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Chapter 23

23-1-1 ubi est liber quem heri lege:bam?

where be.pres.irr.ind.3sg book.2.m.nom.sg which.acc.sg yesterday read.3.impf.act.ind.1sg

'Where is the book which I was reading yesterday?' (23-1)

23-1-2 puella quae adsta:bat senem salu:ta:vit.

girl.1.f.nom.sg who.f.nom.sg stand by.1.imp.act.ind.3.sg old man.1.m.acc.sg salute.1.perf.act.ind,3.sg

The girl who was standing by the old man saluted. (23-1)

23-1-3 capti:vi: quo:s re:x e: carcere li:bera:verat maxima:s gra:tia:s ei: e:ge:runt

prisoner.2.m.nom.pl who.m.pl.acc king.3.m.nom.sg from-out-of.abl prison.3.m.abl.sg free/set-free.1.plu.act.ind.3sg very-big.1/2.f.acc.pl he/she/it.dat.sg give-thanks.3.perf.act.ind.3sg

'The prisoners, whom the king from out of prison had set free, gave him very big thanks.' (23-1)

23-1-4 omne:s ci:ve:s impera:to:ri:, qui: urbi: iam appropinqua:bat, obviam ie:runt.

all.3.m,f.nom.pl citizen.3.m,f.nom.pl emperor.3.m.dat.sg who.m.nom.sg city.3.f.dat.sg now approach.1.imperf.act.ind.3sg go to meet.perf.irr.ind.3pl

'All the citizens went to meet the emperor who was now approaching the city.' (23-1)

23-1-5 id quod di:cis falsum est.

that.n.nom.sg. which.nom.sg. say.3.pres.act.ind.2.sg. false.1,2.n.nom.sg. be.irr.pres.act.ind.3.sg.

'That which you say is false.' (23-1)

23-1-6 nihil est tam peri:culo:sum quam mare.

nothing be.pres.irr.ind.3sg as... dangerous.1.m.acc.sg ...as sea.3.n.nom.sg

'Nothing is as dangerous as the sea.' (23-1)

23-2-1 fabri: to:tam noctem labo:ra:ve:runt ut templum ante lu:cem perficerent.

craftsman.2.m.nom.pl whole.1.f.acc.sg night.3.f.acc.sg work.1.per.act.ind.3pl so.that temple.2.n.acc.sg before dawn.3.f.acc.sg finish.3a.impf.act.subj.3pl

'The craftsmen worked the whole night so that they would finish the temple before dawn.' (23-2)

23-2-2 coquus aquam attulit qua: flammae extinguerentur.

cook.1.m.nom.sg water.1.f.acc.sg sometimes bring.1.irr.perf.act.ind.3.sg so that.f.abl.sg flame.1.f.nom.pl extinguish.3.imperf.pass.subj.3.pl.

The girl will sometimes bring water so that the flames are extinguished.(23-2)

23-2-3 de:silite in hauc fossam, ut hasta:s hostium vi:te:tis!

jump-down.3.imperative.act into.acc this.f.acc.sg ditch.1.f.acc.sg so-as-to spear.1.f.acc.pl enemy.3.m/f.gen.pl avoid.1.pres.act.subj.2pl

'Jump down into this ditch, so as to avoid the enemies' spears!' (23-2)

23-2-4 domum taciti: intra:vimus, ne: a: cane audi:re:mur.

house.4.f.acc.sg quietly.1,2.m.nom.pl enter.1.perf.act.ind.1pl so that...not by dog.3.m.abl.sg hear.4.imperf.pass.subj.1pl

'We entered the house quietly so as not to be heard by the dog.' (23-2)

23-3-1 tantus erat cla:mor ut ne:mo: verba re:gis audiret.

so.great.m.nom.sg be.impf.irr.ind.3sg shout.3.m.nom.sg so.that no.one word.2.n.acc.pl king.3.m.gen.sg hear.4.impf.act.subj.3sg

'The shout was so great that no one heard the words of the king.' (23-3)

23-3-2 gladia:tor specta:to:re:s adeo: de:lecta:vit ut iterum iterumque.

gladiator.3.m.nom.sg spectator.3.m.acc.pl greatly delight.1.perf.act.ind.3.sg to such na extent again and again

'The gladiator greatly delighted the spectators to such an extent again and again.'(23-3)

23-3-3 tam benignus es ut ab omnibus ci:vibus ame:ris

so kind be.irr.act.ind.2sg so-that from/by.abl all/every.abl.pl citizen.3.m/f.abl.pl love/like.1.pres.pass.subj.2sg

'You are so kind that you are liked by all citizens.' (23-3)

23-3-4 tot vulnera acce:peram ut medicus de: vi:ta: mea: de:spe:ra:ret.

so many wound.3.n.acc.pl receive.3a.pluperf.act.ind.1sg that doctor.2.m.nom.sg from,about life.1.f.abl.sg my.1,2.f.abl.sg despair.1.imperf.act.subj.3sg

'I had received so many wounds that the doctor despaired of saving my life.' (23-3)

23-4-1 candida:to: vestro: no:n faveo:, quia menda:cs est.

candidate.2.m.dat.sg your.1.m.dat.sg not support.2.pres.act.ind.1sg because liar.3.m.nom.sg be.pres.irr.ind.3sg

'I do not support your candidate because he is a liar.' (23-4)

23-4-2 ma:ter fi:lium vitupera:vit quod tardus lecto: surre:csisset.

mother.3.f.nom.sg son.2.m.acc.sg curse.1.pres.act.ind.3.sg because slow.1.m.nom.sg out of bed.2.m.abl.sg get up.3.pluperf.act.subj.3.sg

'The mother swore at the son because he had been slow getting out of bed.'(23-4)

23-4-3 ma:ter fi:lium vitupera:vit quod tardus e: lecto: surre:cserat

mother.3.f.nom.sg son.2.m.acc.sg blame/curse.1.perf.act.ind.3sg which.n.nom.sg slow from/out-of.abl bed.2.m.abl.sg get-up.2.plu.act.ind.3sg

'The mother cursed her son, who was late getting up from out of bed.' (23-4)

23-5-1 hospite:s, ubi cibum gusta:ve:runt, coquum valde: lauda:ve:runt.

guest.3.m.nom.pl when food.2.m.acc.sg taste.1.perf.act.ind.3pl cook.2.m.acc.sg very.much praise.1.perf.act.ind.3pl

'When the guests tasted the food they praised the cook very much.' (23-5)

23-5-2 centurio:, cum fenestram fra:ctam co:nspecsisset, vehementer saevie:bat.

centurion.3.m.nom.sg when window.1.f.acc.sg break.1.acc.sg catch sight of.3a.pluperf. act.subj.3.sg loudly rage.4.imperf.act.ind.3.sg

'When the centurion saw the broken window, he raged loudly.'(23-5)

23-5-3 ci:ve:s simulatque ad apodyte:rium reve:ne:runt, vesti:menta indue:runt

citizen.3.m/f.nom.pl as-soon-as to/at.acc changing-room.2.n.acc.pl return.3a.perf.act.ind.3pl clothes.2.n.nom.pl put-on.2.perf.act.ind.3pl

'The citizens, as soon as they returned to the changing rooms, put on clothes.' (23-5)

23-5-4 re:cs, postquam epistulam servo: dicta:vit, nu:ntium arcessi:vit.

king.3.m.nom.sg after letter.1.f.acc.sg slave.2.m.dat.sg dictate.1.perf.act.ind.3sg messenger.2.m.acc.sg send for.3.perf.act.ind.3sg

'The king, after he had dictated the letter to the slave, sent for a messenger.' (23-5)

23-5-5 fu:r, priusquam capere:tur, e: vi:lla: ruit.

theif.3.m.nom.sg. before. capture.3a.imp.pass.subj.3.sg. from. villa.1.f.abl.sg. rush.3.pres.act.ind.3.sg.

'The thief must rush out of the villa before he is captured.' (23-5)

23-5-6 dum pa:stor dormit, lupi: duo:s agno:s rapue:runt.

while shepherd.3.m.nom.sg sleep.4.pres.act.ind.3sg wolf.2.m.nom.pl two.m.acc lamb.2.m.acc.pl seize.3a.per.act.ind.3pl

'While the shepherd slept the wolves seized two lambs.' (23-5)

23-6-1 quamquam mari:tus tuus in carcere adhu:c retine:tur, no:li: de:spe:ra:re!

although husband.2.m.nom.sg your.1.m.nom.sg in prison.3.m.abl.sg still keep.2.pres.pass.ind.3sg do.not despair.1.inf

'Although your husband is still kept in prison, don't give up!' (23-6)

23-6-2 quamv:is morbo: affli:gere:tur senesc ad forum ambula:re co:na:tus est.

although illness.2.m.abl.sg afflict.3.imp.pass.subj.3.sg old man3.m.nom.sg to forum.3.m.acc.sg walk.1.pres.act.inf try.1.dep.perf.act.ind.3.sg

'Although the old mand was afflicted by illness, he tried to walk to the forum.'(23-6)

23-6-3 mi:lite:s, quamquam itinere fessi: erant, ad pugnandum se: i:nstru:cse:runt

soldier.3.m.nom.pl although journey.3.n.abl.sg tired.n.nom be.irr.imp.act.ind.3pl to/at.acc fight.1.gerund.acc.sg himself/herself draw-up.3.perf.act.ind.3pl

'The soldiers, although they were tired by the journey, drew themselves up to fight.' (23-6)

23-7-1 ut pater me: docuit, ita ego te: doce:bo:.

as father.3.m.nom.sg I.acc.sg teach.2.perf.act.ind.3sg in.this.way I.nom.sg you.acc.sg teach.2.fut.act.ind.1sg

'As father taught me, so I will teach you.' (23-7)

23-7-2 pueri: fi:ge:runt quasi umbram vidissent.

boy.2.m.nom.pl. run away from.3.perf.act.ind.3.pl as if ghost.1.f.acc.sg see.2.pluperf.act.subj.3.pl

'The boys ran away as if they had seen a ghost.'(35-2)(23-7)

23-7-3 ut ave:s per caelum volant, ita na:ve:s per unda:s rue:bant

as bird.3.f.nom.pl through/along.acc sky.2.n.acc.sg fly.1.pres.act.ind.3pl in-this-way ship.3.f.nom.pl through/along.acc wave.1.f.acc.pl rush.3.imp.act.ind.3pl

'As birds fly through the sky, so the ships were rushing through the waves.' (23-7)

23-7-4 ami:cus meus erat victor, si:cut spe:ra:veram.

friend.2.m.nom.sg my.1,2.m.nom.sg is.imperf.irr.ind.3sg victor.3.m.nom.sg just as,like expect.1.pluperf.act.ind.1sg

'My friend was the victor, just as I had expected.' (23-7)

23-8-1 peri:culum erat ne: na:ve:s tempesta:te de:le:rentur.

danger.2.n.nom.sg be.impf.irr.act.3sg that ship.3.f.nom.pl storm.3.f.abl.sg destroy.2.pres.pass.ind.3pl

'There is danger that the ships are being destroyed by the storm.' (23-8)

23-8-2 merca:tor time:bat ne: iuvenis pecau:niam no:n redderet.

merchant.3.m.nom.sg to be afraid.2.imperf.act.ind.3.sg that young man.3.m.nom.sg money.1.f.acc.sg not give back.3.

'The merchant was afraind that the young man would not give back the money.'(23-8)

23-8-3 timeo: ne: nu:ntius ab hostibus captus sit

be-afraid.2.pres.act.ind.1sg that...not messenger.2.m.nom.pl from/by.abl enemy.3.m/f.abl.pl take/capture.3a.perf.subj.pass.3sg

'I am afraid that the messengers may have been captured by enemies.' (23-8)

23-8-4 vere:ba:mur ne: parente:s nostri: in flammi:s periissent.

be afraid.2.imperf.dep.ind.1pl that...not parent.3.m,f.nom.pl our.1,2.m.nom.pl in flame.1.f.abl.pl die.4.pluperf.act.subj.3pl

'We were afraid that our parents had died in the flames.' (23-8)

23-9-1 servi: in viam contende:runt ut pompam specta:rent.

slave.2.m.nom.pl into street.1.f.acc.sg hurry.3.per.act.ind.3pl so.that procession.1.f.acc.sg watch.1.impf.act.subj.3pl

'The slaves hurried into the street so that they could watch the procession.' (23-2)

23-9-2 sacerdo:s, postquam victimam sacrifica:vit, deo:s preca:tus est.

priest.2.m.nom.3.sg after victim.1.f.acc.3.sg sacrifice.1.perf.act ind.3.sg. god.2.m.acc.pl pray to.1.dep.per.act.ind.3.sg

'After having sacrificed the victim, the priest prayed to the gods.'(23-5)

23-9-3 quamquam ancilla sua:viter canta:bat, hospite:s no:n de:lecta:bantur

although slave-girl.1.f.nom.sg sweetly sing.1.imp.act.ind.2sg guest.3.m.nom.pl not delight/please.1.imp.pass.ind.3pl

'Although the slave girl sang sweetly, the guests were not pleased.' (23-6)

23-9-4 tam obscu:ra est nocs ut nihil vide:re possim.

so dark.1,2.f.nom.sg is.pres.irr.ind.3sg night.3.f.nom.sg that nothing see.2.pres.act.inf able to.pres.irr.subj.1sg

'So dark is the night that it is possible to see nothing.' (23-7)

23-9-5 medicus, cum dente:s meo:s ecstra:cisset, duo:s de:na:rio:s postula:vit.

doctor.2.m.nom.sg. when. tooth.3.m.acc.pl. my.1,2.m.acc.pl. pull out.3.pluperf.act.subj.3.sg. two.m.acc.pl. denarious.2.m.acc.pl. demand.1.perf.act.ind.3.sg.

'When the doctor had pulled my teeth out, he demanded 2 denarious.' (23-5)

23-9-6 faber diu: tace:bat, quasi rem difficillimam co:gita:ret.

craftsman.2.m.nom.sg for.a.long.time be.quiet.2.impf.act.ind.3sg as.if thing.5.acc.sg difficult think.1.impf.act.subj.3sg

'The craftsman was quiet for a long time as if something was difficult to think about.' (23-7)

23-9-7 specta:to:re:s a:thle:tam vitupera:bant quod fraude vi:cisset.

spectaor.2.m.nom.pl athelet.1.m.acc.sg blame.1.imperf.act.ind.3.pl because trick.3.f.abl.sg win.3.pluperf.act.subj.3.sg

'The sectators booed the athelete because had won by a trick.'(23-4)

23-9-8 specta:to:re:s a:thle:tam vitupera:bant quod fraude vi:cisset

spectator.3.m.nom.pl athlete.1.f.acc.sg blame/curse.1.imp.act.ind.3pl because trick.3.f.abl.sg be-victorious.3.plu.subj.act.3sg

'The spectators were blaming the athlete, because he was victorious by a trick.' (23-4)

23-9-9 fugite, ne: ab inimi:ci:s interficia:mini:!

run away.3a.imperat.act.ind.2pl that...not by enemy.2.m.abl.pl kill.3a.pres.pass.subj.2pl

'Run away, so that you (pl.) are not killed by the enemies.' (23-8)

23-9-10 agricola, cum ad vi:llam regredere:tur, lupum ingentem co:nspecit.

farmer.1.m.nom.sg. when. to. villa.1.f.acc.sg. return.3a.depon.imperf.subj.3.sg. wolf.2.m.acc.sg. huge.3.m.acc.sg. catch sight of.3a.perf.act.ind.3.sg.

'When the farmer returned to the villa, he caught sight of a huge wolf.' (23-5)

23-9-11 homo: cuius domus arde:bat aucsilium a: praetereuntibus peti:vit.

man.3.m.nom.sg who.f.gen.sg home.4.f.nom.sg be.on.fire.2.impf.act.ind.3sg help.2.n.acc.sg from pass.by.2.pres.part.abl.pl beg.for.4.per.act.ind.3sg

'The man whose house was on fire begged for help from passers-by.' (23-1)

23-9-12 r:egi:na, quamvis i:ra:ta esset, mihi tandem igno:vit.

queen.1.f.nom.sg although angry.1.f.nom.sg be.irr.imperf.act.subj.3.sg I.dat.sg at last forgive.3.perf.act.ind.3.sg

'Although the queen was angered, I have been forgiven.'(23-6)

23-9-13 fe:mina magistrum e:le:git qui: fi:lio:s doce:ret

woman.1.f.nom.sg master/teacher.2.m.acc.sg choose.3.perf.act.ind.3sg who.m.nom.sg son.2.m.acc.pl teach.2.imp.subj.act.3sg

'The woman had chosen the teacher who was to teach the sons.' (23-1)

23-9-14 time:ba:mus ne: ab hostibus circumveni:re:mur.

be afraid.2.imperf.act.ind.1pl that...not by enemy.3.m,f.abl.pl surround.4.imperf.pass.subj.1pl

'We were afraid that we would be surrounded by the enemies.' (23-8)

23-9-15 ei: qui: menti:ri: solent, saepe ipsi: de:cipiuntur.

he.m.nom.pl. who.m.nom.pl. tell a lie.4.depon.pres.inf. be accustomed.2.pres.act.ind.3.pl. often. himself.m.nom.pl. deceive.3a.pres.pass.ind.3.pl.

'People who are accustomed to telling a lie are often deceived themselves.' (23-1)

23-9-16 iuvene:s fru:stra: exspecta:bant do:nec ami:cus redi:ret.

young.man.3.m.nom.pl in.vain wait.for.1.impf.act.ind.3pl until friend.2.m.nom.sg return.4.impf.act.subj.3sg

'The young man waited in vain until his friend would return.' (23-5)

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