   anima:lis   calca:ris   maris
Dat. sg. sedi:li:   anima:li:   calca:ri:   mari:
Acc. sg. sedi:le    animal      calcar      mare
Abl. sg. sedi:li:   anima:li:   calca:ri:   mari:
Nom. pl. sedi:lia   anima:lia   calca:ria   maria
Gen. pl. sedi:lium  anima:lium  calca:rium  marium
Dat. pl. sedi:libus anima:libus calca:ribus maribus
Acc. pl. sedi:lia   anima:lia   calca:ria   maria
Abl. pl. sedi:libus anima:libus calca:ribus maribus

3rd Declension "mixed"

nu:be:s                 ci:vis    urbs          nocs 
Fem.                    Com.      Fem.          Fem.
'cloud'                 'citizen' 'city'        'night'

Nom. sg. nu:be:s        ci:vis    urbs          nocs
Gen. sg. nu:bis         ci:vis    urbis         noctis
Dat. sg. nu:bi:         ci:vi:    urbi:         nocti:
Acc. sg. nu:bem         ci:vem    urbem         noctem
Abl. sg. nu:be          ci:ve     urbe          nocte
Nom. pl. nu:be:s        ci:ve:s   urbe:s        nocte:s
Gen. pl. nu:bium        ci:vibus  urbium        noctium
Dat. pl. nu:bibus       ci:vibus  urbibus       noctibus
Acc. pl. nu:bi:s (-e:s) ci:ve:s   urbi:s (-e:s) nocti:s (-e:s)
Abl. pl. nu:bibus       ci:vibus  urbibus       noctibus

         clie:ns          aeta:s
         Masc.            Fem.
         'client'         'age'

Nom. sg. clie:ns          aeta:s
Gen. sg. clientis         aeta:tis
Dat. sg. clienti:         aeta:ti:
Acc. sg. clientem         aeta:tem
Abl. sg. cliente          aeta:te
Nom. pl. cliente:s        aeta:te:s
Gen. pl. clientium (-um)  aeta:tum (-ium)
Dat. pl. clientibus       aeta:tibus
Acc. pl. clienti:s (-e:s) aeta:ti:s (-e:s)
Abl. pl. clientibus       aeta:tibus

3rd Declension irregular

         iter       nics    senecs    caro:    bo:s 
         Neut.      Fem.    Masc.     Fem.     Com. 
         'journey'  'snow'  'old man' 'flesh'  'ox, cow'

Nom. sg. iter       nics    senecs    caro:    bo:s           
Gen. sg. itineris   nivis   senis     carnis   bo:vis
Dat. sg. itineri:   nivi:   seni:     carni:   bovi:
Acc. sg. iter       nivem   senem     carnem   bovem
Abl. sg. itinere    nive    sene      carne    bove
Nom. pl. itinera    nive:s  sene:s    carne:s  bove:s
Gen. pl. itinerum   nivium  senum     carnium  boum
Dat. pl. itineribus nivibus senibus   carnibus bo:bus (bu:bus)
Acc. pl. itinera    nive:s  sene:s    carne:s  bove:s
Abl. pl. itineribus nivibus senibus   carnibus bo:bus (bu:bus)

         os       vi:s 
         Neut.    Fem.
         'bone'   'force; strength (in pl.)'

Nom. sg. os       vi:s
Gen. sg. Ossis    vi:s
Dat. sg. ossi:    vi:
Acc. sg. os       vim
Abl. sg. osse     vi:
Nom. pl. ossa     vi:res
Gen. pl. ossium   vi:rium
Dat. pl. ossibus  vi:ribus
Acc. pl. ossa     vi:ris (-es)
Abl. pl. ossibus  vi:ribus

4th Declension "u stems"

         manus   domus               genu: 
         Fem.    Fem.                Neut. 
         'hand'  'house'(irregular) 'knee'

Nom. sg. manus   domus               genu:
Gen. sg. manu:s  domu:s              genu:s
Dat. sg. manui:  domui:              genu:
Acc. sg. manum   domum               genu:
Abl. sg. manu:   domo:               genu:
Nom. pl. manu:s  domu:s              genua
Gen. pl. manuum  domuum/domo:rum     genuum
Dat. pl. manibus domibus             genibus
Acc. pl. manu:s  domu:s/domo:s       genua
Abl. pl. manibus domibus             genibus

5th Declension "e: stems"

         die:s   re:s 
         Masc.   Fem. 
         'day'   'thing'

Nom. sg. die:s   re:s
Gen. sg. die:i:  rei:
Dat. sg. die:i:  rei:
Acc. sg. diem    rem
Abl. sg. die:    re:
Nom. pl. die:s   re:s
Gen. pl. die:rum re:rum
Dat. pl. die:bus re:bus
Acc. pl. die:s   re:s
Abl. pl. die:bus re:bus

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  1. Fred W. Householder, Linguistic Speculations, Cambridge University Press, 1971, pp. 218-219. [back to text]
  2. Householder (1971) goes on to show how either the (b) or (c) analyses could be made more regular by adding a set of rules that would reflect assumed historical developments from Indo-European. But we will postpone this step until Latin 7. [back to text]
  3. If we are successful in having conjugation class revealed by the phonological substance of the citation stem, morphological conditioning will no longer be involved. We will always be able to tell which pattern we are dealing with, and what the other variant stems are, by looking at the citation stem. And one set of suffixes (not four) go with these stems to form the present active indicative inflections for any regular verb. [back to text]
  4. To save you time, your instructor has combined stem pairs thus gleaned from three different reference grammars, and made them available to you on a computer diskette. This list probably contains errors and needs checking. Check anything that appears suspicious. [back to text]
  5. If none are available, arrange to work with a classmate. [back to text]
  6. Section 36 of A Student's Latin Grammar gives helpful information on this question. [back to text]
  7. Allen & Greenough's New Latin Grammar (1903), reprinted by Aristided D. Caratzas, Publisher, New Rochelle, NY, 1983. [back to text]
  8. Joseph H. Greenberg, Anthropological Linguistics, Random House, 1968, pp. 109-110. [back to text]
  9. We will be interested in just five verbs, the exemplars of A Student's Latin Grammar. That makes the total number of forms we have to account for 450. [back to text]
  10. The traditional terminology, unfortunately, uses the term "perfect" in two quite different oppositions. One involves what is probably a tense distinction, using the term "imperfect" in opposition to "present" and "future." The other is probably aspectual, using "perfect" without ever naming its opposite. (We use "non-perfect" in the chart overleaf.) Since the traditional terms are thus not in opposition to each other, it is possible for their two axes to intersect--to have an "imperfect perfect, or a "perfect imperfect," as it were. The traditional term for this intersection is "pluperfect." [back to text]
  11. Note, for example, the seemingly different outcomes when attaching the -o: and -or suffixes to stems in a: and increments in a: (-ba:). [back to text]
  12. P. H. Matthews. 1974. Morphology: An introduction to the theory of word structure. Cambridge University Press. Pages 139-140. [back to text]

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